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» Law, Culture and Conventions. Answers from the Others from Crome Yellow by Aldous Huxley


Law, Culture and Conventions. Answers from the Others from Crome Yellow by Aldous Huxley




Law, Culture and Conventions. Answers from the Others from Crome Yellow by Aldous Huxley

Supplementary text

For some time past Mary's grave blue eyes had been fixed upon him. "What have you been writing lately?" she asked. It would be nice to have a little literary conversation. "Oh, verse and prose," said Denis - "just verse and prose." "Prose?" Mr. Scogan pounced alarmingly on the word. "You've been writing prose?" "Yes." "Not a novel?" "Yes." "My poor Denis!" exclaimed Mr. Scogan. "What about?" Denis felt rather uncomfortable. "Oh, about the usual things, you know." "Of course," Mr. Scogan groaned. "I'll describe the plot for you. Little Percy, the hero, was never good at games, but he was always clever. He passes through the usual public school and the usual university and comes to London, where he lives among the artists. He is bowed down with melancholy thought; he carries the whole weight of the universe upon his shoulders. He writes a novel of dazzling brilliance; he dabbles delicately in Amour and disappears, at the end of the book, into the luminous Future."




Denis blushed scarlet. Mr. Scogan had described the plan of his novel with an accuracy that was appalling. He made an effort to laugh. "You're entirely wrong," he said. "My novel is not in the least like that." It was a heroic lie. Luckily, he reflected, only two chapters were written. He would tear them up that very evening when he unpacked. Mr. Scogan paid no attention to his denial, but went on: "Why will you young men continue to write about things that are so entirely uninteresting as the mentality of adolescents and artists? Professional anthropologists might find it interesting to turn sometimes from the beliefs of the Blackfellow to the philosophical preoccupations of the undergraduate. But you can't expect an ordinary adult man, like myself, to be much moved by the story of his spiritual troubles. And after all, even in England, even in Germany and Russia, there are more adults than adolescents. As for the artist, he is preoccupied with problems that are so utterly unlike those of the ordinary adult man - problems of pure aesthetics which don't so much as present themselves to people like myself - that a description of his mental processes is as boring to the ordinary reader as a piece of pure mathematics. A serious book about artists regarded as artists is unreadable; and a book about artists regarded as lovers, husbands, dipsomaniacs, heroes, and the like is really not worth writing again. Jean-Christophe is the stock artist of literature, just as Professor Radium of "Comic Cuts" is its stock man of science." "I'm sorry to hear I'm as uninteresting as all that," said Gombauld. "Not at all, my dear Gombauld," Mr. Scogan hastened to explain. "As a lover or a dipsomaniac, I've no doubt of your being a most fascinating specimen. But as a combiner of forms, you must honestly admit it, you're a bore."

"I entirely disagree with you," exclaimed Mary. She was somehow always out of breath when she talked. And her speech was punctuated by little gasps. "I've known a great many artists, and I've always found their mentality very interesting. Especially in Paris. Tschuplitski, for example - I saw a great deal of Tschuplitski in Paris this spring" "Ah, but then you're an exception, Mary, you're an exception," said Mr. Scogan. "You are a femme superieure." A flush of pleasure turned Mary's face into a harvest moon.

APPLICATIONS

Reading comprehension and comments

Comment upon how conventional iterativity can come to transform the questions of existence, and existence itself, into banality and boredom.

Translate the first paragraph of the text into Romanian.

Grammar Module

The Verb (III)

Tenses of the Indicative Mode

THE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE (VIITORUL SIMPLU)

The Simple Future Tense indicates that an action is in the future relative to the speaker or writer. There are no inflected forms for the future in English (nothing like those -ed or -s endings in the other tenses). Instead, the future tense employs the helping verbs will or shall with the base form of the verb:

She will leave soon.

We shall overcome.

Affirmative

I (shall) will go / We (shall) will go

You will go / You will go

He/she/it will go / They will go

Negative

I (shall) will not go / We (shall) will not go

You will not go / You will not go

He/she/it will not go / They will not go

Interrogative

Shall I go?/ Shall we go?

Will you go? / Will you go?

Will he/she/it/ go? / Will they go?

Will expresses a future prediction.

I think it'll rain tomorrow.

You'll feel better after you've taken this medicine.

It is important to understand the difference between will as a modal verb, which expresses concepts such as willingness, intention, etc., and will as an auxiliary of the future, where, like all auxiliaries, it only shows tense and has no intrinsic meaning at all. Will for prediction merely signifies 'This is a future tense'. It is also called the 'future as fact', or the 'neutral future'.

One day I'll die.

You'll fall off if you're not careful.

He'll be dead before he's 30.

I'll be 26 next Tuesday.

Will expresses a future intention.

I'll have a steak, please.

I'll see you next week.

In these sentences will expresses an intention or decision made at the moment of speaking, that is not planned or premeditated. In many languages this idea is expressed in the present tense, because the decision to act and the act itself are so close in time.

Can I ring you tonight?

Yes, I'll give you my number. It's 3871425.

The decision to give the number is made only one second before the actual giving of it, and will does not really refer to the future, but signifies a present intention, I give you my number is WRONG.

According to the context, this use of will can express a promise, a threat, or a decision.

I'll bring you the book tomorrow (a promise)

If you do that again, I'll kill you (a threat)

We'll go back home at 8.00 (a decision)

Some English speakers feel that with the 1st person pronouns (I and we) shall is the correct form, so in formal situations (such as writing business letters) I will and we will are avoided. It is used to express both a prediction and an intention. However, in normal spoken English there is a contraction to 'll, so the distinction is unimportant.

EXERCISES

1. Put in will ('ll) or won't.

1) Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep.

2) 'Are you ready yet?' 'Not yet. I be ready in five minutes.'

3) I'm going away for a few days. I'm leaving tonight, so I be at home tomorrow.

4) It.. rain, so you don't need to take an umbrella.

5) A: I don't feel very well this evening.

2. Where will you be? Write sentences about yourself. Use: I'll be or I'll probably be or I don't know where I'll be.

1) (at 10 o'clock tomorrow) I'll probably be on the beach or I'll be at work.

2) (one hour from now)

3) (at midnight tonight)

4) (at 3 o'clock tomorrow afternoon)

5) (two years from now)

3. Complete the sentences. Use I think I'll or I don't think I'll + one of these verbs:

buy, go, have, play

1) It's cold today. I don't think I'll go out.

2) I'm hungry. I . something to eat.

3) I feel tired. . tennis.

4) This camera is too expensive. it.

4. Complete the sentences with I'll + a suitable verb.

1) I'm too tired to walk home. I think I'll get a taxi.

2) 'It's a bit cold in this room.' 'Is it? on the heating then.'

3) 'We haven't got any milk.' 'Oh, haven't we? and get some.'

4) 'Do you want me to do the washing-up?' 'No, it's all right. .. it.'

5) 'I don't know how to use this computer.' 'OK, you.'

6) 'Would you like tea or coffee?' ' coffee, please.'

7) 'Goodbye! Have a nice holiday.' 'Thanks. you a postcard'.

8) Thank you for lending me your camera. it back to you on Monday, OK?

9) 'Are you coming with us?' 'No, I think here.'

5. Read the situations and write sentences with I think I'll or I don't think I'll

1) It's a bit cold. You decide to close the window. You say: I think I'll close the window.

2) You are feeling tired and it's quite late. You decide to go to bed. You say:

I think.

3) A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk. You say:

Thank you but.

4) You arranged to play tennis today. Now you decide that you don't want to play.

You say:

I don't think .

5) You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you don't want to go.

6. What do you say in these situations? Write sentences with shall I? or shall we?

1) You and a friend want to do something this evening but you don't know what. You ask your friend. What shall we do this evening?

2) You try on a jacket in a shop. You are not sure whether to buy it or not. You ask a friend for advice. it?

3) It's Ann's birthday next week. You want to give her a present but you don't know what. You ask a friend for advice.

What .

4) You and a friend are going on holiday together but you haven't decided where. You ask him/her.

5) You and a friend are going out. You haven't decided whether to go by car or to walk. You ask him/her or ..

7. Complete the sentences with will ('ll) + one of these verbs:

be, come, get, like, look, meet, pass

1) Don't worry about your exam. I'm sure you'll pass.

2) Why don't you try on this jacket? It nice on you.

3) You must meet George sometime. I think you him.

4) It's raining. Don't go out. You wet.

5) They've invited me to their house. They .. offended if I

don't go.

6) Goodbye. I expect we again before long.

7) I've invited Sue to the party but I don't think she

8) I wonder where I 20 years from now.

8. Put in will ('ll) or won't.

1) Can you wait for me? I won't be very long.

2) There's no need to take an umbrella with you. It.. rain.

3) If you don't eat anything now, you .. be hungry later.

4) I'm sorry about what happened yesterday. It.. happen again.

5) I've got some incredible news! You .. never believe what's happened.

6) Don't ask Margaret for advice. She .. know what to do.

9. Write questions using do you thinkwill? + one of these verbs:

be, back, cost, finish, get, married, happen, like, rain

1) I've bought Mary a present. Do you think she'll like it?

2) The weather doesn't look very good. Do you ?

3) The meeting is still going on. When do you ..?

4) My car needs to be repaired. How much..?

5) Sally and David are in love. Do ?

6)'I'm going out now.' 'OK. What time'?

7) The future situation is uncertain. What..?

10. Supply suitable forms of will and shall. Give alternatives where possible.

Situation: Jim is asking his friend Don for advice about a job interview.

JIM: What sorts of questions do you think they 1 will ask?

DON: The same as they asked me. They (2) ask you why you want to work for them.

JIM: That's easy. I want to earn more money.

DON: Yes, but you can't say that. You (3) have to think of some better reasons.

JIM: I can't think of any just now, but I expect I (4) think of something at the time. I hope I (5) anyway!

DON: I'm sure you (6). What time is your interview?

JIM: It's at three in the afternoon.

DON: I know it (7) help very much, but I (8) be thinking of you. Don't worry, everything (9) be OK!

JIM: When (10) I know if I've got the job?

DON: They (11) let you know in a couple of days. That's what happened in my case. You (12) get a letter which begins, 'We regret to inform you!'

11. Put in suitable forms of will and shall.

RETIREMENT

I'm going to retire next week and I'm looking forward to it. For the first time in my life I 1 shall. be able to do all the things I've always wanted to do. I (2).. (not) have a travel to work any more. I (3). (not) have to earn a living. My firm (4).. pay my pension into my bank account and I (5). (not) have to worry about earning money ever again. My wife and I (6) . be able to spend more time together. We (7) .. take care of the house together. We (8) .. do the shopping together. I explained all these plans to my wife. 'Of course', she said. 'I'm looking forward to your retirement, too, but you must remember that while you can retire, I can't. I've written out some simple rules for us both which (9).. apply from the day you retire. Here they are:

Rules of the House

1 We (10) .. take turns to do the cooking and the housework.

2 We (11) .. (not) watch TV all day long.

3 We (12) .. keep regular hours.

4 We (13) .. find interesting hobbies to keep us occupied.

5 We (14) .. spend time out of the house as well as in it.

6 We (15) .. keep fit in mind and body.

'They look like sensible suggestions', I said. 'They are', my wife answered. 'If we follow these rules I'm sure we (16) . enjoy a long and happy life together.' 'I hope we (17)', I answered.

12. Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple.

1) I (know) the result in a week.

2) You (be) in Rome tonight.

3) You (have) time to help me tomorrow?

4) It (matter) if I don't come home till morning?

5) You (be) able to drive after another five lessons.

6) Do you think that he (recognize) me?

7) Unless he runs he (not catch) the train.

8) He (lend) it to you if you ask him.

9) I hope I (find) it.

10) If petrol pump, attendants go on strike we (not have) any petrol.

11) He (believe) whatever you tell him.

12) I (remember) this day all my life.

13) Perhaps he (arrive) in time for lunch.

14) If he works well, I (pay) him £10.

15) I wonder how many of us still (be) here next year.

16) If you think it over, you (see) that I am right.

17) If you learn another language, you (get) a better job.

18) I am sure that you (like) our new house.

19) Newspaper announcement: The President (drive) along the High Street in an open carriage.

20) He (mind) if I bring my dog?

13. Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple.

1) You (need) a visa if you are going to Spain.

2) If you open that trapdoor, you (see) some steps.

3) You (feel) better when you've had a meal.

4) He (be) offended if you don't invite him.

5) She (have) £1000 a year when she is twenty-one.

6) If you put any more polish on that floor, someone (slip) on it.

7) I wonder if he (succeed).

8) Papers (not be) delivered on the Bank Holiday.

9) I hope he (remember) to buy wine.

10) If you leave your roller skates on the path, someone (fall) over them.

11) If they fall over them and hurt themselves, they (sue) you.

12) Announcement: Mrs. Pitt (present) the prizes.

13) If you want twenty cigarettes, you (have) to give me more money.

14) Notice: The management (not be) responsible for articles left on the seats.

15) If I drop this it (explode).

16) What your father (say) when he hears about this accident?

He (not say) much but he not (lend) me the car again.

THE PRESENT TENSES FOR FUTURE

(TIMPURI PREZENTE PENTRU EXPRIMAREA VIITORULUI)

We use the present simple when we talk about future events that are part of some official arrangement such as a timetable or programme:

Their plane arrives at 2 o'clock in the morning.

The next meeting of the committee is on November 5th.

We get off the train in Bristol and continue by bus.

I'm away on holiday next week. Can we meet the week after?

We often use will + infinitive in sentences like these with little difference in meaning, although the present simple suggests that the arrangement is fixed and definite. We don't use the present simple when we talk about personal plans or predictions.

Instead we use will, going to, or the present continuous.

I'm really exhausted. I'm just staying in to watch TV tonight (not I just stay in)

Although it is a problem only in Britain at the moment, I think it will affect the rest of Europe soon. (not I think it affects the rest)

We use the present simple to refer to the future, not will, in adverbial clauses introduced by time conjunctions such as after, before, when, and until:

After you go another 50 meters, you'll see a path to your left.

When you see Dennis, tell him he still owes me some money.

Wait here until I call you.

and in conditional clauses with if, unless, in case, and provided:

Let me know if he says anything interesting.

Provided the right software is available, I should be able to solve the problem.

I'll bring a compass in case we get lost.

We use the present continuous to talk about future activities and events that are intended or have already been arranged:

She's making a speech at the conference next week.

Are you seeing Tony this week? (do you have an arrangement to see him?)

We don't use will to talk about arrangements and intentions:

Apparently, the council are closing the old library. (= reporting an arrangement) (not the council will close)





EXERCISES

1. Write questions. All the sentences are future.

1) (you / go / out / tonight?) .Are you going out tonight?

2) (you / work / next week?) ..

3) (what / you / do / tomorrow evening?)

4) (what time / your friends / arrive?) .

5) (when / Liz /go/on holiday?)

2. Write sentences about yourself. What are you doing in the next few days?

1) I'm staying at home tonight.

2) I'm going to the theatre on Monday.

3. Put the verb in the present continuous (he is leaving, etc.) or present simple (the train leaves, etc.).

1) 'Are you going (you/go) out this evening?' 'No, I'm too tired.'

2) We're going (we/go) to a concert this evening. It starts (it/start) at 7.30.

3) Do you know about Sally? (she/get) married next month!

4) A: My parents. (go) on holiday next week.

B: Oh, that's nice. Where . (they/go)?

5) Silvia is doing an English course at the moment. The course . (finish) on Friday.

6) There's a football match tomorrow but (I/not/go).

7) . (I/go) out with some friends tonight. Why don't you come too? (we/meet) at Johns house at 8 o'clock.

8) A: How.. (you/get) home after the party tomorrow? By taxi?

B: No, I can go by bus. The last bus (leave) at midnight.

9) A: Do you want to go to the cinema tonight?

B: Yes, what time (the film / begin)?

10) A: What.. (you/do) on Monday afternoon?

B: . (I/work).

4. A friend of yours is planning to go on a holiday soon. You ask her about her plans.

Use the words in brackets to make your questions.

1) (where/go ?) Where are you going? Scotland.

2) (how long/stay?) . Ten days.

3) (when/go?) . Next Friday.

4) (go/alone?) . No, with a friend.

5) (travel/by car?) . No, by train.

6) (where/stay?) . In a hotel.

5. Have you arranged to do anything at these times? Write (true) sentences about yourself.

1) (this evening) I'm going out this evening or I'm not doing anything this evening or I don't know what I'm doing this evening.

2) (tomorrow morning)

I..

3) (tomorrow evening).

4) (next Sunday)..

5) (choose another day or time) ..

6. Put the verb into the more suitable form, present continuous or present simple.

1) I'm going (go) to the theatre this evening.

2) Does the film begin (the film / begin) at 3.30 or 4.30?

3) We (have) a party next Saturday. Would you like to come?

4) The art exhibition (open) on 3 May and (finish) on 15 July.

5) I. (not/go) out this evening. I (stay) at home.

6) ' (you/do) anything tomorrow morning?' 'No, I'm free. Why?'

7) We (go) to a concert tonight. It . (begin) at 7.30.

8) You are on the train to London and you ask another passenger:

Excuse me. What time (this train/get) to London?

9) You are talking to Ann:

Ann, I (go) to town.. (you/come) with me?

10) Sue (come) to see us tomorrow. She .. (travel) by train and her train (arrive) at 10.15. I . (meet) her at the station.

11) I . (not/use) the car this evening, so you can have it.

12) You and a friend are watching television. You say:

I'm bored with this programme. When . (it/finish)?

7. Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous tense.

1) They are going to drill for oil here. They (start) on Monday.

2) My uncle (make) a speech on Friday.

3) I (take) my sister to the ballet tomorrow.

4) She (call) for me at six.

5) He (play) at Wimbledon next summer.

6) I (meet) her at the station at ten.

7) The sales (not start) till Monday.

8) How you (get) to the party tomorrow?

I (go) by car.

Who (drive)?

9) The piano tuner (come) this afternoon.

10) You (give) him anything for his birthday?

Yes, I (give) him a dictionary.

11) The windows (be) cleaned today. Then we'll be able to see out.

12) She (come) out of hospital next week.

13) We (have) dinner early tonight as we (go) to the theatre.

14) Where you (go) for your holidays this year?

I (go) to Holland.

15) He (not give) a lecture tonight.

16) I (have) my photograph taken tomorrow.

17) I (buy) her a burglar alarm for a wedding present.

18) The elections (be) held next week.

19) I (have) lunch with my aunt on Thursday.

20) The committee (meet) next Wednesday.

8. Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous tense.

1) My grandparents (celebrate) their golden wedding next week.

2) I (lend) him my car for his holidays.

3) The strikers (return) to work next week.

4) Smith's (open) a new branch in this street in July.

5) We've bought a new house and (move) in very soon.

6) I (not take) up judo next winter.

7) They (get) married next week.

8) You (do) anything tonight?

Yes, I (go) to my carpentry class.

9) The Prime Minister (fly) to America tomorrow.

10) He (start) a new job on Friday.

11) The Queen (give) a garden party next week. You (go)?

12) My brother (be) released on Tuesday. I (meet) him outside the prison.

13) I (catch) the 6.30 plane tomorrow.

Where you (leave) your car?

I (not take) the car.

14) Her mother (send) her to France next year.

15) I (go) to the dentist tomorrow. Miss Pitt (take) my class.

16) I (lend) my flat to my American cousins next year.

9. Change the following sentences using the present continuous.

1) The Professor will deliver a new lecture on Tuesday.

2) They will start on a new exploration next week.

3) The expedition will set out tomorrow.

4) My mother will take me to the theatre.

5) The children will stay at home this evening.

6) What will we have for lunch?

7) He will buy her a new doll next week.

8) We shall leave by the night train.

9) The choir will sing next.

10) She will give you a control-paper tomorrow.

(Adapted after 'Living English Structure' by S. Alien)

The 'be going to' Form

Going to expresses a future intention, plan or decision thought about before the moment of speaking.

We're going to get married in June.

When I grow up, I'm going to be a doctor.

Affirmative

I am going to leave / We are going to leave

You are going to leave / You are going to leave

H e/she/it is going to leave / They are going to leave

Negative

I am not going to leave / We are not going to leave

You are not going to leave / You are not going to leave

He/she/it is not going to leave / They are not going to leave

Interrogative

Am I going to leave? Are we going to leave?

Are you going to leave? Are you going to leave?

Is he/she/it/ going to leave? Are they going to leave?

Notice the difference between will to express decision taken on the spot and going to to express an intention thought of previously.

We've run out of sugar.

I know. I'm going to buy some.

We've run out of sugar.

Have we? I didn't know. I'll buy some when I go shopping.

The difference is not that going to is more certain, and is not about near or distant future, but it concerns when the decision was made.

Going to is used to express a future event for which there is some evidence now.

Look at those clouds. It's going to rain.

I don't feel well. I think I'm going to faint.

Watch out! Those boxes are going to fall over.

When we talk about an intention to do something in the future, although no definite arrangement has been made, we prefer going to rather than the present continuous. To emphasise that we are talking about a definite arrangement, we prefer the present continuous. Study these sentences:

Before I go to China next year, I'm going to learn some Cantonese. (rather than I'm

learning some Cantonese.

We use going to future instead of the present continuous for the following:

. when we make or report predictions about activities or events over which we have no control (we can't arrange these):

I think it's going to rain. (not I think it's raining soon.)

Scientists say that the satellite is going to fall. (not the satellite is falling)

. when we talk about permanent future situations:

People are going to live longer in the future. (not are living)

Her new house is going to have three floors. (not is having)

. with the verb be:

John's going to be a shepherd in the school play next week. (not John's being...)

I'm going to be in Tokyo in May. (not I'm being in Tokyo)

EXERCISES

1. Complete the sentences. Use going to one of these verbs:

eat, do, give, lie, down, stay, walk, wash, watch, wear

1) My hands are dirty, I'm going to wash them.

2) What are you going to wear to the party tonight?

3) I don't want to go home by bus. I..

4) John is going to London next week. He . with some friends.

5) I'm hungry. I.. this sandwich.

6) It's Sharon's birthday next week. We her a present.

7) Sue says she's feeling very tired. She . for an hour.

8) There's a good film on TV this evening. .. you . it?

9) What..Rachel when she leaves school?

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the 'be going to' form.

1) You (miss) your train.

2) The pressure cooker (explode).

3) When you (pay) the bill?

4) She (dye) the old curtains blue.

5) We (make) this whisky bottle into a lamp.

6) What you (do) with this room?

I (paint) the walls in black and white stripes.

7) The umpire (blow) his whistle.

8) You (eat) all that?

9) That man with the tomato in his hand (throw) it at the speaker.

10) That door (slam).

11) The bull (attack) us.

12) It (rain). Look at those clouds.

13) The cat (have) kittens.

14) The men in the helicopter (try) to rescue the man in the water.

15) That rider (fall) off.

16) These two men (cycle) across Africa.

17) The Lord Mayor is standing up. He (make) a speech.

18) He (grow) a beard when he leaves school.

19) This airplane (crash).

20) I (stop) here for a moment to get some petrol.

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the 'be going to' form.

1) You (ask) him to help you?

2) I've lent you my car once. I (not do) it again.

3) I have seen the play. Now I (read) the book.

4) Small boy: I (be) a frogman when I grow up.

5) I (not sleep) in this room. It is haunted.

6) We (buy) a metal detector and look for buried treasure.

7) You (reserve) a seat?

8) I (plant) an oak tree here.

9) The dog (bury) the bone.

10) I (have) a bath.

11) I (smuggle) this out of the country.

12) There was very little blossom this spring. Apples (be) scarce.

13) I don't like this macaroni. I (not finish) it.

14) I (not stay) here another minute.

15) They (try) him for manslaughter when he comes out of hospital.

16) We (make) a lot of money out of this.

4. Answer the questions. You are going to do all these things but you haven't done

them yet. Use going to and the word(s) in brackets.

1) Have you cleaned the car? (tomorrow) Not yet. I'm going to clean it tomorrow.

2) Have you phoned Sally? (later) Not yet .

3) Have you done the shopping? (this afternoon) Not yet. .

4) Have you read the paper? (after dinner) Not.

5) Have you had dinner? (just) ..

5. Write a question with going to for each situation.

1) Your friend has won some money. You ask:

(what / do with it?) What are you going to do with it?

2) Your friend is going to a party tonight. You ask:

(what/wear?).

3) Your friend has just bought a new table. You ask:

(where /put it?)

4) Your friend has decided to have a party. You ask:

(who / invite?).

6. Read the situations and complete the dialogues. Use going to.

1) You have decided to write some letters this evening.

FRIEND: Are you going out this evening? YOU: No, I'm going to write some letters.

2) You are a smoker but you have decided to give it up soon.

FRIEND: Smoking is very bad for you. YOU: I know.

3) You have been offered a job but you have decided not to take it.

FRIEND: I hear you've been offered a job. YOU: That's right, but ..

4) You are in a restaurant. The food is awful and you've decided to complain.

FRIEND: This food is awful, isn't it? YOU: Yes, it's disgusting. .

7. What is going to happen in these situations? Use the words in brackets.

1) There are a lot of black clouds in the sky. (rain) It's going to rain.

2) It is 8.30. Jack is leaving his house. He has to be at work at 8.45 but the journey takes 30 minutes. (late) He..

3) There is a hole in the bottom of the boat. A lot of water is coming in through the hole. (sink) The boat ..

4) Emma is driving. There is very little petrol left in the tank. The nearest petrol station is a long way away.(run out) She .

8. Complete the sentences with was/were going to + one of these verbs:

give up, have, phone, play, travel

1) We were going to travel by train but then we decided to go by car instead.

2) We tennis yesterday but it rained all day.

3) I Jim, but I decided to write him a letter instead.

4) When I last saw Tim, he his job but in the end he decided not to.

5) We a party last week but some of our friends couldn't come, so we cancelled it.

THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

(VIITORUL CONTINUU)

The Future Continuous Tense indicates continuing action, something that will be happening, going on, at some point in the future. This tense is formed with the auxiliary 'will' plus 'be' plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

I will be running in next year's Boston Marathon.

Our campaign plans suggest that the President will be winning the southern vote by November.

Affirmative

I (shall) will be going

You will be going

He/she/it will be going

We (shall) will be going

You will be going

They will be going

Negative

I (shall) will not be going

You will not be going

He/she/it will not be going

We (shall) will not be going

You will not be going

They will not be going

Interrogative

Shall I be going? Shall we be going?

Will you be going? Will you be going?

Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going?

We also use the future continuous when the future activity or event is the result of a previous decision or arrangement:

He will be taking up his place at university in July (the result of a previous decision)

She will be performing every day until the end of the month (part of a schedule)

or of a routine activity:

We'll be going to my brother's house again for Christmas (we always go there)

I'll be seeing Tony on Tuesday. That's when we usually meet.

We can often use either the future continuous or the present continuous when we talk about planned activities or events in the future:

We will be leaving / are leaving for Istanbul at 7.00 in the evening.

Professor Hodge will be giving / is giving the first presentation at the conference. But we prefer the present continuous to talk about surprising or unexpected activities or events:

Have you heard the news? Dr Radford is leaving! (rather than will be leaving.)

When we use the future continuous, we are often referring simply to some future event or action that has been previously arranged. However, we use will, not the future continuous, to talk about such things as decisions that people have made willingness to do things, inviting, promising, etc.



Ann will help us organize the party. (she is willing to help)

Ann will be helping us to organize the party. (a previous arrangement)

EXERCISES

1. Put the verbs in brackets into the future continuous tense.

1) This time next month I (sit) on a beach.

2) When you arrive I probably (pick) fruit.

3) When we reach England it very likely (rain).

4) In a few days time we (fly) over the Pyrenees.

5) I'll call for her at eight.

No, don't; she still (have) breakfast then.

6) I (wait) for you when you come out.

7) When you next see me I (wear) my new dress.

8) My son will be in the sixth form next year.

That means that old Dr Adder (teach) him mathematics.

9) I'll give Jack your message. I can do it easily because I (see) him tomorrow. We go to work on the same train.

10) You (do) geometry next term.

11) I'll look out for you at the parade.

Do, but I (wear) uniform so you may find it hard to recognize me.

12) We have to do night duty here. I (do) mine next week.

13) In a hundred years' time people (go) to Mars for their holidays.

14) He (use) the car this afternoon.

15) I (see) you again.

16) It's a serious injury but he (walk) again in six weeks.

17) I'll come at three o'clock.

Good, I (expect) you.

18) They are pulling down all the old houses in this street. I expect they (pull) down mine in a few years' time.

19) I'd like to see your new flat.

Well, come tomorrow, but it (not look) its best, for the painters still (work) on it.

20) Stand there, they (change) the guard in a minute and you'll get a good view.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the future continuous tense.

1) You'd better go back now; your mother (wonder) where you are.

2) In fifty years' time we (live) entirely on pills.

3) What do you think the children (do) when we get home?

I expect they (have) their supper.

4) The garden (look) its best next month.

5) It won't be easy to get out of the country. The police (watch) all the ports.

6) What the tide (do) at six tomorrow morning?

It (come) in.

7) I've just remembered that I left the bathroom taps on. I expect the water (flow) down the stairs by now.

8) You (need) your camera tomorrow or can I borrow it?

9) We've just got to the top in time. The sun (rise) in a minute.

10) Air hostess: We (take off) in a few minutes. Please fasten your safety belts.

11) We'd better go out tomorrow because Mary (practise) the piano all day.

12) Don't ring her up at 6.00; she (put) the children to bed. Ring later.

13) We are making a house-to-house collection of things for the jumble sale. We (come) to your house next week.

14) That football club has lost some of its players. They (look out) for new men.

15) When I get home my dog (sit) at the door waiting for me.

16) Let's go down to the harbour; the fishing boats all (come) in because of the gale.

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the future continuous tense.

1) This time next year I (sit) in the chairman's chair.

2) When you come I probably (sleep).

3) In a few days' time we (sail) down the Rhine.

4) We (wait) for them when they arrive.

5) He (deliver) a special grammar course next year.

6) Put on your new suit, because I (wear) my best dress.

7) You'd better ring up your parents, they (wonder) where you are.

8) When we get back home the fire (burn) brightly in the fire-place.

9) I (come) round to see you next week.

10) We (see) a lot of each other at the seaside.

4. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first one. Use between two and five words, including the word given. Do not change the word given.

1) When I come to school tomorrow, I'm going to wear my glasses. BE

Next time you see me, ................my glasses.

2) Kallitsa is only going to wait for him until 8.15. WON'T

At 8.30 Kallitsa ................ for him.

3) He's going to go on writing books all his life. HE'LL

In ten years' time ................. books.

4) Ben sets off at 7.30. It takes him an hour to drive to work. DRIVING

At 7.45 on Monday morning ................. to work.

5) Fatima does her shopping at about this time every week. WILL

This time next week .................her shopping.

6) We only watch television at the weekend. BE

Next Tuesday evening we ............... television.

5. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate future form, using will + infinitive or

the future continuous

1) There is going to be a bus strike. Everyone (walk) to work next week.

2) You've just missed the last train!

Never mind, I (walk).

3) I'll ring you tomorrow at six.

No, don't ring at six; I (bath) the baby then. Ring later.

4) Mother: Your face is dirty.

Child: All right, I (wash) it.

5) Will you have lunch with me on the 24th?

I'd love to, but I'm afraid I (do) my exam then.

6) I (work) for Mr Pitt next week as his own secretary will be away.

7) You (have) something to drink, won't you?

8) Why did you take his razor? He (look) for it everywhere tomorrow.

9) I hope you'll do well in the race tomorrow. I (think) of you.

10) Notice on board ship: In the event of an emergency all passengers (assemble) on the boat deck.

6. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate future form, using will + infinitive or

the future continuous.

1) I don't feel well enough to go to the station to meet him.

I (meet) him for you. But how I (recognize) him?

He's small and fair, and he (wear) a black and white school cap.

2) I (leave) these flowers at the hospital for you. I (go) there anyway to visit my cousin.

3) You ought to try to get a ticket for the Spectators' Gallery next week; they (debate) international fishing rights.

4) You've left the light on.

Oh, so I have. I (go) and turn it off.

5) I've just been appointed assistant at the local library.

Then you (work) under my sister. She is head librarian there.

6) I want to post this letter but I don't want to go out in the rain.

I (post) it for you. I (go) out anyway as I have to take the dog for a walk.

7) The prima ballerina is ill, so I expect her understudy (dance) instead.

8) Today is Guy Fawkes' Day; this evening people (let) off fireworks and (make) bonfires in the streets.

9) Military order: Sentries (remain) on duty till they are relieved.

10) This time next Monday I (sit) in a Paris cafe reading Le Figaro.

You (not read). You'll be looking at all the pretty girls.

11) Wages have gone up, so I suppose prices (go up) too.

12) It is nearly autumn; soon the leaves (change) colour.

13) Mother (on phone): My son has just burnt his hand very badly. Doctor: I (come) at once.

14) Customer in restaurant: Waiter, this plate is dirty. Waiter: I'm sorry, sir, I (bring) you another.

15) In a few years' time we all (live) in houses heated by solar energy.

7. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate future form, using will + infinitive or

the future continuous

1) It's beginning to get dark; the street lights (go on) in a few minutes.

2) We (not play) poker at the party tonight; our hostess doesn't approve of cards.

3) Let's wait here; the swing bridge (open) in a minute to let that ship through.

4) Guest: May I use your phone to ring for a taxi?

Hostess: Oh, there's no need for that; my son (drive) you home.

5) Come on deck; we (enter) harbour in a few minutes.

6) Before you leave the office you (hand) the keys of the safe to Mr. Pitt. Do you understand?

Yes, sir.

7) Are you nearly ready? Our guests (arrive) any minute.

8) Loudspeaker announcement: The ship (leave) in a few minutes and all persons not travelling are asked to go ashore.

9) Now that the parking regulations have become stricter, more people (use) public transport and (leave) their cars at home.

10) I've got rats in my basement and I don't know how to get rid of them.

I (bring) my dog round whenever you like. He (catch) them for you.

11) I'm afraid I've just broken your goldfish bowl.

Never mind, I (put) the goldfish in the bath.

8. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate future form, using won't + infinitive or the future continuous negative.

1) I don't like that man and I (not help) him.

2) He (not meet) her, because they will be in different places.

3) My husband (not cut) down the tree. He says that it is perfectly all right as it is.)

4) My husband (not cut) the hedge for some time, because he's got a lot of other jobs to do first.

5) Tom (not come) to our party because he will be away on that date.

6) Peter says that he (not come) to our party. He doesn't approve of parties.

7) She says that she (not lend) me the book, because I never give books back.

8) Mr. Pitt (not speak) at the meeting tonight, because he has unexpectedly had to go to hospital.

9) I'll work under anyone except my brother. I (not work) under him.

10) We'll be in the same firm, but we (not work) together, because we'll be in different departments.

11) I (not have) that boy in my class. He is far too noisy.

12) I (not teach) you next week, as I have to go to Paris.

13) He is so angry with his sister that he (not speak) to her.

14) I'll give your message to my sister when I write; but I (not write) for some time, as I only write once a month and I posted a letter to her yesterday.

15) I (not feed) your dog again. He always tries to bite me when I come near him.

THE FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE AND THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

(VIITORUL PERFECT SIMPLU SI VIITORUL PERFECT CONTINUU)

The Simple Future Perfect Tense indicates that an action will have been completed (finished or 'perfected') at some point in the future. This tense is formed with 'will' plus 'have' plus the past participle of the verb (which can be either regular or irregular in form):

I will have spent all my money by this time next year.

I will have run successfully in three marathons if I can finish this one.

Affirmative

I (shall) will have gone

You will have gone

He/she/it will have gone

We (shall) will have gone

You/they will have gone

Negative

I (shall) will not have gone

You will not have gone

He/she/it will not have gone

We (shall) will not have gone

You will not have gone

They will not have gone

Interrogative

Shall I have gone? / Shall we have gone?

Will you have gone? / Will you have gone?

Will he/she/it have gone? / Will they have gone?

We use the simple future perfect to say that something will be ended, completed, or achieved by a particular point in the future:

Let's hope the volcanic eruption will have finished before we arrive on the island.

Although people are now angry about what he did, I'm sure that his behaviour will soon have been forgotten passive form)

By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom.

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense indicates a continuous action that will be completed at some point in the future. This tense is formed with the auxiliary 'will' plus the auxiliary 'have' plus 'been' plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

Next Thursday, I will have been working on this project for three years

Affirmative

I (shall) will have been going

You/he/she/it will have been going

We (shall) will have been going

You/they will have been going

Negative

I (shall) will not have been going

You will not have been going

He/she/it will not have been going

We (shall) will not have been going

You will not have been going

They will not have been going

Interrogative

Shall I have been going? / Shall we have been going?

Will you have been going? / Will you have been going?

Will he/she/it have been going? / Will they have been going?

We can use the future perfect continuous to emphasise how long something has been going on by a particular point in the future:

On Saturday, we will have been living in this house for a year.

Next year I will have been working in the company for 30 years.

In sentences with the future perfect continuous we usually mention both the particular point in the future ('On Saturday', 'Next year') and the period of time until this point ('for a year', 'for 20 years'). Notice that we don't usually use the future perfect continuous with verbs describing states:

Next month I will have known Derek for 20 years. (not will have been knowing...)

EXERCISES

1. Fill the gaps, using the Future Perfect and the correct form of the verb in brackets.

1) By 1999 they ........... married for fifty years. (be)

2) Kate's language course .......... by the end of the year. (finish)

3) The company ...........10,000 cars before December. (produce)

4) By 5 o'clock this afternoon Linda ......... twenty letters. (type)

5) Matthew ......... 2000 kilometers across the Sahara by next Thursday. (drive)

6) Next time you see me I ............. my exam, I hope. (pass)

7) I'm sorry, but I ........... the report by tonight. (not / finish)

8) ........you .......... it by tomorrow morning? (finish)

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense.

1) In a month's time he (finish) all this work.

2) I (read) this bibliography by the end of the term.

3) By the time the winter comes he (build) himself a log-cabin.

4) By the time we get to the stadium the game (finish).

5) In 1983 he (be) an actor for twenty years.

6) The doctor (start) out on his round by the time you leave.

7) All the beautiful things (sell) by the time you make up your mind to buy something.

8) If you stay away another week, I (not see) you for 5 whole weeks.

9) By six o'clock she (take) her lesson.

10) The expedition (reach) the North Pole by May.

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense.

1) In a fortnight's time we (take) our exam.

2) I (finish) this book by tomorrow evening.

3) By this time tomorrow we (have) our injections.

4) By the end of next year I (be) here twenty-five years.

5) I'll still be here next summer but Tom (leave).

6) I (finish) this job in twenty minutes.

7) By next winter they (build) four houses in that field.

8) When we reach Valparaiso we (sail) all round the world.

9) At the rate he is going he (spend) all his money by the time he is twenty-one.

10) By this time next year I (save) £250.

4. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense.

1) By the time we get to the party everything (be) eaten.

2) The train (leave) before we reach the station.

3) If I continue with my diet, I (lose) 10 kilos by the end of the month.

4) By the end of my university course I (attend) 1,200 lectures.

5) By the end of this week my illness (cost) me £100.

6) By the time that he leaves school his parents (spend) £25,000 on his education.

7) By the end of the term 1 (read) all twelve volumes.

8) When you come back I (finish) all the housework.

9) The police (hear) of the theft by this time.

10) We (drink) all that wine by the end of the year.

11) On the fourth of next month he (be) in prison for ten years.

12) When we reach Crewe we (do) half of the journey.

13) At this rate you (break) all the wine glasses by the end of the month.

14) If we don't hurry, the sun (rise) before we reach the top.

15) I'm going to Hyde Park to hear the people making speeches.

16) You'll be too late. By the time you get there they (finish) their speeches and everybody (go) home.

5. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense.

1) By midnight he (be) unconscious for forty-eight hours.

2) By the end of the month 5,000 people (see) this exhibition.

3) By next April I (pay) £3,000 in income tax.

4) I suppose that when I come back in ten years' time ail these old houses (be) pulled down.

5) On 21 October they (be) married for twenty-five years.

6) After this performance I (see) Hamlet twenty-two times.

7) The strike leader said, 'By midnight 500 men (come) out on strike.'

8) At your present rate you (burn) all that coal by the end of the month.

9) The treasurer said, 'By the end of the year all our debts (be paid) off.'

10) Tourist: We've only got five hours in Rome; we are leaving at six; but I'm sure that we (see) everything of importance by then.

6. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense.

1) I hope they (repair) this road by the time we come back next summer.

2) By the end of next week my wife (do) her spring cleaning and we'll all be able to relax again.



3) Yes, I make jam every week. I (make) about 200 kilos by the end of the summer.

4) In two months' time he (finish) his preliminary training and will be starting work.

5) He spends all his spare time planting trees. He says that by the end of next year he (plant) 2,000.

6) I'll be back again at the end of next month.

I hope I (pass) my driving test by then. If I have, I'll meet your train.

7) Come back in an hour. I (do) my packing by then and we'll be able to have a talk.

8) When he reaches Land's End he (walk) 1,500 miles.

9) He's only 35 but he's started losing his hair already. He (lose) it all by the time he's 50.

10) His father left him £400,000, but he lives so extravagantly that he (spend) it all before he's 30.

7. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense.

1) By the end of next year I (work) for him for 45 years.

2) Everywhere you go in central London you see blocks of flats being pulled down and huge hotels being erected. In ten years' time all the private residents (be driven) out and there'll be nothing but one vast hotel after another.

3) Our committee is trying to raise money to buy a new lifeboat. By the end of the year we (send) out 5,000 letters asking for contributions.

4) By the end of my tour I (give) exactly the same lecture 53 times.

5) A hundred people have died of starvation already. By the end of the week two hundred (die). When are you going to send help?

6) Since he began driving, Tom has driven an average of 5,000 miles a year, and had an average of 2x2 accidents a year. So by the time he's 60 he (drive) 200,000 miles and had 50 accidents. Let's try to persuade him to go back to cycling.

7) Did you say you wanted help picking apples? I could come on 1 October. We (pick) them all by then. But come all the same.

8) Apparently Venice is slowly sinking into the sea. Scientists are trying to save it but by the time they've found the answer the city probably (sink).

8. Complete the sentence with either the simple future perfect or the future perfect continuous for each situation.

1) Simon started to learn Spanish when he was 25. He is still learning Spanish. When he's 40, he will have been learning Spanish for 15 years.

2) Every day, Peter eats three bars of chocolate on the way home from school. Before he gets home from school tonight Peter ...............

3) So many people enter the New York Marathon that the last runners start several minutes after the ones at the front.

By the time the last runners start, the ones at the front

4) I started writing this book 3 years ago next month.

By next month I

5) The company is spending $5 million on developing the software before it goes on sale.

By the time the software goes on sale, the company

6) I'm going to paint the front door today. I'll finish it before you get back.

When you get back, I

Simple

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect continuous

Present

Present simple

I study every day.

Present continuous

I am studying right now.

Present perfect

I have already studied

lesson one.

Present perfect cont.

I have been studying for

two hours.

Past

Past simple

I studied yesterday.

Past continuous

I was studying when they

arrived.

Past perfect

I had already studied

lesson one, before I began

to study lesson two.

Past perfect cont.

I had been studying for

two hours before my

friends arrived.

Future

Future simple

I will study tomorrow.

Future continuous

I will be studying when you arrive.

Future perfect

I will already have studied lesson one, before I study lesson two.

Future perfect cont.

I will have been studying for two hours by the time you arrive.




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