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Conjunctia (The Conjunction)


Conjunctia (The Conjunction)


Conjunctia (The Conjunction)

1. Definitie

a) exprima raporturi de coordonare sau de subordonare intre doua propozitii, raporturi de coordonare intre doua parti de propozitie sau intre o parte de propozitie si o propozitie;

b) este neflexibila din punct de vedere morfologic;

c) nu indeplineste nici o functie sintactica in propozitie dar marcheaza raporturile de coordonare si subordonare in cadrul propozitiei si al frazei.



2. Conjunctiile coordonatoare (Co-ordinating Conjunctions)

Conjunctiile coordonatoare leaga parti de propozitie cu aceeasi functie sintactica sau propozitii de acelasi fel: I visited the Village Museum and the Art Galleries yesterday. It started to rain but the game continued.

2.1. Clasificare. Dupa relatiile pe care le stabilesc, conjunctiile coordonatoare pot fi:

a) copulative: and - si; as well as - precum; both and - atat cat si; not only but also - nu numai dar si;

b) disjunctive: or - sau; ori; eitheror - sau sau; neithernor - nicinici;

c) adversative: but - dar, ci;

2.2. Intrebuintarea conjunctiilor coordonatoare. Either or indica doua alternative din care numai una este posibila, in propozitii pozitive sau interogative: We can either have a snack now, or we can have lunch at noon. Can you drink either milk or tea ?

Pentru a exprima o negatie se foloseste either or + verb negativ sau neithernor + verb pozitiv: I can't travel either by air or by sea. I can travel neither by air nor by sea.

2.3. Pozitie. Conjunctiile coordonatoare se aseaza intre unitatile sintactice pe care le unesc: He opened the door AS WELL AS the window.

Conjunctiile coordonatoare nuj pot fi asezate la inceputul frazei: Dan finished his homework and went out for a walk. Dan si-a terminat lectiile si a iesit la plimbare.

3. Conjunctiile subordonatoare (Subordinating Conjunctions)

Conjunctiile suordonatoare leaga propozitiile secundare din fraza de elementele lor regente: I went to the post office, WHERE I bought a dozen postcards. M-am dus la posta, unde am cumparat douasprezece vederi.

3.1. Clasificare. Dupa felul propozitiilor pe care le introduc, conjunctiile subordonatoare pot fi:

1) universale: that - ca; if, whether - daca; care pot introduce mai multe feluri de propozitii dubordonate: WHETHER he will be punctual remains to be seen. (propozitie subiectiva). The best way is IF you go there yourself. (propozitie predicativa) Remember THAT we must get there in time. (completiva directa).

2) specializate:

a) de loc: where - unde; wherever - oriunde;

b) de timp: when - cand; since - de cand; till/until - pana cand; while/as - in timp ce; before - inainte ca; after - dupa ce;

c) de mod: (exactly) as; (just) as - (asa) cum; (exact) cum;

d) de cauza: as, since, because - deaorece, fiindca;

e) de scop: so that, in order that/so (that) (mai formal) - (pentru) ca, cu scopul ca.

Scopul negativ este exprimat de: for fear (that) - de teama sa; in case; lest (formal) - ca sa nu;

f) conditionale: if - daca; provided (that) / on condition (that) as long as/so longs as - cu conditia; unless - afara daca, numai daca nu;

g) consecutive: so that - incat; so (familiar) - incat; so/such (that) - asa/astfel incat;

h) concesive: though, although (mai formal), while, whereas (formal), even if.though - desi, cu toate ca, chiar daca;

i) comparative: asas - mai (mult) decat; as if/as though - ca si cum, de parca.

3.2. Intrebuintarea conjunctiilor subordonatoare. When, as (temporale)

When indica simultaneitatea a doua actiuni: When I am tired I go for a walk. Cand sunt obosit fac o plimbare. (accentul este pe momentul actiunii) sau succesiunea lor imediata in timp: When she rang the bell, he came to the door. Cand ea a sunat la sonerie, el a venit la usa.

As este folosit pentru actiuni paralele: She wept as she spoke. Plangea in timp ce vorbea. (accentul este pe actiunea insasi);

sau ca sinonim al lui while: As I was crossing the street, I heard somebody call my name. In timp ce / Pe cand traversam strada, am auzit pe cineva strigandu-mi numele.

As, since, because (cauzale)

As exprima cauza, motivul pentru actiunea din propozitia regenta: As liked the dress, she bought it. Fiindca i-a placut rochia, a cumparat-o.

Since presupune un argument admis de interlocutor: Since you need this book, I'll get for you. Deoarece ai nevoie de carte, am sa ti-o iau.

If not, unless (conditionale)

If not este opusul lui if (daca nu): If you get sick, you'll need a doctor. If you don't get sick, you won't need a doctor.

Unless este opusul lui provided / providing that (doar daca, cu conditia ca), iar cand este folosit unless verbul din propozitia conditionala este la forma pozitiva: You may see the doctor provided you have an appointment. Poti sa intri la doctor cu conditia sa fii programat. You can't see the doctor unless you have an appointment. Nu poti sa intri la doctor decat daca esti programat.

Unless nu este folosit pentru a introduce propozitii conditionale ireale: He couldn't have seen the doctor if he hadn't had an appointment. N-ar fi putut sa intre la doctor daca n-ar fi fost programat.

3.3. Pozitie. Conjunctiile subordonatoare se aseaza la inceputul propozitiei secundare, care poate precede sau urma propozitia regenta: AS the wether was bad, we stayed home all day. ALTHOUGH she spoke very slowly, I couldn't understand her. I can't help you with your homework BECAUSE I'm busy right now. Lydia liked the book SO much THAT she read it three times.

Spre deosebire de conjunctiile coordonatoare, conjunctiile subordonatoare pot fi precedate de alte conjunctii: He left early because he wasn't feeling very well AND because the party was boring. A plecat devreme pentru ca nu se simtea foarte bine si pentru ca petrecerea era plicticoasa.

EXERCISES

I. Formati fraze din propozitiile urmatoare cu ajutorul conjunctiilor din paranteze:

1. Alice had too much to eat. Cathy didn't. (but). 2. I haven't finished the book. I can't return it to the library yet. (so) 3. I shall buy that watch. It is not expensive. (if).

4. You won't understand. You listen carefully. (unless). 5. Mary bought a new dress. She didn't really need one (although). 6. Peter got good marks in his term papaers. He worked very hard. (because). 7. Father has bought a violin. Alan can learn how to play (so that). 8. You must do. You are told (exactly as). I'm studying. I like to listen to radio. (while). 10. Bob is having an exam tomorrow. He can't come to our party. (since). 11. He had studied English for seven years. He could't speak is fluently. (even though). 12. Paul is keenon tennis. He plays every day (sothat). 13. It was a very difficult exercise. Mary couldn't do it. (suchthat)

II. Completati spatiile libere cu conjunctiile potrivite ca sens din paranteze:

1. Paul was not..bright.his brothers were. (although, as.as, provided that). 2. But he had always worked harder.. they ever had. (than, whereas, before) 3. He would get a scholarship.. he passed the exam today (so, provided, until). 4. In a way he did not really care he won the scholarship or not (whether, if, unless). 5. But he wanted to do his exam he wasn't feeling very well. (in case, lest, though). 7. He listened to the invigilator carefullyhe might fail to catch all the instructions. (supposing, for fear, whether). 8. The invigilator pronounced all the name slowly each of them might hear his name clearly. (so that, suchthat, provided that)

III. Traduceti in limba engleza:

Au ajuns sara la hanul lui Domnu Vasiliu. Vitoria stia ca acolo are sa gaseasca ceva. Intr-adevar, a gasit. In sat la Suha, se starnise oarecare zvoana. Spuneau unii si altii ca ar fi nevoie sa vie vreun judecator de la targ, sa cerceteze cum a fost cu vanzarea oilor. Sa vada daca se afla hartia lor de cumparatura de la Dorna, si daca gospodarii din Suha au chitanta de paralele pe care le-au dat lui Lipan. Nu spune nimenee ca asemenea gospodari cu vaza ar fi in stare a savarsi o fapta rea - dar e bine sa-si arate indreptarile. Afara de asta a mai spus nu stiu cine ca numai decat cinstitii gospodari trebuie sa arate martorul ori artorii care s-au gasit fata la vanzare sau la numaratoarea banilor. E la intelegerea orisicui ca numai asemenea strain sau straini, care s-au aflat de fata, au putut sa urmareasca pe Lipan, si sa-i rapeasca banii oilor. S-ar putea ca acesti martori sa fie cu totul necunoscuti. Nici Calistrat, nici Ilie Cutui nu i-au vazut pana atunci, nici de atunci. Chiar daca ar fi asa, sa arate ce infatisare aveau, ce cai si ce straie. Din putin, se pot afla multe si faptasii ies la iveala.





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