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» Law, Culture and Conventions. Answers from the Others - How a Law-less 'Data Haven' Is Using Law to Protect Itself by Gary Slapper


Law, Culture and Conventions. Answers from the Others - How a Law-less 'Data Haven' Is Using Law to Protect Itself by Gary Slapper




Law, Culture and Conventions. Answers from the Others - How a Law-less 'Data Haven' Is Using Law to Protect Itself by Gary Slapper

When is a state not a state? When it is a playground on stilts in 30 ft of water, some might say, looking out at Sealand, the world's newest self-proclaimed state, off the Suffolk coast.

The Government has apparently allowed itself to be painted into a corner over an intriguing issue of international law. A story that began in an apparently risible way in September 1967, and was nothing much more than a minor item of local news about a small eccentric family, has metamorphosed into an international incident. For at the very time when Parliament has just passed the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act, which allows private computer information to be monitored where serious crime or breaches of national security are involved, a putative state without any such laws or concerns is threatening the interests of the Government off the port of Felixtowe.




During the Second World War Britain established an artificial island on the high seas. It was equipped with radar and heavy armaments and was occupied by 200 servicemen. Their task was to guard the approaches to the Thames Estuary where convoys of shipping were assembled.

After the war the island was abandoned. Then in the winter of 1966, a former major, Roy Bates, took possession of the outpost known as Roughs Tower. On September 2, 1967, Bates and his family hoisted their own flag and later declared the existence of the Principality of Sealand.

The island was outside the then existing three-mile territorial waters of Britain. The juridical status of the Principality of Sealand is now the subject of heated legal and political controversy.

A group of American business entrepreneurs, led by Sean Hastings, 31, is setting up the world's first offshore "data haven" on the island. The computer experts come from the Anguilla-based firm HavenCo Ltd and are keen to launch the only place in the world that can offer almost complete anonymity and privacy to anyone who wants to conduct e-business beyond the gaze of the authorities. Clearly, this matter is of grave concern to the police, the Inland Revenue and the intelligence services. The son of Roy Bates, Prince Michael, 47, has been reported as saying: "It is about freedom and liberty and making it easier for people to do business in private and to express themselves freely."

The commonly accepted criteria among jurists for determining whether an entity is a state are taken from the jus gentium - the law of nations. This law is derived from the Institutes of Justinian, the major treatise written by the command of the Roman Emperor Justinian and published in AD 533. One thorny problem for the Government is that according to the three major criteria of statehood, Sealand does appear to have a good claim.

The requirements are: a national territory; a people coming together as a nation; and a sovereign state authority. It does not matter that it is only 932 sq yd in size because there is no minimum area legally articulated for something to be a state. Vatican City is classified as a state even though it is minuscule. Neither is there a requirement that the population rises above a certain minimum. Nor is it an argument that the structure was created by the Government as it was legally terra nullis - abandoned land - when it was taken over. Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States, signed in 1933, itemises the same criteria as the jus gentium, plus the capacity to enter into relations with other states.

Sealand appears also to have satisfied this criterion. If Sealand is an independent state, it could legitimately claim its own coastal waters and regulate its own airspace. The Government is also in difficulties over this because on two occasions it has appeared to endorse the idea that Sealand is both beyond its jurisdiction and has the status of a state.

In 1968 the Royal Navy expressed concern over Bates' presence on Sealand and sent in some boats. Bates fired warning shots at them and was then prosecuted in a Crown Court. He argued that the newly named Sealand was beyond British jurisdiction and this was accepted by the trial judge.

Then in 1978, three years after Sealand declared itself a sovereign principality, Dutch and German businessmen came over with a business proposition. However, while they were there, they took the fortress and Prince Michael prisoner. He was freed in a counter-attack from the air by King Roy and the businessmen were taken as PoWs. When Germany asked Britain to intervene, it was told that the fortress was beyond British jurisdiction.

Students of the relationship between law and realpolitik will be watching developments here closely. The spectacle of a new state with no laws appealing to international law to protect it against an ancient state overflowing with laws cannot help but be intriguing.

(The Times - August, 8, 2000)

APPLICATIONS

Reading comprehension and comments

If you were a statesman, would you support or at least approve such an initiative as the one in the story? As an ordinary citizen, what do you think?

Comment upon whether there should be a limit that actions performed in the name of principles like free initiative and entrepreneurship cannot exceed or not.

Democracy is usually defined as the freedom to think or do whatever one wishes to, provided that one does not by this interfere or restrict the same freedom in others. Can a radical interpretation of this come instead to affect the indirect exponents of the others, like the state and its institutions?

Vocabulary study and practice

1. Look up the meaning of any unknown word or phrase in a dictionary.

2. Afterwards, try and find their synonyms and/or opposites among the words and phrases that you had already known.

Grammar Module

The Verb (II)

Tenses of the Indicative Mode

THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE (TRECUTUL SIMPLU)

Regular verbs use the verb's base form (scream, work) plus the -ed ending (screamed, worked). Irregular verbs have three forms, the second one being the simple past tense (slept, drank, drove).

Affirmative

I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked/ spoke

Negative

I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not work/ speak

Interrogative

Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they work/ speak?

The Simple Past Tense indicates that an action is in the past relative to the speaker or writer.

. when the time period has finished: We went to Chicago last Christmas.

. when the time period is definite: We visited Mom last week.

. with for, when the action is finished: I worked with the FBI for two months.

. for habitual actions: Every day I went to the park.

. for states: In those days, I didn't like reading.

EXERCISES

1. Write the past simple of these verbs.

1) get ......... 2) see .........

3) play ......... 4) pay ...........

5) visit ......... 6) buy ...........

7) go ......... 8) think .........

9) copy ........ 10) know ..........

11) put ........ 12) speak ..........

2. Put the verbs in the following sentences into the simple past tense.

1) I go to work by bus.

2) I meet her on Tuesdays.

3) He always wears black.

4) I make cakes every week.

5) She gets up at 6.30.

6) He understands me.

7) He shuts the shop at 6.00.

8) She speaks slowly.

9) He leaves the house at 9.00.

10) I read a chapter every night.

11) You eat too much.

12) I see him every day.

13) Tom sings in the choir.

14) He cries when he is hurt.

15) Who knows the answer?

16) I think I know it.

17) The curtain rises at 8.00.

18) He takes the dog out twice a day.

19) We buy them here.

20) I dream every night.

3. Complete these sentences with the verb in the negative.

1) I saw Barbara but I didn't see Jane.

2) They worked on Monday but they . on Tuesday.

3) We went to the post office but we to the bank.

4) She had a pen but she any paper.

5) Jack did French at school but he . German.

4. Write questions with Did?

1) I watched TV last night. And you? Did you watch TV last night?

2) I enjoyed the party. And you? .

3) I had a good holiday. And you? .

4) I finished work early. And you?

5) I slept well last night. And you?

5. What did you do yesterday? Write positive or negative sentences.

1) (watch TV) I watched TV. or I didn't watch TV.

2) (get up before 7 o'clock) I

3) (have a shower)

4) (buy a magazine) ..

5) (eat meat) .

6) (go to bed before 10.30)

6. Put the verbs in the following sentences into (a) the negative (b) the interrogative.

1) She saw your brother.

2) We heard a terrible noise.

3) He slept till 10.00.

4) He looked at the picture.

5) They drank all the wine.

6) They set out early enough.

7) She thought about it.

8) The police caught the thief.

9) He hid the letter.

10) She found her watch.

11) His nose bled.

12) My mother chose this hotel.

13) She lent you enough money.

14) Keiko taught Japanese.

15) Tom hurt his foot.

16) He broke his arm.

17) His wife came at 8.00.

18) He lost his wallet.

19) His son wrote a novel.

20) They flew to New York.

7. a. Give the past forms of these regular verbs.

b. Show whether you would pronounce these past forms as /d/, /t/ or /id/.

1) We waited an hour yesterday. (wait)

2) Joan . her room on Friday. (clean)

3) I. squash last night. (play)

4) She . my letter yesterday. (post)

5) I. at her. (smile)

6) She . when she saw me. (stop)

7) I. of you last night. (dream)

8) Who . the cakes? (burn)

9) He . a lot as a baby. (cry)

10) I ......TV all evening. (watch)

11) We ..... when we saw them. (laugh)

12) He ...... the sergeant's orders. (obey)

13) We ..... into the house. (hurry)

14) You ...... to me! (lie).

15) I ......early yesterday. (finish)

16) It's ..... in the bill. (include)

17) I ...... the door before I left. (lock)

18) We ..... first class. (travel)

8. Complete the sentences. Use one of these verbs in the past simple:

clean ,die, enjoy, finish, happen, open, rain, start, stay

1) I cleaned my teeth three times yesterday.

2) It was hot in the room, so I the window.

3) The concert at 7.30 and at 10 o'clock.

4) When I was a child, I to be a doctor.

5) The accident last Sunday afternoon.

6) It's a nice day today but yesterday it. all day.

7) We our holiday last year. We at a very nice place.

8) Ann's grandfather.. when he was 90 years old.

9. Read about Lisa's journey to Madrid. Put the verbs in the correct form.

Tuesday Lisa (1) flew (fly) from London to Madrid. She (2). (get)up at six o'clock in the morning and (3).(have) a cup of coffee. At 6.30 she (4).(leave) home and (5).(drive) to the airport. When she (6) .(arrive) she (7).(park) the car and then (8).(go) to the airport cafe where she (9) .(have) breakfast. Then she (10) .(go) through passport control and (11)(wait) for her flight. The plane (12).(depart) on time and (13).(arrive) in Madrid two hours later. Finally she (14).(take) a taxi from the airport to her hotel in the centre of Madrid.

10. Write sentences about the past (yesterday / last week, etc.).

1) Jim always goes to work by car. Yesterday he went to work by car.

2) Rachel often loses her keys. She last week.

3) Kate meets her friends every evening. She . yesterday evening.

4) I usually buy two newspapers every day. Yesterday I

5) We usually go to the cinema on Sundays. Last Sunday we .

6) I eat an orange every day. Yesterday I

7) Tom always has a shower in the morning. This morning he

8) Our friends come to see us every Friday. They ..

11. Write sentences about what you did yesterday.

1) I played tennis yesterday. 4) ............

2) ............. 5) ............

3) ............. 6) ............

12. Put the verb in the correct form - positive, negative or question.

1) We went to the cinema but the film wasn't very good. We didn't enjoy it. (enjoy)

2) Tim. some new clothes yesterday - two shirts, a jacket and a pullover. (buy)

3) ' yesterday?' 'No, it was a nice day.' (rain)

4) The party wasn't very good, so we . long. (stay)

5) It was very warm in the room, so I.. a window. (open)

6) 'Did you go to the bank this morning?' 'No, I time.' (have)

7) 'I cut my hand this morning.' 'How that?' (do)

13. Write the past forms of the irregular verbs in italics.

1) I often see Giulio. I saw him again only yesterday.

2) As teenagers, we always each other very well. We still understand each other now.

3) I hardly Ray's wife. Did you know her at all?

4) We always meet on Sunday. We last Sunday as usual.

5) I often find things on the beach. I this very old bottle yesterday.

6) Someone's always leaving that window open. Who it open this time?

7) I a lot of letters when I was young. I hardly ever write letters now.

8) They sell all kinds of rubbish now, but they once good handmade furniture.

9) She is very good at figures, you know. She first in maths at school.

10) I have the same car now that I five years ago.

11) I don't keep pets now, but I a dog, when I was a boy.

12) Where did you eat last night? - We at a restaurant.

14. Give complete answers to these questions using the time references in brackets.

1) How long ago did you work as a civil servant? (five years ago)

I worked as a civil servant five years ago.

2) When did you last play football? (when I was 14)

3) When did the Carters leave for their summer holiday? (last night)

4) What time did John arrive? (at 4)

5) When did you last see 'Gone with the Wind'? (recently)

6) How long did you wait at the airport? (till they arrived)

7) When did Sally tell you about her engagement? (when she was here)

15. Put one of these verbs in each sentence:

buy, catch, cost, drink, fall, hurt, sell, spend, teach ,throw, win, write

1) Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music.

2) 'How did you learn to drive?' 'My father me.'

3) We couldn't afford to keep our car, so we it.

4) I was very thirsty. I the water very quickly.

5) Paul and I played tennis yesterday. He's much better than me, so he .... easily.

6) Don . down the stairs this morning and .. his leg.

7) Jim the ball to Sue, who it.

8) Ann .........a lot of money yesterday. She.......... a dress which ........ £100.

16. A friend has just come back from holiday. You ask him about it. Write your questions.

1) (where/go?) Where did you go?

2) (go/alone?) .................

3) (food/good?) ..................

4) (how long/stay there?)..................

5) (stay/at a hotel?) ..................

6) (how/travel?) ..................

7) (the weather/fine?) ...................

8) (what/do in the evenings?) ...................

9) (meet anybody interesting?) ..................

17. Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative.

1) It was warm, so I took off my coat. (take)

2) The film wasn't very good. I didn't enjoy it very much. (enjoy)

3) I knew Sarah was very busy, so I her. (disturb)

4) I was very tired, so I to bed early. (go)

5) The bed was very uncomfortable. I very well. (sleep)

6) Sue wasn't hungry, so she anything. (eat)

7) We went to Kate's house but she at home. (be)

8) It was a funny situation but nobody . (laugh)

9) The window was open and a bird . into the room. (fly)

10) The hotel wasn't very expensive. It very much. (cost)

IRREGULAR VERBS

Infinitivul

Lung Scurt

Trecutul simplu

Participiul trecut

*forma Am.

Translation

to

awake

awoke

awoke / awaked

a

(se) trezi

to

be

was / were

been

a

fi

to

beat

beat

beaten

a

bate

to

become

became

become

a

deveni

to

begin

began

begun

a

incepe

to

bend

bent

bent

a

indoi

to

bind

bound

bound

a

lega, fi obligat

to

blow

blew

blown

a

sufla, bate

to

break

broke

broken

a

rupe (se)

to

bring

brought

brought

a

aduce

to

build

built

built

a

construi

to

burn

burnt

burnt

a

arde

to

buy

bought

bought

a

cumpara

to

catch

caught

caught

a

prinde, captura,

to

choose

chose

chosen

a

alege

to

come

came

come

a

veni

to

cost

cost

cost

a

costa

to

cut

cut

cut

a

taia

to

do

did

done

a

face

to

draw

drew [dru:]

drawn

a

desena

to

drink





drank

drunk

a

bea

to

drive

drove

driven

a

conduce, sofa

to

eat

ate

eaten

a

manca

to

fall

fell

fallen

a

cadea

to

feed

fed

fed

a

hrani, da de me

to

feed

fed

fed

a

da mancare

to

feel

felt

felt

a

simti

to

find

found

found

a

gasi

to

fly

flew

flown

a

zbura

to

forget

forgot

forgot*

forgotten

a

uita

to

forgive

forgave

forgiven

a

ierta

to

freeze

froze

frozen

a

ingheta

to

get (up)

got (up)

got/gotten*up

a

obtine

to

give

gave [geiv]

given

a

da

to

go

went

gone

a

merge

to

grind

ground

ground

a

(se) macina, toci

to

grow

grew

grown

a

cultiva, creste

to

hang

hung

hung

a

agata

to

have

had

had

a

avea

to

hear

heard

heard

a

auzi

to

hide

hid

hidden

a

ascunde (se)

to

hit

hit

hit

a

lovi, r

to

hold

held

held

a

tine

to

hurt

hurt

hurt

a

lovi

to

keep

kept

kept

a

tine, pastra

to

know

knew

known

a

sti

to

lay

laid

laid

a

intinde, pune

to

learn

learnt / learned

learnt / learned

a

invata

to

leave

left

left

a

pleca, parasi

to

lend

lent

lent

a

da cu imprumut

to

let

let

let

a

ingadui

to

lie

lay

lain

a

zacea, sta intins

to

light

lit

lit

a

aprinde focul

to

lose

lost



lost

a

pierde

to

make

made

made

a

face, construi

to

mean

meant

meant

a

insemna

to

meet

met

met

a

intalni

to

pay (back)

paid (back)

paid (back)

a

plati (inapoia)

to

put (on) (out)

put (on) (out)

put (on) (out)

a

pune (imbraca)(elimina)

to

quit

quit

quit

a

parasi

to

read [ri:d]

read [red]

read [red]

a

citi

to

ride

rode

ridden

a

calari

to

ring

rung / rang

rung

a

suna

to

run

ran

run

a

alerga

to

saw

sawed

sawn

a

taia cu ferastraul

to

say

said

said

a

spune, zice

to

see

saw

seen

a

vedea

to

seek

sought

sought

a

cauta, cere

to

sell

sold

sold

a

vinde(se)

to

send

sent

sent

a

trimite

to

shake

shook

shake

a

scutura, zgaltai

to

shed

shed

shed

a

pierde, lepada

to

shine

shone

shone

a

straluci

to

shoot

shot

shot

a

impusca

to

show

showed

shown

a

arata

to

shut

shut

shut

a

inchide

to

sit

sat

sat

a

(se) aseza

to

sleep

slept

slept

a

dormi

to

smell

smelt / smelled

smelt / smelled

a

mirosi

to

speak

spoke

spoken

a

vorbi

to

speed

sped / speeded

sped / speeded

a

merge cu viteza

to

spell

spelt / spelled

spelt / spelled

a

ortografia

to

spend

spent

spent

a

cheltui

to

spill

spilt / spilled

spilt / spilled

a

varsa

to

stand

stood

stood

a

(se) ridica

to

stick

stuck

stuck

a

lipi(se), (se) intepeni

to

swear

swore

sworn

a



jura

to

swim

swam

swum

a

inota

to

take (off)

took (off)

taken (off)

a

lua

to

teach

taught

taught

a

instrui, preda, invata

to

tell

told

told

a

spune, nara

to

think

thought

thought

a

gandi

to

throw (away/out)

threw (away/out)

thrown (away/..)

a

arunca (azvarli/scoate . afara

to

understand

understood

understood

a

intelege

to

upset

upset

upset

a

(se) tulbura

to

wake (up)

woke (up)

woked

woke (up)

woked / woken

a

(se) trezi

to

wear

wore

worn

a

purta

to

wet

wet

wet

a

uda

to

win

won

won

a

invinge, izbandi

to

withdraw

withdrew

withdrawn

a

retrage (se)

to

write

wrote

written

a

scrie

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE (TRECUTUL CONTINUU)

The Past Continuous Tense indicates continuing action, something that was happening, going on, at some point in the past. This tense is formed with the helping 'to be' verb, in the past tense, plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

I was riding my bike all day yesterday.

Joel was being a terrible role model for his younger brother.

Affirmative

I was working / We were working

You were working / You were working

He/she/it was working / They were working

Negative

I was not (wasn't) working / We were not working

You were not (weren't) working / You were not working

He/she/it was not working / They were not working

Interrogative

Was I working? / Were we working?

Were you working? / Were you working?

Was he/she/it working? / Were they working?

The past continuous indicates a limited duration of time and is thus a convenient way to indicate that something took place (in the simple past) while something else was happening:

Carlos lost his watch while he was running.

The past continuous can express incomplete action.

I was sleeping on the couch when Bertie smashed through the door.(as opposed to the simple past, which suggests a completed action):

I slept on the couch last night.

The past continuous is also used to poke fun at or criticise an action that is sporadic but habitual in nature:

Tom was always handing in late papers.

My father was always lecturing my brother.

Other uses of past tense continuous:

a. Describing events intended to take place, but which did not happen.

I was going to phone you, but I forgot.

He was thinking of going to Italy this year, but he hasn't decided.

b. Polite forms. These are common with wonder.

I was wondering if you wanted to come to the cinema.

EXERCISES

1. Complete the sentences using the past continuous tense.

1) It ............ foggier as we drove further into the forest. (get)

2) The sun ..........when I woke up. (shine)

3) It .......... so hard that we decided to stay at home. (snow)

4) Alex ............ a newspaper in the library. (read)

5) The birds .............in the early morning sunshine. (sing)

2. Complete the questions. Use was/were -ing. Use what/where/why if necessary.

1) (you/live) Where were you living in 1990? In London.

2) (you/do) . at 2 o'clock? I was asleep.

3) (it/rain) when you got up? No, it was sunny.

4) (Ann/drive) .so fast? Because she was in a hurry.

5) (Tim/wear) a suit yesterday? No, a T-shirt and jeans.

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense.

1) Detective: I'm afraid I must ask you both what you (do) yesterday at 10.20 p.m.

Mr X: I (play) chess with my wife.

Mr Y: I (listen) to a play on the radio.

2) The children were frightened because it (get) dark.

3) It was a fine day and the roads were crowded because a lot of people (rush) to the seaside.

4) The airplane in which the football team (travel) crashed soon after taking off.

5) He usually wears sandals but when I last saw him he (wear) boots.

6) The house was in great disorder because he (redecorate) it.

7) The director didn't allow the actors to travel by air while they (work) on the film.

8) The car had nobody in it but the engine (run).

9) Two children (play) on the sand and two fishermen (lean) against an upturned boat.

10) I was alone in the house at that time because Mr. Jones (work) in the garage and Mrs. Jones (shop).

11) He said that he was the captain of a ship which (sail) that night for Marseilles.

12) Are you going to Rome? I thought that you (go) to Milan.

13) My wife and I (talk) about you the other day.

14) When I first met him he (study) painting.

15) There was a strong smell and the sound of frying. Obviously Mrs Jones (cook) fish.

16) Tom ate nothing for lunch because he (diet). He said that he (try) to lose 10 kilos.

17) Who you (talk) to on the telephone as I came in? I (talk) to Mr Pitt.

18) As she (climb) the ladder it slipped sideways and she fell off it.

19) When I first met him he (work) in a restaurant.

20) He watched the children for a moment. Some of them (bathe) in the sea, others (look) for shells, others (play) in the sand.

4. Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense.

1) Where he (live) when you saw him last?

2) She (stand) at the bus stop. I asked her what bus she (wait) for.

3) From the sounds it was clear that Mary (practice) the piano.

4) There had been an accident and men (carry) the injured people to an ambulance.

5) Two men (fight) at a street corner and a policeman (try) to stop them.

What they (fight) about?

Nobody seemed to know.

6) Tom (sit) in a corner with a book. I told him that he (read) in very bad light.

7) I went into the garden to see what the boys (do). James (weed) and Alexander (cut) the grass.

8) They had taken off the wheel of the car and (mend) the puncture. I asked when it would be ready.

9) When I arrived at the meeting the first speaker had just finished speaking and the audience (clap).

10) The traffic (make) so much noise that I couldn't hear what he (say).

11) While he (learn) to drive he had twenty-five accidents.

12) He had a bad fall while he (repair) his roof.

13) He was a little mad. He always (try) to prove that the earth was flat.

14) While we (fish) someone came to the house and left this note.

15) The exam had just begun and the candidates (write) their names at the top of their papers.

16) Just as I (wonder) what to do next, the phone rang.

5. What were you doing at the following times? Write one sentence as in the examples. The past continuous is not always necessary (see the second example).

1) (at 8 o'clock yesterday evening) I was having dinner with some friends.

2) (at 5 o'clock last Saturday) I was on a train on my way to London.

3) (at 10.15 yesterday morning)

4) (at 4.30 this morning) ..

5) (at 7.45 yesterday evening) ..

6) (half an hour ago)..

6. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use the past continuous.

1) Tom burnt his hand while he was cooking the dinner.

2) The doorbell rang while I .

3) We saw an accident while we

4) Mary fell asleep while she

5) The television was on but nobody

7. Use the past continuous tense in the sentences below.

1) I was not listening, so I missed what he said. (not listen)

2) We stayed because we ..ourselves. (enjoy)

3) .. tennis yesterday? (they play)

4) He .. all weekend. (garden)

5) television all evening? (you watch)

6) It.. hard all day. (rain)

7) I whether you could lend me some money. (wonder)

8) .. when I left? (you still work)

9) I lived in France at the time you in Spain. (live)

10) When she was younger, she ..things for other people. (always do)

11) Bill and Sue .. their house, before they moved. (constantly improve)

12) .. when I rang you? (you read)

13) Just as I . to an interesting part of the story, the doorbell rang. (get)

8. Answer the questions, using the past continuous in your answers.

Model: When did she meet her brother? (walk in the park).

She met her brother when she was walking in the park.

1) When did you break your leg? (come down the stairs)

2) When did he compose the symphony? (have a holiday)

3) When did they learn French? (live in France)

4) When did you hear the news? (listen to the radio)

5) When did the man hurt himself? (ride a horse)

6) When did she find the book? (do the house)

7) When did they lose their child? (walk about town)

8) When did he pay you a visit? (have lunch)

9) When did John notice the flaw? (inspect the vase)

10) When did he ask her that? (talk about their future)

THE SIMPLE PAST PERFECT TENSE (TRECUTUL PERFECT SIMPLU)

The Simple Past Perfect Tense indicates that an action was completed (finished or 'perfected') at some point in the past before something else happened. This tense is formed with the past tense form of 'to have' (had) plus the past participle of the verb (which can be either regular or irregular in form):

I had walked two miles by lunchtime.

I had run three other marathons before entering the Boston Marathon.

Affirmative

I/you/ he/she/it had worked

We/you/they had worked

Negative

I/you/ he/she/it had not (hadn't) worked

We/you/they had not worked

Interrogative

Had I/you/ he/she/it worked?

Had we/you/they worked?

The Simple Past Perfect Tense is not used simply to describe an event in the distant past. There must be another past event, less far away in the past, with which it contrasts. Past Perfect is also used in indirect speech.

If I had a spanner, I could fix this. (direct speech)

He said that if he had had a spanner, he could have fixed it. (indirect speech)

We use the simple past perfect when we say what we wanted or hoped to do, but didn't:

I had wanted to visit the gallery before I left Florence, but it's closed on Sundays.

Bill had hoped to retire at 60, but they persuaded him to stay on for a few more years.

Other verbs used like this include expect (to), mean (to), think (about + -ing).

When we use a time expression (e.g. after, as soon as, before, by the time (that), when) to say that one event happened after another, we use either the past simple or past perfect for the event that happened first and the past simple for the event that happened second:

After Ivan (had) finished reading, he put out the light.

When Carol (had) brushed her teeth, she went to bed.

But to emphasise that the second event is the result of the first, we prefer the past simple for both:

She became famous after she appeared on the TV programme.

When the teacher came in, all the children stood up.

With already and just (= a very short time before) we use the past perfect, not the past simple:

The film had already begun by the time we got to the cinema.

She had just stepped into her office when the telephone rang.

EXERCISES

1. Put in the simple past perfect tense.

1) They had locked the gates before I got there. (lock)

2) By the time we arrived, the party ............ (finish)

3) I rang the shop as soon as I ............ the contents of the box. (check)

4) After we .......... it on the phone, I wrote him a letter about it. (discuss)

5) We had a good rest when our guests .......... . (all leave)

6) When she rang the office this morning, Jim ............ (already go out)

7) Before we took Tim to the theatre, he ........... a stage play before. (never seen)

8) I .......... the carpet when the dog came in and shook himself. (shake)

9) He promised to do the job in an hour, but he still ............. by 10 o'clock. (not finish)

2. Read the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets using the

simple past perfect.

1) You went to Jill's house but she wasn't there. (she / go / out) She had gone out.

2) You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn't the same as before.

(it / change / a lot)

3) I invited Rachel to the party but she couldn't come. (she / arrange / to do something else)

4) You went to the cinema last night. You arrived at the cinema late. (the film / already / begin)

5) I was very pleased to see Tim again after such a long time. (I / not / see / him for five years)

6) I offered Sue something to eat but she wasn't hungry. (she / just / have / breakfast)

3. Read the situations and write sentences ending with before. Use the verb given in

brackets in the simple past perfect.

1) The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight.

(fly) He had never flown before or He hadn't flown before.

2) A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me. (see)

I before.

3) Simon played tennis yesterday. He wasn't very good at it because it was his first game. (play)

He

4) Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there.(be)

We ..

4. Join the following pairs of sentences using the past perfect tense. Use the

conjunctions in brackets:

MODEL: They went out to play. They finished their tasks (after).

They went out to play after they had finished their tasks.

1) He threw the letter away. He wrote it (as soon as).

2) He recovered. He was very ill (before).

3) She didn't know the truth. He explained it (until).

4) I reached the bus-stop. The bus started (when).

5) He left the room. I switched on the TV set (as soon as).

6) We had breakfast. We went for a walk (after).

7) They didn't call on us. We dressed for the trip (until).

8) He was an actor. He became a stage director (before).

(Adapted from 'Practical Grammar in Patterns' by T. N. Ruzmiciova)

5. Put the verb into the correct form, past perfect (I had done, etc.) or past simple (I did, etc.).

1) 'Was Tom at the party when you arrived?' 'No, he had gone (go) home.'

2) I felt very tired when I got home, so I. (go) straight to bed.

3) The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody (go) to bed.

4) Sorry I'm late. The car .. (break) down on my way here.

5) We were driving along the road when we . (see) a car which . (break) down, so we . (stop) to see if we could help.

6. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or the past perfect tense.

1) They not (get) a reply, so they (decide) to spend their holidays at home.

2) We (have) to go back, it (rain) for two hours and the ground was water-logged.

3) How long he (live) there when the war (break) out?

4) Only a long time after that he (find) out what (happen).

5) He (know) where I (live) but he never (be) to my flat.

6) He (listen) to her story for two hours and (think) it boring.

7) Nobody (know) he (disappear).

8) She had (stay) at the seaside for more than a week when the weather (grow) cold.

9) He (laugh) at her hair and she (be) angry with him.

10) They (wonder) what (become) of their luggage.

11) The hotel (be) much cheaper than he (think) at first.

12) We (tell) him that his house (burn down).

13) The explorers (travel) for weeks without enough food and water.

14) They asked her why she (lie) to them.

15) He (be pushed) out of the room, before he (be able) to speak.

7. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or the past perfect tense.

1) I (not, yet, translate) the letter when he (come back).

2) As soon as I (pay) for the bulb I (say) good-bye to Mr. Hobbs.

3) Mr Smith, who (never, fire) a revolver in his life, (slip) it gingerly into his pocket.

4) Report (go) that he (be maimed) in his youth.

5) Pieces (come off) so that the walls (look) awful.

6) There (be) a ripping sound. The sidecar (come loose) from the motorcycle.

7) It (be) very sudden. Though for many years she (have) pains on and off.

8) 'And if I (venture) to say a word, Mrs. Welman (be ready) to bite my head off, though I (be) with her nearly twenty years'.

9) We (hide) in the shadow until we (see) him across the river.

10) He (tell) me her name only after I (ask) him twice.

11) Half way through he (find) he (forget) the beginning of the story.

12) He (place) the saucepan back on the stove, and (grasp) the cup he (fill).

8. Complete the sentences, using the simple past or the past perfect tense of the verbs in brackets.

1) After Richard .......work, he ....... home. (finish, go)

2) By the time the firemen........., the fire......... (arrive, already / go out)

3) Before she ......... the school, Celia ...... goodbye to all her friends. (leave, say)

4) After ......... his homework, Joe ....... . (do, go out)

5) When Yuko ........ home, she .......her friend at once. (reach, phone)

6) After she .........all the way home, Linda ........quite exhausted. (run, feel)

THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

(TRECUTUL PERFECT CONTINUU)

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense indicates a continuous action that was completed at some point in the past. This tense is formed with the auxiliary 'had' plus 'been' plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

I had been working in the garden all morning.

George had been painting his house for weeks, but he finally gave up.

Affirmative

I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they had been working

Negative

I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they had not (hadn't) been working

Interrogative

Had I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they been working?

We use the past perfect continuous when we talk about the continuity or duration of a situation or activity, and the past perfect to talk about the completion of a situation or activity or its effects. Sometimes the difference between them is simply one of emphasis |

I'd been working hard, so I felt that I deserved a holiday. (emphasises the activity)

I'd worked hard, and the report was now finished. (emphasises the result)

If we talk about how long something went on up to a particular past time, we prefer the past perfect continuous. If we talk about how many times something happened in a period up to a particular past time, we use the past perfect:

They had been travelling for about 36 hours. (rather than They had travelled...)

We had been looking at the painting for about ten minutes before we realised who the

artist was. (rather than We had looked...)

I'd heard the symphony many times before. (not I'd been hearing...)

The teacher had let them get away with their bad behaviour once too often. (nothad been letting them...)

However, some verbs that describe states are not often used with continuous tenses, and we use the past perfect with these even when we are talking about how long something went on up to a particular past time;

I had always believed that it would be easy to get a job. (not I had always been believing)

We had owned the car for 6 months before we discovered it was stolen. (not We had been owning.)

Compare the use of the past perfect continuous and past continuous:

When we met Simon and Pat, they had been riding. (we met after they had finished)

When we met Simon and Pat, they were riding. (we met while they were riding)

When I got home, water had been leaking through the roof. (it was no longer leaking when I got there)

When I got home, water was leaking through the roof. ( it was leaking when I got there)

EXERCISES

1. Put in the past perfect continuous tense.

1) I was tired. I had been digging all day. (dig)

2) We . for your call all evening. (wait)

3) How long there? (you wait)

4) I.. there since 6 o'clock. (stand)

5) She English for five years before she visited Canada. (study)

6) I .. to the firm regularly for a month before, but they still hadn't answered. (write)

7) They .. me about it every day for the past week. (ring)

8) I knew you .. - How did you know? - Your hair was covered with paint! (paint)

9) You were out of breath when you came in this morning. ..? (you run)

2. Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets using the past

perfect continuous tense.

1) I was very tired when I arrived home. (I / work / hard all day)

I had been working hard all day.

2) The two boys came into the house. They had a football and they were both very tired. (they/ play/ football)

3) There was nobody in the room but there was a smell of cigarettes. (somebody / smoke / in the room)

4) Ann woke up in the middle of the night. She was frightened and didn't know where she was. (she / dream)

5) When I got home, Mike was sitting in front of the TV. He had just turned it off. (he/watch/TV)

3. Read the situations and complete the sentences using the past perfect continuous tense.

1) We played tennis yesterday. Half an hour after we began playing, it started to rain.

We had been playing for half an hour when it started to rain.

2) I had arranged to meet Tom in a restaurant. I arrived and waited for him. After 20 minutes I suddenly realized that I was in the wrong restaurant.

I. for 20 minutes when

I.

3) Sarah got a job in a factory. Five years later the factory closed down.

At the time the factory .. Sarah . there for five years.

4) I went to a concert last week. The orchestra began playing. After about ten minutes a man in the audience suddenly began shouting.

The orchestra ..when.. .








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