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Curs limba engleza - the human body. health


Curs limba engleza - the human body. health


CURS LIMBA ENGLEZA - THE HUMAN BODY. HEALTH



SECTION I

THE HUMAN BODY


A. LEAD IN


1.                How do you feel about growing older?

2.                With which age(s) would you associate the following: wrinkles, nappies, baldness, a mortgage, expecting a baby, being promoted, grades and exams.



3.                Complete the following sentence and explain your answer: "I wish I could look like..."

4.                How have beauty canons changed over the centuries?

5.                How would you describe the latest fashion for men/ women?

6.                How would you get dressed in the following circumstances: a family picnic, a job interview, an ordinary day at the faculty, a wedding reception, an evening out with your new boyfriend/ girlfriend.



B. READING OBJECTIVE


IS BEAUTY IN THE EYE OF THE BEHOLDER?

Is there such thing as the perfect face? Is beauty something you can measure?

Recent scientific evidence suggests that the answer is 'yes'. A new science, the science of attraction, has come to the conclusion that beauty is objective and quantifiable and not, as the romantics believe, in the eye of the beholder.

For more than a century it was believed that a beautiful face was appealing because it was a collection of average features. Using a computer system, scientists have challenged the theory. In a key experiment, photographs of women were ranked for their attractiveness by a number of volunteers. Two composite pictures were then created: one, the average of all pictures; the other made from those considered most attractive. Although the faces looked very similar at first glance, a significant number said they preferred the composite of most attractive faces.

The conclusion was that the most attractive shape was not average. If you look at famous film stars and supermodels, most of them have ideal features - larger than normal eyes, higher arched eyebrows, slightly smaller noses, cheekbones are a little more prominent. Even popular cartoon characters such as Betty Boop, Yasmin from "Aladdin" and Bambi have big eyes, small turned-up noses, big mouths and small chins. And if these features are exaggerated , the attractiveness rating goes up even more. Julia Roberts is a good example of this.

But what have scientists discovered about men's faces? Do men with large eyes, high cheekbones and a small chin have the same irresistible appeal? Researchers were a bit shocked at the result of their experiment. They expected the most attractive male face to have the classic square jaw and strong cheekbones, but instead, women seem to prefer men with gentle faces. Although there is more pressure on females to be perfect, research suggests that men and women look for the same things, for example expressive features such as arched eyebrows and a big smile were associated with attractiveness in men. Scientists have thought of an evolutionary reason to explain why so many women now prefer baby faced stars such as Leonardo DiCaprio or Tom Cruise. Women like a man with a feminine face because he is more likely to have higher levels of the female hormone oestrogen and therefore to make a kinder and more trustworthy husband and father.

Do these ideals of beauty cross cultural boundaries? In some cultures scars and tatoos or a fatter than average body are considered to be attractive. Scientists found out that there are only subtle differences between ethnic groups. For example Asians tend to prefer faces that are slightly less mature and slightly less expressive, whereas blacks preferred faces that were a little more plump. In other words, although there might be a little truth in the old saying that beauty is in the eye of the beholder, on the whole we all seem to be attracted to the same things.


Reading comprehension

Decide whether the following assertions are true or false according to the text. Correct the false ones.

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

Beauty can be explained.

There is more pressure on men to be perfect that there is on women.

Most film stars and supermodels don't have ideal features.

People tend to like the same features, no matter the ethnic group.



C. VOCABULARY


1. In the following table write down the new words in the text above as well as their meaning (and translation into Romanian, if necessary). Then use these words in sentences of your own.

NEW WORD

MEANING ( AND TRANSLATION)















2. What parts of the human face does the text above mention? Together with your desk mate can you also enumerate the other parts of the human body. Suggestion: use a radiant diagram.




3. Let's play! Draw as accurately as you can:

a) a straight-haired, thin-faced, blue-eyed, tall woman

b) a wavy-haired, round-faced, blue-eyed, plump woman









c) a curly-haired, dark-skinned, dark-eyed child

d) a bald old man with a moustache and freckles









e) a tall, slim, middle-aged man with receding hair and a few wrinkles

f) yourself











4. What sort of person would you like to go out with: blonde / fair / dark / brown / ginger / red-haired; blue / green / brown / dark-eyed?


5. Write one sentence to describe each of these people, giving information about their hair and face, their height and build and general appearance: yourself, your best friend, your ideal of a handsome man/ a beautiful woman, somebody famous (star, politician, etc). For this last description give some extra clues and see if your mates can guess who you are describing.


6. Complete the following sentences using a verb (in an appropriate tense) which denotes a part of the body. Example: You have no money. Face the facts, you can't go on spending money as though you were a millionaire.

a)     I ran out of petrol on the motorway, so I had to __ ____ ____ ___ a lift to the nearest petrol station.

b)     In the final minutes of the match Smith __ ____ ____ ___ the ball into the back of the net.

c)     She__ ____ ____ ___ the material gently; it felt as smooth as silk.

d)     The bank robber was __ ____ ____ ____ with a knife and a gun.

e)     Could you __ ____ ____ ____ me the book on the table next to you?

f)      She __ ____ ____ _____ the car carefully out of the garage and drove off.

g)     After her husband's death, she had to __ ____ ____ ____ the responsibility for the debts.


7. The dictionary entry for compounds formed with the word head contains the words enumerated below. Find the compounds under hair, eye and finger. Write sentences with those that are new to you.

HEAD

HAIR

Headache

Headband

Headline

Headstone

Headquarters

Headphones

Headmaster / mistress


EYE

FINGER











8. The following words are made with suffixes and prefixes. Verb: to create (root word); Nouns: creation, creativity; Person: creator; Adjective: creative; Opposite: uncreative. Now do the same for the following words:

economy __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

produce __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____

attract __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __

admire __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __



D. GRAMMAR


PAST PERFECT SIMPLE

1. Read the following sentences and try to place the actions expressed by the underlined verb forms on the time axes:

When we arrived at the hospital the doctor had already examined him.


By the time we reached the airport the plane had already landed.


She had got dressed and then she left.



2. What do you notice about the Past Perfect Simple?

a) What does it consist of? __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___ .

b) What does it express? __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ .

c) What time expressions does it go with? __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___ .


PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

3. Now do the same two exercises for the following sentences:

It had been raining for a few days when it finally stopped.


As he had been working since morning he was exhausted.


They had been training for years when they finally obtained their first gold medal.


Past perfect Progressive consists of __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ .

It refers to __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ .

The time expressions most frequently used together with the Past Perfect Progressive are introduced by __ _____ and __ _____ .


4. Join these sentences using by the time as in the example.

The film started. We arrived.

The film had started by the time we arrived.

a)       He lost the phone number. He got to the phone booth.


b)      We had breakfast. He came downstairs.


c)       His wife did the shopping. He came back from work.


d)      The poor man died. The doctor arrived.


e)      She ate all the sandwiches. We got there.


f)        He smoked twenty cigarettes. We finished.


g)       She burnt all the papers. The police arrested her.



5. Put the verbs in brackets in Past Perfect Progressive, as in the example.

When they found him, he had been living in Africa for twelve years.


a)       When she arrived, I (wait) for more than three hours.


b)      What (they-do)? They got home so dirty and wet!


c)       The firemen (try) to put out the fire for six hours when it started raining.


d)      When his body was found, he (be) dead for twenty hours.


e)      She said she (drive) that car for a month.


f)        The boys explained they (look) for a dog when they found the bomb.


g)       He (sleep) for hours when woke him.


h)      We (climb) up the mountain for four hours when the storm started.


i)        He was soaked to the skin because he (stand) in the rain.


j)        They (drink) all night, so they all felt dizzy the following morning.



6. Put the verbs in brackets into Past Progressive or Past Perfect Progressive.


a)       The police eventually caught the thief. They (look) for him for months.


b)      The sun (not shine) when I took these photographs.


c)       (The dog-bark) when you opened the gate?


d)      She (write) her first novel for ten years when she got married to him.


e)      Since the end of the war he (try) to set up his own business.


f)        I (call) you for an hour before I remembered you weren't at home.


g)       He asked me if I (leave) when he saw me putting on the jacket.


h)      He didn't know long he (lie) there unconscious.


i)        By then we'd discovered who (steal) money from the company the last three years.


j)        He ran into a lorry while he (drive) home.


E. LANGUAGE IN USE


1. Describing people. Sometimes it is necessary to have a few clues about a person you haven't met yet ( e.g. if you are waiting for that person in an airport, if you are supposed to meet somebody and you want to be certain you are going to recognise him / her). The most common question you can ask when you need to know how a person looks like is How do you look like? How does he / she look like?

Now try to describe someone in the classroom and if the others recognise the person it means that your description was accurate.


2. Answer these remarks with the opposite description.

Example: A: I thought he was the short round-faced one.

B: No, quite the opposite, he's the tall, thin faced one.

a)                A: So, tell us about the new colleague; good looking?

B: No, I'm afraid not; rather __ ____ ____ ____ _____

b)                A: I've heard she's always quite well dressed.

B: What! Who told you that? Every time I see her, she's __ ____ ____ ____ _____

c) A: Was that his brother, the dark-skinned, wavy-haired one?

B: No, quite the opposite, his brother's __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

d) A: I expected the tour guide to be middle aged or elderly.

B: No, apparently she's only __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

e) A: So, Janet is that rather plump, fair-haired woman, isn't she?

B: No, You're looking at Mary. Janet is __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __


SECTION II

HEALTH


A. LEAD IN


1.                How often in your opinion should a healthy person go to the doctor?

2.                Have you ever been seriously ill?

3.                Have you ever kept a slimming diet?

4.                How often do you practise a sport? Which is that?

5.                What should a balanced diet consist of?

6.                In groups of three or four can you think of the main reason why so many people, especially in urban areas, become a) obese; b) overstressed?

7.                Do you think people are becoming more health conscious?



B. READING OBJECTIVE


HOW DANGEROUS IS IT TO LIVE IN THE MODERN WORLD?

Every day is full of dangers. You wake up in the morning, rush to the window and take a deep breath. Don't! Hasn't anyone told you about the air being polluted with lead from petrol? Next you go to the bathroom. After touching the lavatory tap your innocent-looking hands are covered in bacteria, which even a good wash won't entirely remove. Then you get dressed. Good heavens! Don't you realise that all that nylon won't let your skin breathe?

With a rash beginning to appear on your skin you hurry to the kitchen for breakfast. Eating should be good for you, shouldn't it? Of course it is, if you don't have tea or coffee which are bad for your heart, or something fried which will fill your stomach with cholesterol. Of course, after that you go to clean your teeth. Put down that nylon toothbrush at once! It will ruin your gums. Do you have the courage to weigh yourself? Horrors! You're at least a few kilos overweight which will contribute to sending you to grave earlier.

Then, you make your way to the car, knowing that (according to statistics) there's a good chance that either you or one of your nearest and dearest will be involved in an accident sometime during your life. After a very stressing journey on a road filled with polluting gases, you reach work and get into the lift. Get out at once and climb up the stairs, unless you want a heart attack tomorrow.

When you finally reach your office you collapse into a chair and light a cigarette to calm your nerves. A what? How dare you? Your colleague Ms Brown - blonde hair and perfect make up - comes in, ready for a busy day. Do you think she's heard about the cancer that can be caused by hair dyes and eye-liners?

At last lunch comes. You join your mates for a sandwich. White bread? A low fiber diet is not good at all. You have just one more drink, which will help your liver fail. You spend the afternoon fighting a battle with high blood pressure and chronic indigestion and give a sigh of relief as 5.30 arrives.

A nervous wreck, you reach home and crawl to an armchair, to watch TV for the rest of the evening. Soon you'll have to wear glasses as the watching TV for so long, after spending your day in front of the computer will definitely ruin your eyes.

But do not fear, civilisation is here. Are we really happier in our modern technological world than our ancestors who knew nothing of these things? Is it any surprise that there were no psychologists or psychiatrists before? I'm sure they didn't need any.


Reading comprehension

1. Look over the text again and mark it like this:

VV - I agree that this is a real danger.

V - This could be dangerous, but it's not worth worrying about.

X - I don' agree that this is a danger.

- I don't understand the point the writer is trying to make.


2. The text deals with quite a serious subject, but it is written in a humorous way. It sounds like spoken English, as if two persons were talking to each other. Find examples of this.



DANGEROUS!

The boy who fell down stairs, drank antiseptic, chopped off a finger, and plunged into an empty swimming pool.

Allen Davies is only five but already his parents are convinced he's a walking disaster. The boy has cracked his head falling into an empty swimming pool, has chopped the end of his finger off with a penknife and almost died after drinking half a bottle of antiseptic. His two elder brothers have also had their share of accidents and had to be taken to the Children's Hospital. Robert, 15, tore some ligaments on a skiing holiday and broke his ankle a few days later. Lee, 13, injured his neck doing a motorbike stunt. However, neither of them equalled their younger brother's record.

Each time another disaster happens, Allen is taken to the Children's Hospital where he has been such a regular visitor that he now believes the nurse is a member of his family. In order to thank the hospital, Allen's grateful father, trader James Davies has raised 6,500 for the hospital to buy a neonatal monitor to measure babies' breathing and temperature.

Allen's mother says: "It all started when little Allen was a year old. He fell over and cut himself and the doctors put stitches in his forehead. Since then he hasn't stopped. The latest accident happened when he climbed on to a shelf and managed to open his father's penknife. He chopped the end of his finger off and had to have it sewn back on."

Doctors at the hospital also had to stitch Allen's head after he plunged into an empty pool.

Everyone in the hospital has known him for years and he firmly believes he's got a real sister in the hospital because he knows the sister who looks after him so well.

A nurse at the hospital says, "Whenever we see Allen coming in again, we all shout: what have you done this time?"



C. VOCABULARY


1. In the following table write down the new words in the texts above as well as their meaning (and translation into Romanian, if necessary). Then use these words in sentences of your own.

NEW WORD

MEANING ( AND TRANSLATION)



















2. a) according to the first text above, which are the illnesses / diseases we can be subject to every day?




b) look at the second text above and discover what parts of their bodies and how have little Allan and his brothers have injured so far.




3.     Body Knowledge Quiz

Your body is a marvellous machine. Understanding how to keep it in good shape for the rest of your life is very important. Try this quiz to test your body knowledge.


a)     What is the aerobic system? A. an exercise video, record or tape. B. oxygen and carbon dioxide. C. the heart, lungs and blood circulation.

b)     The "happy hormones" that are released during exercise are called A. endorphins. B. morphine. C. progesterone

c)     A balanced diet should include: A. calories, fibre and sugar. B. carbohydrates, protein and fat. C. cereals, caffeine and glucose.

d)     Which of the following activities are best for keeping supple? A. yoga, gymnastics and karate. B. rowing, horse-riding and jogging. C. walking, water-skiing and wind-surfing.

e)     To keep healthy you should exercise at least: A. one hour every day. B. twenty minutes three times a week. C. one hour three times a week.

f)      You become strong by: A. drinking strong coffee. B. eating fruit. C. exercising regularly.

Look at the end of the unit and check your answers.


4.     Translate into Romanian:

a)     I'm up to the eyes in work at the moment.


b)     They are always putting their foot in it.


c) Where do you go when you need a shoulder to cry on?


d) He usually likes to play things by ear.


e) You ca talk to me when you need to get something off your chest.


f) People say he has green fingers while his brother is known for having a sweet tooth.



5.     Match the diseases with their symptoms:

Fluswollen glands in front of ear, earache or pain when eating

Pneumonia burning pain in abdomen, pain after eating

Rheumatism rash on your skin, slightly raised temperature

Smallpox dry cough, high fever, chest pain, rapid breathing

Mumps headache, fever, cough, sneezing, running nose

Ulcer swollen, painful joints, stiffness, limited movement


6.     What medical problems might you have if:

You stay too long in the sun __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____

You run too fast after a bus __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____

You smoke a lot __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __

You eat too fast __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

You wear shoes that rub __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

You eat food you're allergic to __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

You get wet on a cold day __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

You think you're ill all the time __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

You cannot stay for too long in a closed space __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

You put things on fire __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

You steal people's things __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___


7.     Translate into English:

Am racit. Ma doare in gat. Am febra. Ma doare stomacul. Mi-e rau. Am o vanataie pe picior. Ma simt ametit. Ma simt deprimat. Ma simt obosit tot timpul. Nu am pofta de mancare.




Luati cate o pastila de trei ore pe zi, inainte de mese. Va vom pune piciorul in ghips. Asistenta va va pune un bandaj si va va face o injectie. Veti fi operat maine dimineata.



D. GRAMMAR


THE PLURAL OF NOUNS

1. The plural of nouns is definitely one of the first grammar topics you studied when you started learning English. At least the first two of the following sets of examples should be familiar to you. Try to generate rules for them as well as for the other pairs of singular-plural nouns that follow.

a) Book

Books


Course

Courses


b) Box

Boxes


Match

Matches


Brush

Brushes


Cross

Crosses


Buzz

Buzzes


c) Potato

Potatoes


Tomato

Tomatoes


BUT: piano

Pianos


d) Leaf

Leaves


Wife

Wives


BUT: dwarf

Dwarfs


e) Boy

Boys


Day

Days


Party

Parties


Country

Countries


f) Deer

Deer


Fish

Fish


Sheep

Sheep


Fruit

Fruit


g) A piece of

Information

Information __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____

A piece of

Advice

Advice

A piece of

Furniture

Furniture

A piece of

A piece of

Luggage

News

Luggage

News

NOTE: the nouns information, advice, furniture, luggage, news have a singular form and a plural meaning. They are followed by a verb in the singular.


2. The following nouns have irregular plurals. Which are these?

Man



Woman



Child



Foot



Tooth



Louse



Mouse



Goose



Ox




3. Write the plural of the following nouns:

Bus


lady


Radio


joy


Knife


half


Class


fireman


Wolf


chair


Volcano


buffalo


Deer


cry


Handkerchief


basis


Gulf


datum


Shelf


ray,


Roof


Bridge


Fly


Cross



4. The following nouns, which you may use in business reports and presentations come from Greek or Latin; their plural is different from the usual one in English. Look at the model and fill in the blanks:

Datum

Data

Axis

Axes

Addendum


Crisis


Symposium


Basis


Phenomenon

Phenomena

Analysis


Criterion


Hypothesis


Don't forget to write down the translation of the new words above.


5. Translate into English:

In ultima vreme in zona au avut loc fenomene neobisnuite.


Cele mai recente date statistice arata o imbunatatire a situatiei economice.


Bolnavul sufera de crize de inima foarte frecvent.


Ipotezele doctorilor au fost corecte, pacientul are o boala de inima grava si trebuie operat. __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ .


6.Choose the correct verb:

The information (is, are) correct.

The furniture in the castle (is, are) very old.

The news on the radio (was, were) quite worrying.

Where (is, are) the scissors?

The sanatoria in this region (is, are) specialised in lung diseases.



E. LANGUAGE IN USE


1. Talking to the doctor. What would you say if the doctor asked you the following questions?

a)                Do you have health insurance? __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

b)                Are you taking any medication? __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __

c)                Have you ever had any operations? __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

d)                Are you allergic to anything? __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


2. Together with your desk mate imagine a few short doctor-patient conversation on the following pattern: 1 - greetings; 2 - the doctor asks you about the reason of your visit; 3 - explain the reason; 4 - the doctor asks for more information; 5 - the doctor tells you what he is going to do; 6 - after a short break in the conversation the doctor decides what the diagnosis is; 7 - the doctor explains you what to do; 8 - you thank the doctor; 9 - greetings.


3. Showing sympathy and giving advice. Read the following short conversations, then: a) underline the parts expressing sympathy; b) together with your desk mate complete each conversation with a suitable piece of advice.

A: Have you got a cold?

B: No, I'm all right - I always get a running nose and red eyes at this time of the year.

A: I'm really sorry, that must be awful. Try to __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___ .


A: Is it just my impression or are you feeling bad?

B: Oh, I feel as if my head's going to explode!

A: Oh, poor you, what happened?

B: I've been working on the computer for more than ten hours. You know I've been very busy these days.

A: I know, I know. Have you taken an aspirin?

B: Yes, but it hasn't worked.

A: Well you could try __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____.


A: Don't touch my back!

B: Why, What's up?

A: I wanted to get a tan quickly so I stayed in the sun all day yesterday without any suntan lotion.

B: Oh, well, it serves you right then, doesn't it? Oh, in fact I'm really sorry, I didn't mean to say that. I'll give you my secret cure - get __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___.


A: Why are you walking like that?

B: I fell on the stairs yesterday and now my ankle's killing me.

A: Oh dear, you poor thing! If you ask me you need to __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __.


4. Offering to do things. When a person around you doesn't feel well you might want to help him / her.


When something needs to be done you can ask someone else to do it, or offer to do it yourself or just do it without saying anything. If someone else is not able to do something, you can offer to help.

Here are some useful ways of offering to do something:


Let me get it for you.

Shall I get it for you?

Any point in my getting it for you?

How about my getting it for you?

Would you like me to get it for you?

If you like, I could get it for you.

Can I help you with that?


We might accept such offers with answers like:


That's very kind of you, thanks.

Oh would you? Thanks.

Thanks a lot.


Or refuse them by saying:


No, don't bother, I can do it myself.

No, it's alright, I can manage.

Thanks ever so much, but it's alright, really.


Now offer to : a) go shopping for your grandmother who hasn't felt too well lately; she accepts. b) carry a pile of books for your teacher to the library; he/ she accepts. c) call a taxi for a mate who doesn't feel well; she / he refuses politely.



F. WRITING / DISCUSSION


Can we still remain healthy in spite of al the dangers of the modern world?


Answers for the Body Quiz: a) A, b) A, c) B, d) B, e) B, f) C.






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