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PARTILE DE VORBIRE - LIMBA ENGLEZA


PARTILE DE VORBIRE - LIMBA ENGLEZA


PARTILE DE VORBIRE - LIMBA ENGLEZA

Morfologia este cea care se ocupa de partile de vorbire.

Clasificarea partilor de vorbire:

A.   SUBSTANTIVUL



B.   ADJECTIVUL

C.   PRONUMELE

D.   VERBUL

E.   ADVERBUL

F.    PREPOZITIA

G.  CONJUNCTIA

H.  INTERJECTIA

A.   SUBSTANTIVUL

Pluralul substantivului se formeaza din:

Singular + terminatia "-s"

Exemple:

Singular

Translate

Plural

Translate

girl

fata

girls

fete

boy

baiat

boys

baieti

table

masa

tables

mese

Exsita substantive cu plural neregulat

Exemple:

Singular

Translate

Plural

Translate

child

copil

children

copii

man

barbat

men

barbate

woman

femeie

women

femei

Exista substantive cu defective de plural

Exemple:

Singular

Translate

Plural

Translate

people

om

people

oameni

sheep

oaie

sheep

oi

advice

sfat

advice

sfaturi

paper

hartie

paper

hartii

a piece of paper / a piece of advice

two pieces of paper / two pieces of advice.

Give me some advice, please. Da-mi un sfat te rog.

Genul Substantivelor

Masculin toate fiintele de sex masculin

Feminin toate fiintele de sex feminin

Neutru toate obiectele si necuvantatoarele

Substantivele in limba engleza nu se declina, ele isi pasteaza forma:

Nominativ = Genitiv = Dativ = Acuzativ

B.   ADJECTIVUL

Este cuvantul care determina si imbogateste sensul substantivului = "Este floarea de la palaria substantivului"

Adjectivul sta intotdeauna in fata substantivului.

Exemple: a nice girl = a fata frumoasa

a big house = o casa mare

a serious man = un barbat serios

Adjectivul este un cuvant invariabil care nu se acorda in gen si numar cu substabtivul pe care il insoteste.

Exemple:

Singular

Translate

Plural

Translate

Feminin

nice girl

fata frumosa

nice girls

fete frumoase

Masculin

nice boy

baiat frumos

nice boys

baieti frumosi

Neutru

nice cat

pisica frumosa

nice cats

pisici frumoase

C.   PRONUMELE

Este cuvantul care inlocuieste substantivul pentru a evita repetarea lui.

Pronumele se declina (isi schimba forma)

Regula Dativului:

Particula "to" nu exista in fata dativului, atunci cand Dativul sta imediat dupa un Verb.

Exemplu:

He

offers

her

a flower.

Dativ

Acuzativ

Particula "to" apare in fata dativului, atunci cand Dativul este despartit de Verb de un Acuzativ.

Exemplu:

He

offers

a flower

to her.

Acuzativ

Dativ

DECLINAREA PRONUMELUI

NOMINATIV

GENITIV

DATIV

ACUZATIV

who?

cine?

whose?

al cui? a cui? ai cui? ale cui?

(to) whom?

cui?

who(m)?

pe cine?

Adjectiv posesiv

Pronume posesiv

I

Eu

my

meu

mine

al meu

(to) me

mie

me

pe mine

You

Tu

your

tau

yours

al tau

(to) you

tie

you

pe tine

He

El

his

lui

his

al lui

(to) him

lui

him

pe el

She

Ea

her

ei

her

al ei

(to) her

ei

her

pe ea

It

El / Ea

its

ei / lui

its

al lui / al ei

(to) it

lui / ei

it

pe el / ea

We

Noi

our

nostru

ours

al nostru

(to) us

noua

us

pe noi

You

Voi

your

vostru

yours

al vostru

(to) you

voua

you

pe voi

They

Ei

their

lor

theirs

al lor

(to) them

lor

them

pe ei

D.   VERBUL

Este cuvantul flexibil care arta stari si actiuni.

E.   ADVERBUL

Este cuvantul care insoteste verbul, il determina, il imbogateste. Arata: "unde?", "cum?" si "cand?" are loc actiunea.

Adverbul se obtine dintr-un:

Adjectiv + terminatia "-ly"

Exemple:

Adejectiv

Translate

Adverb

Translate

nice

dragut

nicely

in mod dragut

She has a nice dress

She sings nicely

Exista si adverbe neregulate

Exemplu:

Singular

Translate

Plural

Translate

hard

greu

hard

grele

F.    PREPOZITIA

Este cuvantul care insoteste substantivul sau pronumele si arata relatia dintre acesta si celalte parti de vorbire.

Exemple:

The dog is under the table.

I came here with you.

I wrote to you.

G.  CONJUNCTIA

Leaga intre ele cuvinte, prepozitii, parti coordonate de propozitii subordonate.

Exemple:

He walked across the field.

I came to you, but I don't stay.

H.  INTERJECTIA

Cuvinte cu intonatie exclamativa, care nu intra in constructia unei propozitii.

Exemple:

Oh!

Hello!

Ah!

ARTICOLUL HOTARAT "the"

Se pune in fata unui substantive, fie ca este la singular sau la plural, atunci cand vrem sa-l articulam.

the [ǝ] in fata cuvintelor care incep cu o consoana

the [i] in fata cuvintelor care incep cu o vocala

ARTICOLUL NEHOTARAT "a / an"

Un substantiv este articulat cu articolul "a / an" atunci cand este la singular si pierde acest articol cand este la plural.

a [ǝ] in fata cuvintelor care incep cu o consoana.

an [ǝn] in fata cuvintelor care incep cu o vocala.

D.   VERBUL

Este cuvantul flexibil care arata stari si actiuni.

Este cuvantul flexibil care isi schimba forma in functie de:

Persoana

Timp

Mod

Diateza

Aspect al formelor verbale

CLASIFICAREA VERBELOR

Verbe neregulate ~ 10.000

Verbe regulate ~ 200

Verbe auxiliare

Verbe modale = 8

Verbe speciale

to be

was/ were

been

a fi

eram / fusei / am fost

fost

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

FORNELE DE BAZA ALE UNUI VERB

Infinitive

este egal cu infinitival din limba romana

are forma fixa

Past-Tense

este imperfectul, perfectul simplu si perfectul compus din limba romana

Past-Participle

este participial trecut din limba romana

are forma fixa

VERBE NEREGULATE

Exemple:

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

VERBE NEREGULATE

to be

was

been

a fi

to have

has

had

a avea

to eat

ate

eaten

a manca

to fall

fell

fallen

a cadea

to write

wrote

written

a scrie

to drink

drank

drunk

a bea

VERBE REGULATE

Exemple:

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

VERBE REGULATE

(to) love

loved

loved

a iubi

(to) move

moved

moved

a (se) misca

(to) care

cared

cared

ati pasa

(to) work

worked

worked

a munci

(to learn

learned

learned

a invata

(to) warn

warned

warned

a avertiza

VERBE AUXILIARE

Sunt acele verbe care ajuta la conjugarea tuturor celorlalte verbe

Cu ele se formeaza:

o      Diatezele

o      Interogativ/ negativul

o      Formele perfecte

o      Imperativul

o      etc.

Ajuta ca verbul sa fie flexibil

Ajuta ca verbul sa se plieze pe:

o      Persoana

o      Timp

o      Mod

o      Diateza

o      Aspect al formelor verbale

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

VERBE AUXILIARE

shall

shoud

a trebui

will

would

a vrea

to be

was / were

been

a fi

to have

had

had

a avea

to do

did

done

a face

to let

let

let

a lasa

VERBE MODALE

Sunt acele verbe care singure nu au sens

Arata doar modul in care se face actiunea, iar pentru a capata sens trebuie neaparat sa fie insotite de un al doilea verb.

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

VERBE MODALE

shall

should

a trebui

will

would

a vrea

can

could

a putea

may

might

a putea (permisiune)

need

needed

a avea nevoie

dare

dared

a indrazni

must

a trebui

ought to

a trebui

MUST

are ca inlocuitor

TO HAVE TO

CAN

are ca inlocuitor

TO BE ABLE TO

must = a trebui (obligativitate din exterior)

Exemplu:

I must go to the office every day.

ought to = a trebui (obligativitate din suflet / inima)

Exemplu:

I ought to help my parents = Trebuie sa-mi ajut parintii

Exemple:

Superior Inferior

Inferior Superior

You shall make the report.

You should by the book

shall = a trebui

Este cel mai puternic verb, cu el se comanda, se ordona

Da porunca si se foloseste numai de la superior la inferior (in sensul: pozitiei, al varstei)

Pentru "indulcire" si pentru a-l putea folosi si d la inferior la superior se trece pe a II-a forma "should"

Caracteristicile verbelor modale

Nu au particular infinitivala "to" in fata

Nu au cele trei forme de baza, le lipseste forma a III-a si uneori si a II-a, de aici denumirea de defective.

Verbul care urmeaza unui verb modal este intotdeauna la forma infinitiv scurt - spre deosebire de un verb obisnuit care prinde dupa el un verb la infinitival lung.

Exemple:

Verb obisnuit

Verb modal

Verb obisnuit

Verb obisnuit

I want to try.

I can to try.

I try to sing.

I must to sing.

La indicativ prezent persoana a III-a singular nu prinde terminatia "-s", asa cum fac toate celelate verbe.

Exemple:

Verb obisnuit

Verb modal

Verb obisnuit

Verb obisnuit

He sings.

He cans sing.

She plays.

She musts play.

It sounds

It shoulds sound.

Fac interogtivul, negativul si interogativ-negativul fara ajutorul verbului auxiliary "to do" asa cum fac toate celelalte verbe obisnuite la prezent si past-tense.

Exemple:

Verb obisnuit

Verb modal

Verb obisnuit

Verb obisnuit

You work.

You can work.

Do you work?

Can you work?

You do not work?

You can't work?

Don't you work?

Can't you work?

Ajuta la obtinerea unor subjonctive prin interpolare mica.

Exemplu: He must have came home = El trebuie sa fi venit acasa

VERBE SPECIALE

se "racoleaza" dintre verbele auxiliare si modale

sunt acele verbe care pe langa functia de baza pe care o au in limba mai joaca si un alt rol.

Exemplu:

Whenever I should pass Calea Victoriei I would enter Musica Shop.

unde:

would da frecventa actiunii

whenever = ori de cate ori

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

VERBE SPECIALE

shall

should

a trebui

will

would

a vrea

must

a trebui

can

could

a putea

need

needed

a avea nevoie

dare

dared

a indrazni

use to

a folosi la

to have

had

had

a avea

to be

was

been

a fi

to do

did

done

a face

ELEMENTELE CARE INTRA IN CONJUGAREA UNUI VERB

DIATEZA

MODUL

TIMPUL

ASPECTUL FORMELOR VERBALE

3.1. DIATEZA

Arata relatia dintre subiect si predicat din punct de vedere al efectuarii actiunii si al rasfrangerii ei.

3.1.1. DIATEZA ACTIVA

Subiectul face actiunea si altcineva o suporta

Exemplu: You ask a question.

3.1.2. DIATEZA PASIVA

Subiectul suporta actiunea facuta de altcineva

Exemplu: You are asked a question.

3.1.3. DIATEZA REFLEXIVA

Subiectul face actiunea si tot el o suporta

Exemplu: You ask yourself a question

In fiecare dintre diateze se regasesc celelate trei elemente:

Timp

Mod

Aspect al formelor verbale

3.2. MODUL

Arata maniera in care are loc o actiune.

3.2.1. MODUL INDICATIV

Arata o actiune reala

Prinde toate timpurile

Exemple:

Prezent

I go to the office.

Past-Tense

Bill went to his sister.

Viitor

She will go to the seaside.

3.2.2. MODUL CONDITIONAL

Arata o actiune dorita, dar coditionata

Exemple:

If you gave me the book I should read it.

If you had give me the book I should have read it.

3.2.3. MODUL SUBJONCTIV

arata o actiune posiblia, probabil.

Exemple:

I suggest you behave better.

Shall I go to the opera to night?

3.2.4. MODUL IMPERATIV

arata o rugaminte, o cerere, un ordin, o comanda, etc.

Exemple:

Bring me some milk, please.

Strand still = Drepti!

3.3. TIMPUL

arata momentul desfasurarii actiunii

3.3.1 PRESENT (Prezent)

(a)   Present Simple este prezentul din limba romana

Exemplu: I write a letter. = Eu scriu o scrisoare.

(b)  Present Perfect este perfectul compus din limba romana

Exemplu: I have written a letter. = Eu am scris o scrisoare.

3.3.2. PAST (Trecut)

(a)   Past simple imperfectul / perfectul simplu / perfectul compus din limba romana

Exemplu: I wrote a letter. = Eu scriam / Eu scrisei / Eu am scris o scrisoare.

(b)  Past perfect mai mult ca perfectul din limba romana

Exemplu: I had written a letter. = Eu scrisesem o scrisoare.

3.3.3. FUTURE (Viitor)

(a)   Future simple viitor I din limba romana

Exemplu: I shall write a letter. = Eu voi scrie o scrisoare.

(b)  Future perfect viitor II anterior din limba romana.

Exemplu: I shall have writte a letter. = Eu voi fi scris o scrisoare.

ASPECT AL FORMELOR VERBALE

Categorie gramaticala inexistenta in limba romana.

(a)   Indefinite arata actiunea la general.

Exemplu: I eat apples. = Eu mananc mere.

(b)  Continous arata actiunea in desfasurare

Aspectuil continuu se contruieste cu ajutorul verbului "to be".

to be + forma "-ing" a verbului de conjugat

Exemplu: I am eating apples. = Eu mananc mere.

Observatie

Nu se conjuga la aspectul continuu urmatoarele verbe:

To be = a fi

To have = a avea

To love = a iubi

To hate = a ura

Verbele simturilor

Unele verbe care arata actiuni mentale

SCHEMA DE ASOCIERE A VERBELOR

to be

was / were

been

"- ing"

aspect continuu

participiu trecut

diateza pasiva

to heve

had

had

participiu trecut

forme perfecte

Observatie

Verbele de mai jos cer dupa ele numai Infinituvul Scurt:

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

to do

did

done

a face

to let

let

let

a lasa

shall

should

a trebui

will

would

a vrea

can

could

a putea

may

might

a putea (permisiune)

need

needed

a avea nevoie

dare

dared

a indrazni

must

a trebui

ought to

a trebui

CONJUGAREA VERBULUI "TO BE / WAS / BEEN" = a fi

Mode

Timp

SIMPLE

PERFECT

Indefinite

Continous

Indefinite

Continous

INDICATIVE

Present

I am

Eu sunt

I have been

Eu am fost

You are

Tu esti

You have been

Tu ai fost

He is

El este

He has been

El a fost

She is

Ea este

She has been

Ea a fost

It is

El/ Ea este

It has been

El/ Ea a fost

We are

Noi suntem

We have been

Noi am fost

You are

Voi sunteti

You have been

Voi ati fost

They are

Ei sunt

They have been

Ei au fost

Past

I was

Eu eram

Eu am    fost

Eu fusei

I had been

Eu fusesem

You were

Tu erai

Tu ai fost

Tu fusesi

You had been

Tu fusesesi

He was

El era

El a fost

El fusese

He had been

El fusese

She was

Ea era

Ea a fost

Ea fusese

She had been

Ea fusese

It was

Ea, El era

El, Ea a fost

El, Ea fusese

It had been

El, Ea fusese

We were

Noi eram

Noi am fost

Noi fusesem

We had been

Noi fusesem

You were

Voi erati

Voi ati fost

Voi fuserati

You had been

Voi fuseseti

They were

Ei erau

Ei au fost

Ei fusera

They had been

Ei fusese

Future

I shall be

Eu voi fi

I shall have been

Eu voi fi fost

You will be

Tu vei fi

You will have been

Tu vei fi fost

He will be

El va fi

He will have been

El va fi fost

She will be

Ea va fi

She will have been

Ea va fi fost

It will be

El/ Ea va fi

It will have been

El, Ea va fi fost

We shall be

Noi vom fi

We shall have been

Noi vom fi fost

You will be

Voi veti fi

You will have been

Voi veti fi fost

They will be

Ei vor fi

They will have been

Ei vor fi fost

CONDITIONAL

I should be

Eu as fi

I should have been

Eu as fi fost

You would be

Tu ai fi

You would have been

Tu ai fi fost

He would be

El ar fi

He would have been

El ar fi fost

She would be

Ea ar fi

She would have been

Ea ar fi fost

It would be

El, Ea ar fi

It would have been

El, Ea ar fi fost

We should be

Noi am fi

We should have been

Noi am fi fost

You would be

Voi ati fi

You would have been

Voi ati fi fost

They would be

Ei ar fi

They would have been

Ei ar fi fost

IMPERATIV

Let me be

Sa fiu

SUBJONCTIV

PRESENT

PERFECT

Be

Fi

I be

Eu sa fiu

I were

Eu am sa fiu

Let him be

Sa fie

You be

Tu sa fi

You were

Tu ai sa fi

Let her be

He be

El sa fie

He were

El ar sa fie

Let it be

She be

Ea sa fie

She were

Ea ar sa fie

Let us be

Sa fim

It be

El, Ea sa fie

It were

El, Ea ar sa fie

Be

Fiti

We be

Noi sa fim

We were

Noi o sa fim

Let them be

Sa fie

You be

Voi sa fiti

You were

Voi o sa fiti

They be

Ei sa fie

They were

Ei or sa fie

Observatie

Verbul "to be" este singurul verb din limba care pastreaza din engleza veche un subjonctiv de sine statator cu forma pe perezent si pe perfect.

PARTICIPIU

PRESENT

PARTICIPIU

PAST

Idefinit

Perfect

being

fiind

care este

having been

dupa ce a fost

been

fost

CONJUGAREA VERBULUI "TO HAVE / HAD / HAD" = a avea

Mode

Timp

SIMPLE

PERFECT

Indefinite

Continous

Indefinite

Continous

INDICATIVE

Present

I have

Eu am

I have had

Eu am avut

You have

Tu ai

You have had

Tu ai avut

He has

El are

He has had

El a avut

She has

Ea are

She has had

Ea a avut

It has

El, Ea are

It has had

El/ Ea a avut

We have

Noi avem

We have had

Noi am avut

You have

Voi aveti

You have had

Voi ati avut

They have

Ei au

They have had

Ei au avut

Past

I had

Eu aveam

Eu am avut

Eu avusei

I had had

Eu avusesem

You had

Tu aveai

Tu ai avut

Tu avusesi

You had had

Tu avusesesi

He had

El avea

El a avut

El avuse

He had had

El avusese

She had

Ea avea

Ea a avut

Ea avuse

She had had

Ea avusese

It had

El, Ea avea

El, Ea a avut

El, Ea avuse

It had had

El, Ea avusese

We had

Noi aveam

Noi am avut

Noi avusem

We had had

Noi avusesem

You had

Voi aveati

Voi ati avut

Voi avuseseti

You had had

Voi avuseseti

They had

Ei aveau

Ei aua vut

Ei avusera

They had had

Ei avusese

Future

I shall have

Eu voi avea

I shall have had

Eu voi fi avut

You will have

Tu vei avea

You will have had

Tu vei fi avut

He will have

El va avea

He will have had

El va fi avut

She will have

Ea va avea

She will have had

Ea va fi avut

It will have

El, ea va avea

It will have had

El, Ea va fi avut

We shall have

Noi vom avea

We shall have had

Noi vom fi avut

You will have

Voi veti avea

You will have had

Voi veti fi avut

They will have

Ei vor avea

They will have had

Ei vor fi avut

CONDITIONAL

I should have

Eu as avea

I should have had

Eu as fi avut

You would have

Tu ai avea

You would have had

Tu ai fi avut

He would have

El ar avea

He would have had

El ar fi avut

She would have

Ea ar avea

She would have had

Ea ar fi avut

It would have

El, Ea ar avea

It would have had

El, Ea ar fi avut

We should have

Noi am avea

We should have had

Noi am fi avut

You would have

Voi ati avea

You would have had

Voi ati fi avut

They would have

Ei ar avea

They would have had

Ei ar fi avut

IMPERATIV

Let me have

Sa am

Lasa-ma sa am

Have

Ai

Let him have

Sa aibe

Let her have

Let it have

Let us have

Sa avem

Have

Aveti

Let them have

Sa aibe

PARTICIPIU

PRESENT

PARTICIPIU

PAST

Idefinit

Perfect

having

avand

care are

having had

dupa ce a avut

had

avut

CONJUGAREA VERBULUI "TO TAKE / TOOK / TAKEN" = a lua

Mode

Timp

SIMPLE

PERFECT

Indefinite

Continous

Indefinite

Continous

INDICATIVE

Present

I take

Eu iau

I am takeing

I have taken

Eu am luat

I have been taking

You take

Tu iei

You are taking

You have taken

Tu ai luat

You have been taking

He takes

El ia

He is taking

He has taken

El a luat

He has been taking

She takes

Ea ia

She is taking

She has taken

Ea a luat

She has been taking

It takes

El, Ea ia

It is taking

It has taken

El/ Ea a luat

It has been taking

We take

Noi luam

We are taking

We have taken

Noi am luat

We have been taking

You take

Voi luati

You are taking

You have taken

Voi ati luat

You have been taking

They take

Ei iau

They are taking

They have taken

Ei au luat

They have been taking

Past

I took

Eu am luat

Eu luai

Eu luam

I was taking

I had taken

Eu luasem

I had been taking

You took

Tu ai luat

Tu luai

Tu luai

You were taking

You had taken

Tu luasesi

You had been taking

He took

El a luat

El lua

El lua

He was taking

He had taken

El luasese

He had been taking

She took

Ea a luat

Ea lua

Ea lua

She was taking

She had taken

Ea luasese

She had been taking

It took

El, Ea a luat

El, Ea lua

El, Ea lua

It was taking

It had taken

El, Ea luasese

It had been taking

We took

Noi am luat

Noi luam

Noi luam

We were taking

We had taken

Noi luasesem

We had been taking

You took

Voi ati luat

Voi luati

Voi luati

You were taking

You had taken

Voi luaseseti

You had been taking

They took

Ei au luat

Ei luau

Ei luau

They were takimg

They had taken

Ei luasesera

They had been taking

Future

I shall take

Eu voi lua

I shall be taking

I shall have taken

Eu voi fi luat

I shall have been taken

You will take

Tu vei lua

You will be taking

You will have taken

Tu vei fi luat

You will have been taken

He will take

El va lua

He will be taking

He will have taken

El va fi luat

He will have been taken

She will take

Ea va lua

She will be taking

She will have taken

Ea va fi luat

She will have been taken

It will take

El, Ea va lua

It will be taking

It will have taken

El, Ea va fi luat

It will have been taken

We shall take

Noi vom lua

We shall be taking

We shall have taken

Noi vom fi luat

We shall have been taken

You will take

Voi veti lua

You will be taking

You will have taken

Voi veti fi luat

You will have been taken

They will take

Ei vor lua

They will be taking

They will have taken

Ei vor fi luat

They will have been taken

CONDITIONAL

I should take

Eu as lua

I should be taking

I should have taken

Eu as fi luat

I should have been taken

You would take

Tu ai lua

You would be taking

You would have taken

Tu ai fi luat

You would have been taken

He would take

El ar lua

He would be taking

He would have taken

El ar fi luat

He would have been taken

She would take

Ea ar lua

She would be taking

She would have taken

Ea ar fi luat

She would have been taken

It would take

El, Ea ar lua

It would be taking

It would have taken

El, Ea ar fi luat

It would have been taken

We should take

Noi am lua

We should be taking

We should have taken

Noi am fi luat

We should have been taken

You would take

Voi ati lua

You would be taking

You would have taken

Voi ati fi luat

You would have been taken

They would take

Ei ar lua

They would be taking

They would have taken

Ei ar fi luat

They would have been taken

IMPERATIV

Let me take

Sa iau

Lasa-ma sa iau

Take

Ia

Let him take

Lasa-l sa ia

Let her take

Las-o sa ia

Let it take

Sa ia

Let us take

Sa luam

Lasati-ne sa luam

Take

Luati

Let them take

Sa ia

PARTICIPIU

PRESENT

PARTICIPIU

PAST

Idefinit

Perfect

taking

luand

care ia

having taken

dupa ce a luat

taken

luat

EXEMPLE DE PREPOZITII:

form = de la

in [ǝn] = din (limba romana), in

Exemple:

I came from my brother.

I can't see the house from the trees.

Observatie

Unde from are functie de ecranizare / de a pune paravanul in anumite situatii

Exemple:

I live in Bucharest. = Eu locuiesc in Bucuresti.

The houses in Bucharest are nice = Casele din Bucuresti sunt frumoase

out of = din

Exemple:

I take the shirt out of the drawer. = Am luat camasa din sertar.

She comes out of the water.    = Ea iese din apa.

EXEMPLE DE ADJECTIVE:

NENUMARABIL

NUMARABIL

(a) little

putin, putina

(a) few

putini, putine

(a) tinde spre (+) pozitiv

a little sugar

putin zahar

a few boys

putini baieti

a little tea

putin ceai

a few girls

putine fete

a little dust

putin praf

a few houses

putine case

a little cafe

putina cafea

a few cars

putine masini

as much as = la fel de mult ca

as soon as = imediat ce

as soon as possible (a.s.p.) = cat de curand posibil

much = mult

soon = curand

quik = repede

big    = mare

luky = norocos

EXEMPLE DE VERBE:

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

to think

thought

thought

a gandi

to say

said

said

a spune / a zice / a afirma

to feed

fed

fed

a se hrani / a manca

to tell

told

told

a relata / a povesti/ a spune/ a recunoaste

Observatie:

Verbul "to tell" este verbul cu care se spun povestile, basmele, de aceea unui povestitor I se spune "story teller"

REGULILE DE SCRIERE

Toate cuvintele terminate in "-y" precedate de o consoana transforma pe "y" in "ie" la formele lungi.

Exemple:

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

to try

tried

tried

a incerca

to cry

cried

cried

a plange / a tipa

Singular

Plural

country

tara

countries

tari

pretty

dragut

prettier

mai dragut

the prettiest

cel mai dragut

Spre deosebire de cuvintele terminate in "-y" precedate de o vocala, care lasa pe "y" neschimbat.

Exemple:

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

to stay

stayed

stayed

a sta

to play

played

played

a juca / a canta la un instrument

Toate cuvintele formate din doua silabe al caror accent cade pe a II-a silaba terminate in consoana, precedata de o vocala dubleaza consoana finala la formele lungi.

Exemple:

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

to permit

permitted

permitted

a permite

to refer

referred

referred

a se referi / a face referire

to kidnap

kidnapped

kidnapped

a rapi

Spre deosebire de acelasi fel de cuvinte, dar cu accentual pe prima silaba, care lasa consoana finala nedublata.

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

to offer

offered

offered

a oferi

Toate cuvintele scurte de o silaba terminate in consoana, precedata de o vocala, dubleaza consoana finala la formele mai lungi.

Exemple:

Infinitive

Past-Tense

Past-Participle

Translate

to stop

stopped

stopped

a opri

to rub

rubbed

rubbed

a freca

to rob

robbed

robbed

a jefui

Singular

Plural

fat

gras

fatter

mai gras

the fattest

cel mai gras

big

mare

bigger

mai mare

the biggest

cel mai mare

B. ADJECTIVUL

Este un cuvant invariabil care sta intotdeauna in fata substantivului.

Mai multe adjective care se refera la acelasi substantive lasa intotdeauna adjectival determinative langa substantive.

Exemplu:

She wore a beautiful curly green long still dress. = Ea poarta o rochie frumoasa creata verde lunga de matase.

CATEGORII DE ADJECTIVE

Adjective terminate in "-ful"

Aceste adjective provin dintr-un:

Substantiv + Adjectivul "full" care pierde un "l"

Exemple:

Beauty + full     beautiful = frumos

Cheer + full     cheerful = vesel

Cheer up! = Fruntea sus! Inveseleste-te!

Aceste adjective fac superlativul cu "very"

Adjective terminate in "-able"

Aceste adjective provin din:

Verb + Adjectivul "able"

Exemple:

to understand + able understandable = intelegator

to eat + able eatable = comestibil

Aceste adjective fac superlativul cu "much" sau "must"

Adjective terminate in "-ing"

Sunt participiile prezente ale verbelor

Sunt foarte vii sip line de sesns

Fac superlativul absolute cu "very"

Nota: Forma in "ing" a verbului care este participiul prezent indefinite este cea mai vie forma a verbului din limba engleza pentru ca indeplineste 4 (patru) functii in limba.

a)     Forma in "ing" ajuta la formarea aspectului continuu.

Exemplu: You are learning a lot

b)     Forma in "ing" este substantiv

Exemplu: Learning is very useful for children.

c)     Forma in "ing" este adjectiv

Exemplu: This is a learning book.

d)     Este participiu de sine statator care in limba romana este gerunziu.

Exemplu: I can see you learning in the garden.

Adjective terminate in "-ed [id]"

Sunt participiile trecute ale unor verbe

Se refera la insusiri omenesti

Fac superlativul absolute cu "much" sau 'most"

Exemple:

Wicked = afurisit

Beloved = binecuvantat

Learned = cultivad

He has learned a lot.

He is a learned man now.

Adjective terminate in "-en"

Sunt foste infinitive sau participii trecute ale unor verbe iesite din uz

Nu au grade de comparative

Exemple:

Wooden = de lemn

Woolen = de lana

Golden = de aur

Adective terminate in "-y"

Sunt cuvinte scurte referitoare la stari sufletesti, omenesti.

Fac superlativul absolute cu "very"

Exemple:

Gay = vesel    pretty = dragut

Marry = vessel    shay = timid sly = viclean

Adjective terminate in diverse desinente

Sunt cuvinte care exprima caracteristici corporale omenesti

Fac superlativul relative cu "very"

Exemple:

fat = gras short = scurt, scund weak = neputincios (slab d.p.v. al fortelor fizice)

strong = puternic slim = zvelt slender = zvelt

thin = subtire thirck = gros nice = dragut

GRADELE DE COMPARATIE ALE ADJECTIVELOR

GRADUL

Adjective scurte

(de una sau doua silabe)

Adjective lungi

(de trei si mai multe silabe)

Translate

POZITIV

Short

beautiful

COMPARATIV

De inferioritate

not so short as

not so beautiful as

nu asa de . .. ca

less short than

less beautiful than

mai putin . .. decat

De

egalitate

as short as

as beautiful as

la fel de . . ca

De superioritate

shorter (than)

more beautiful than

mai . . decat

SUPERLATIV

Relativ

the shortest (of)

the most beautiful (of)

cel mai . dintre

Absolut

very (much/ most) short

very (much/ most) beautiful

foarte . . ..





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