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PASIVE VOICE - DIATEZA PASIVA


PASIVE VOICE - DIATEZA PASIVA


PASIVE VOICE - DIATEZA PASIVA

1.Alcatuire

S +    V + - obj.



Jim repairs the car.

Jim repara masina.

S + Be + PP + by + obj.

The car is repaired by Jim.

Masina este reparata de Jim.

eg.:

Dean washes my shirt every day.

Dean imi spala camasa in fiecare zi.

(diateza activa

My shirt is washed by Dean every day.

Camasa mea este spalata in fiecare zi de Dean.

2.Reguli

* complementul direct al propozitiei de la diateza activa devine subiectul frazei la diateza pasiva ;

* subiectul propozitiei de diateza activa devine subiectul frazei la diateza pasiva

El este introdus de <by> in limba engleza, nu este obligatoriu .

DIATEZA ACTIVA - ACTIVE VOICE

Verbul este la diateza activa cand subiectul gramatical savarseste actiunea, care, la verbele tranzitive, se rasfrange asupra obiectului.

DIATEZA PASIVA

Verbul este la diateza pasiva cand subiectul gramatical sufera actiunea savarsita de subiect;

Pentru a conjuga un verb la diateza pasiva, folosim auxiliarul < a fi > la acelasi timp si cu acelasi aspect, ca cel de la diateza activa.

El trebuie sa fie urmat de participiul trecut al verbului .

!Atentie deci - totdeauna sa se identifice bine timpurile verbelor la diateza activa,deoarece operati o transformare. Daca exista (se afla) un auxiliar de mod, il vom pastra.

eg

They have punished him.

L-au pedepsit

He has been punished (by them).

A fost pedepsit (de ei).

Remarca pastram Present Perfect

Sophie's mother is serving tea. Mama Sofiei serveste ceaiul

Tea is being served by Sophie's mother.

Ceaiul este servit de catre mama Sofiei.

Remarca pastram aspectul progresiv adaugand < fiind> (being) ;

Anyone can do it.Oricine poate face.

It can be done by anyone.Poate fi facut de oricine.

Remarca Pastram auxiliarul modal

< can>.

2.Cazuri particulare

- verbele cu prepozitie :

eg:

Everyone laughed at her (diateza activa ).

She was laughed at by everybody. (diateza pasiva).

regula prepozitia se asaza imediat dupa verbul la diateza pasiva;

3.Exemple :

Prezent simplu

Bob steals the jewels. Bob fura bijuteriile

The jewels are stolen. (By Bob

Bijuteriile sunt furate (de Bob).

Prezentul cu V-ing (Prezentul continuu )

Bob is stealing the jewels.

Bob fura bijuteriile

The jewels are being stolen (by Bob).

Bijuteriile sunt furate (de Bob).

HAVE + PP (partea a III- a a vb.neregulate/ed -vb.).

Bob has stolen the jewels.

Bob a furat bijuteriile.

The jewels have been stolen.(by Bob).

Bijuteriile au fost furate (de Bob).

Trecutul ( PAST TENSE)

Bob stole the jewels.

Bob a furat bijuteriile

The jewels were stolen (by Bob).

Bijuteriile au fost furate (de Bob) .

PAST TENSE in -ing (P.T.Continous)

Bob was stealing the jewels.

Bob a furat bijuteriile

The jewels were being stolen (by Bob

Bijuteriile au fost furate de Bob.

HAD - V3 - forma a treia a verbului

Bob had stolen the jewels.

Bob furase bijuteriile.

The jewels had been stolen. (by Bob).

Bijuteriile fusesera furate.( de Bob).

VIITOR

Bob will steal the jewels.

Bob va fura bijuteriile.

The jewels will be stolen.(by Bob

Bijuteriile vor fi facute ( de Bob).

Cu auxiliarele modale

Bob may steal the jewels.

Bob ar putea fura bijuteriiile

The jewels may be stolen (by Bob).

Bijuteriile ar putea fi furate (de Bob).

Bob may have stolen the jewels.

Bob poate a furat bijuteriile

The jewels may have been stolen by (Bob).

Bijuteriile poate au fost furate de (Bob).

EXERCITII

1.Puneti propozitiile urmatoare la diateza pasiva.

a.Paul has just painted the garage door.

b.They will serve tea in the sitting-room at five.

c.Someone told met to wait for a few minutes.

d.They are pulling down the house round the corner.

e.They should not allow dogs on the beach.

f.Is someone collecting the tickets

g.Peter himself built that big house.

h.Ann has seen you walking in the park.

i. Mary was translating the letter into French.

j. You must read the instructions carefully.

New words

skirt = fusta

- to repair    = a repara;

- to punish    = a pedepsi;

- tea = ceai ;

- anyone = oricine;

- garage = garaj;

- beach = plaja;

- ticket = tichet, bilet;

- French = franceza





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