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Curs limba engleza - introduction to the european union


Curs limba engleza - introduction to the european union


CURS LIMBA ENGLEZA - INTRODUCTION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION



SECTION I

EU HISTORY. TREATIES. FOUNDATIONS AND SYMBOLS


A. LEAD IN

1.     How would you define the European Union?

2.     Do you happen to know how many countries have joined the European Union so far?

3.     Everybody is talking about the community acquis? Can you tell what it is?



4.     Together with your desk mate think of some advantages/risks generated by or connected to the European membership.


A.               READING OBJECTIVE


INTRODUCTION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION

Historic Steps

The idea of a united Europe was at first just a dream in the minds of philosophers and visionaries. Victor Hugo, for example, imagined a peaceful "United States of Europe" inspired by humanistic ideals.

After World War II a few courageous statesmen (Konrad Adenauer, Winston Churchill, Alcide de Gasperi, Robert Schuman) decided to put an end to international hatred and rivalry in Europe and to build a long lasting peace.

Robert Schuman (French Foreign Affairs Minister) took up an idea originally conceived by Jean Monnet and on 9 May 1950 proposed setting up a European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which was a big success. It was the start of an extraordinary and ever tighter cooperation among European states.

Today's European Union is the result of half a century hard work. In no other region of the world have sovereign countries pooled their sovereignty to this extent and in so many areas of crucial importance to their citizens. The EU has created a single market in which people, services, goods and capital move around freely.

Founding Treaties

The ground rules of the European Union are set out in a series of treaties:

The Treaty of Paris, which set up the above mentioned European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951, signed by six European states: France, The Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg, considered the EU founding members.

The Treaties of Rome, which set up the European Economic Community (EEC), replacing the former ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) in 1957. The EEC came as a natural continuation of ECSC, as the six member states decided to enlarge and deepen their cooperation. The EEC was based on a common market in awide range of goods and services. Customs duties between the six countries were completely removed on 1 July 1968 and common policies - notably on trade and agriculture - were also set up during the 1960.

The founding treaties were subsequently followed by the Single European Act (1986) signed in Luxembourg and The Hague, by the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht, 1992) which makes the name "European Union" official, the Treaty of Amsterdam and the Treaty of Nice. All of these treaties have created very strong legal ties between the EU's member states and have offered a legal frame for important European matters such as EU institutions functioning procedures , the rights of European citizens, trade, defence policies, the European Currency Unit, etc.

Enlargement

So successful was the EEC initiated by France The Federal Republic of Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, Belgium and Luxembourg that Denmark, Ireland and The United Kingdom decided to join the Community. This first enlargement from six to nine members took place in 1973. New social, regional and environmental policies were introduced and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) was set up in 1975. In 1981 Greece joined the Community, followed by Spain and Portugal in 1986. The future European Union was thus being built little by little. Three more countries, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the EU on 1 January 1995. The Union now had 15 members and was on the way for its most spectacular achievement yet - replacing its national currencies with a single European currency, the euro. On 1 January 2002, euro notes and coins came into circulation in 12 EU countries ('euro area'). The euro is now a major world currency, having a similar status to the US dollar.

Soon after the European Union grew to 15 members another 12 countries began knocking at its door. The EU welcomed this opportunity to help stabilise the European continent and to extend the benefits of European unification to the young democracies in Central and South-Eastern Europe. For ten of the candidate countries negociations were completed in Copenhagen, at the end of 2002 and starting from may 2004 the EU enlarged to 25 members, by welcoming the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Cyprus and Malta as full members.

Romania and Bulgaria are to become EU members on 1 January 2007, after the implementation of all the 31 chapters of the Community Acquis.


The European Union's Symbols

The idea of a "citizens's Europe" is very new. Making it a reality means, among other things, obtaining popular support for symbols that represent shared European identity. That is why the European Union has a very special anthem - Beethoven's Ode to Joy, from Symphony 9, a Celebration Day - 9 May and a flag (a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background).

Things like the introduction of the euro, the European model of passport (in use since 1985) and the EU model driving licences also contribute to the creation of a sense of belonging to a common space.

"We are not bringing together states, we are uniting people" said Jean Monnet back in 1952.


More than half a century of integration has had an enormous impact on the history of Europe and on the mentality of Europeans. The member state governments, whatever their political colour know that only by joining forces and pursuing a shared destiny can their ancient nations continue to make economic and social progress and maintain their influence in the world.


Reading Comprehension

1. Who were the initiators of the European Union?

2. Name, in chronological order, the main treaties that have forged the identity of the European Union.

3. When was the European single currency introduced?

4. Which European countries joined the Union in :

1951: __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __

1973: __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __

1981: __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __

1986: __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __

1995: __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __

2004: __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __

2007: __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __

5.     Which are the main areas of cooperation between members states?

6.     Which are the EU's symbols?



B.                VOCABULARY


1. In the following table write down the new words in the text above as well as their meaning (and translation into Romanian, if necessary). Then use these words in sentences of your own.

NEW WORD

MEANING ( AND TRANSLATION)















1.                        Use the following words and expressions in sentences of your own: accession, enlargement, integration, Member States, candidate countries, apply for membership, start / close negotiations, Community Acquis, meet the accession criteria.




C.                GRAMMAR


PASSIVE (2)

1. What do you notice about the prepositions / particles in the following pairs of active-passive sentences ?

Nobody has drunk from this glass. / This glass hasn't been drunk from.

Grandma looked after the children while the parents were away. / The children were looked after by grandma while the parents were away.



2. Now turn the following sentences into the passive taking care to retain the preposition / particle immediately after the verb:

a) Everybody looked for my glasses but couldn't find them.


b) Everybody laughed at him.


c) The family have called for the doctor.


d) All the newspapers will comment upon the Prime Minister's resignation.


e) They are speaking about the trade fair .


f) The two parties have arrived at an agreement.


g) Marketing professors often refer to Kotler's work.



3. Some Romanian impersonal expressions are translated into English by a passive form. Read the following pairs of sentences and then translate:

S-a anuntat o schimbare de program = A change in the agenda was announced.

S-a ajuns la o intelegere. = An agreement was arrived at / reached.

a) In aceasta tara se vorbeste engleza.


b) Orice problema se va anunta presedintelui.


c) Luna viitoare se vor inchide ultimele capitole ale acquis-ului.


d) Nu se cunoaste inca data urmatorului val de aderare.


e) In acordul cu tarile candidate s-a introsus o clauza de salvgardare.


f) Se spera ca aderarea va avea efecte pozitive asupra economiei.


g) Se crede ca Turcia va fi acceptata in UE inainte de anul 2015.



HAVE SOMETHING DONE


4. Read these situations and then write a sentence with have something done.


Deborah's TV set was broken and she took it to the TV repair man. Now it is all right. What has Deborah done?


She has had her TV set repaired.


a)     Tom's car needs servicing and he's going to ask a mechanic to do it. What's Tom going to do?


b)     Julia's piano was out of tune and she called a piano-tuner to have a look at it. Now it's all right. What did Julia do?


c)     Pat's photograph for her passport was rather blurred and the passport official didn't want to take it. Pat went back to the photographer's. What did she have to do?


d)     Helen needed some firewood and called someone to chop it up for her. What did she do?


e)     Mr. Popescu will not understand this English letter. He must get an English speaking person to tell him what it says in Romanian What must Mr. Popescu do?


f)      These trousers were a bit short and Peter took them to the tailor's. Now they are just the length he wanted. What has Peter done?


g)     John has a bad toothache. He's at the dentist's right now. What is he doing?


5. Rewrite the sentences as in the example.


I'll ask them to check the accounts.

I'll have the accounts checked.


a)     I must ask them to refill the battery.


b)     He's told her to type his report.


c)     Don't forget to tell them to tune the piano.


d)     Have you told him to take your photograph?


e)     She told the police to search the house for a bomb.


f)      I'll ask him to take my measurements.


g)     We're going to ask them to put up a new aerial.


h)     She is asking someone to carry the luggage for her.


i)       It's no good asking them to repair the damage.


j)      Someone picked Julia's pocket a minute ago.


k)     Somebody set their house on fire.


l)       Somebody stole her jewelry.


m)   A burglar broke into Mr. Brown's shop.


n)     Some people destroyed our windows.


o)     Some people burned our neighbours' tents in the camp.


SECTION II

THE EU'S STRUCTURE, INSTITUTIONS AND PROGRAMMES



A. LEAD IN

1.                Before reading the text, can you think of a few EU institutions whose names you are familiar with?

2.                Do you know how students can benefit from community programmes?


B. READING OBJECTIVE


Structure of the European Union : "The Three Pillars"

The EU constitution arises from the totality of rules and fundamental values by which those in authority perceive themselves to be bound. These rules and values are best summarised in a tripartite structure metaphorically called a three pillar structure.

The first pillar is made up of the three European Communities (EC, Euratom and ECSC) which have been deepened and enlarged by economic and monetary union. At the heart of the EC is the single market with its four basic freedoms (free movement of goods, free movement of workers, freedom to provide services and free movement of capital and payments) and its rules on competition. Policy areas for which the Community is responsible include: economic and monetary affairs (centred around the single European currency, the euro); agriculture; visa requirements, asylum and immigration; transport; taxation; employment; trade; social welfare, education and youth welfare; culture; consumer protection and health; trans-European networks; industry; economic and social cohesion; research and technology; the environment; development aid.

The second pillar is related to the common foreign and security policy, with the following declared aims: safeguarding the commonly held values, fundamental interests and independence of the EU; strengthening the security of the EU and its member States; securing world peace and increasing international security; promoting international cooperation; promoting democracy and the rule of law and safeguarding human rights and basic freedoms.

The third pillar of the European Union covers the domain of cooperation in justice and home affairs. The aim is to offer citizens freedom, security and justice by jointly preventing and combating crime (especially terrorism, trafficking in human beings, illicit drug and arms trafficking corruption and fraud), racism and xenofobia.


The European Union's Main Institutions

The foundations of a united Europe were laid on fundamental ideas and values to which the Member States subscribe and which are translated into practical reality by the Community's operational institutions.

The main actors on the Community stage are the European Council and the EC institutions - the European Parliament, The Council of the EU, The European Commission (these three being the most important) , the European Court of Justice and the Court of Auditors. There are also a number of ancillary bodies: the European Central Bank and the European Investment Bank, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.

The function of the European Council is to establish policy guidelines for European integration.

The Parliament officially represents the peoples of the Member States. The number of seats may not exceed 700 and its functions can be divided up into three areas: decision-making functions (legislative function), advisory function (it can be consulted by the Council and the Commission) and supervisory function (over the Commission). The Parliament also appoints an Ombudsman to whom complains about maladministration in the activities of Community institutions.

The European Commission consists of 20 members including 1 President and 2 Vice-Presidents, all elected by common accord of the governments of the Member States for a renewable term of five years. Among its main responsabilities are : initiatives for the further development of Community policy, monitoring observance and proper application of Community law, administering and implementing Community legislation, representing the Community in international organisations.

The seat of the European Commission is in Brussels.


The Support Offered by the EU to the Candidate Countries in Central and Eastern Europe

The aid offered to by the EU to the Central and East European candidate countries consists of three main financial instruments:

PHARE (Poland and Hungary Aid for Reconstruction of Economy), created in 1989 for Poland and Hungary and later extended to all the states in the region. It is the most general programme, offering assistance and non-reimbursement funds for a wide range of domains.

ISPA (Instrument for Structural Policies for pre-Accession) was created in 2000 and offers financial support in the field of transports and environmental protection.

SAPARD (Special pre-Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development) is a financial instrument set up in 1999 and aimed at supporting the agriculture and rural areas of the candidate countries.


Reading Comprehension

1)     What does each of the three EU pillars refer to?

2)     Which are the three most important EU institutions?

3)     What other important EU institutions do you know?

4)     What are the main functions of the European Parliament?

5)     What are is the main task of the European Council?

6)     What are the main functions of the European Commission?

7)     Which are the three financial instruments by which the EU supports Romania as a candidate country?



C. VOCABULARY


1. In the following table write down the new words in the text above as well as their meaning (and translation into Romanian, if necessary). Then use these words in sentences of your own.

NEW WORD

MEANING ( AND TRANSLATION)















2. Use the following words and expressions in sentences of your own: fundamental values, single market, free movement of goods, free movement of workers, free movement of capital, single European currency, taxation, social welfare, rule of law, human rights, home affairs, tyrafficking, xenofobia, ancillary bodies, policy guidelines, Ombudsman, maladministration, observance of community law, financial instrument(s), non-reimbursement funds.



D. GRAMMAR


QUESTIONS

1. How do the answers to the following questions differ from their Romanian translation?

Do you like living in Bucharest? Yes, I do (da). / No, I don't (nu).

Did you see him yesterday? Yes, I did (da). / No, I didn't (nu).

Have you done your homework? Yes, I did (da). / No, I didn't (nu).

Can you speak Spanish? Yes, I can (da). / No, I cannot (nu).

The answer to yes / no questions always resumes __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ .


2. Now give short answers (that are true for you) to the following yes / no questions:

a) Do you find English difficult? __ ____ ____

b) Did you have a bath yesterday? __ ____ ____

c) Have you already decided how to spend your summer holiday? __ ____ ____

d) Will you look for a job next year? __ ____ ____

e) Would you like to work during the holiday? __ ____ ____

f) Can you speak French? __ ____ ____


3. How are questions formed in English? Read the sentences and complete the rules:

Do they study marketing or accounting? Where does he live?

Sentences in the Present Simple add __ ____ ____ ___ to form a question.

When did she graduate?

Sentences in the past Simple add __ ____ ___ to form a question while the main verb __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___.

Have you seen that film? Will you come to my birthday party? Why is she crying? Would you mind me opening the window? How can I thank you?

Sentences containing verbs in other tense (Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future, progressive tenses, modals, would, passive verbs) can be turned into questions by __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ . No other verb needs to be added.


4. Correct the following questions:

a) When does she returns?

b) You can drive well?

c) Did he went on a trip last weekend?

d) Have the student come late again?

e) Why does he leaves so early?

f) How did you found me?

g) I am disturbing you?


5. Special questions need a more detailed answer than yes / no questions. They are also called WH-questions as they start with a WH- word: who, what, which, when, why, where. How, how much,/ many, how long are also question words.

Use the correct interrogative words or phrases in the following questions.


How often do you have your car serviced?

Every six months.


1. __ ____ ____ ___ have the workers been on strike?

Since last Monday.

2. __ ____ ____ ___ did he have his car repaired?

Ten days ago.

3. __ ____ ____ ___ have you had this cough?

A week, or so.

4. __ ____ ____ ___will he charge us for hiring the boat?

Ten pounds.

5. __ ____ ____ ___cinema is the film going to be on?

The Victoria.

6. __ ____ ____ ___do you work for?

Mr. and Mrs. Porter.

7. __ ____ ____ ___ have you been working on?

A new Laser project.

8. __ ____ ____ ___overcoat is that lying on the floor?

Fred's, I think.

9. __ ____ ____ ___is Oxford?

It has a population of about 60.000.

10. __ ____ ____ __ is the refrigerator?

About a hundred kilos.

11. __ ____ ____ __ are these people demonstrating?

To protest against taxes.

12. __ ____ ____ __was he when he was elected chairman?

Thirty-nine.



6. Write questions for these sentences starting with the works given.


I didn't say anything to him.

What did you say to him?


1. We can't do anything about it.

What __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ ?

2. She refuses to listen to me.

Why __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __?

3. He always comes in at 8.30 in the morning.

What __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __?

4. No one will believe your story.

Who __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ?

5. I did nothing wrong to get such low marks.

What __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __?

6. I told you a thousand times to keep your mouth shut.

How many __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ ?

7. We have to do the same exercises again and again.

How often __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ?

8. She's never done anything like that before.

When __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___?



7. Make questions to which the italicized works are the answers, as in the example.


We can use olive oil instead of butter in this recipe.

What can we use instead of butter?


a)     Our water supplies will last for three more months.


b)     He was driving at 50 miles per hour when he had the accident.


c)     Your decision has made her change her mind.


d)     Thomas has been working on this project since last year.


e)     I was told to give the telegram to a tall man.


f)      Terry's car is serviced once a year.


g)     Susan's wedding dress will be made at Laura Ashley's.


h)     They left in a hurry to catch the last bus.


i)       The money will be deposited in the national bank.


j)      They can do this exercise in writing.


k)     There was a discussion about the V.A.T. on computers.


8. Write down the question tags that will complete the sentences.


There isn't anybody in, is there?


1. You've got to report it to the police, __ ____ ____ _____ ?

2. She doesn't need to stay, __ ____ ____ _____ ?

3. He never used to smoke cigars, __ ____ ____ ____ ___?

4. You don't believe I stole your money, __ ____ ____ ____ ___?

5. We should have taken that medicine, __ ____ ____ _____?

6. It isn't snowing, __ ____ ____ __?

7. He's not been told anything, __ ____ ____ ___?

8. It's a long way home, __ ____ ____ __?

9. She hardly knows him, __ ____ ____ ____?

10. There's nothing wrong with the engine, __ ____ ____ ___?

11. They've been reported missing, __ ____ _____?

12. You said you'd translate the book, __ ____ ____ ____?

13. Eating bread makes you fat, __ ____ ____ _____?

14. You will stay with us tonight, __ ____ ____ ____?

15. That bus doesn't go to Houston Station , __ ____ ____ ____?

16. He pretended not to know you, __ ____ ____ _____?

17. We can't win every game, __ ____ ____ __?

18. Casanova used to live in Greek Street, __ ____ ____ _____?

19. We ought to be able to do the exercises, __ ____ ____ ____?

20. Everybody liked the idea, __ ____ ____ ____ ?



9. Add question tags.


1.       Bill, give me a hand with this box, __ ____ ____ __?

2.       Don't forget your homework tonight, __ ____ ____ __?

3.       Stop talking in the back row, __ ____ ____ ___?

4.       I'm a member of the club, __ ____ ____ ___?

5.       Don't let anyone know about it, __ ____ _____?

6.       I am responsible here, __ ____ _____?

7.       Don't treat the cat like this, __ ____ ____ ___?

8.       John, stop making that noise, __ ____ ____ ___?



D.    In teams of four choose a European institution and make a presentation of it (history, functions, members) in about 3 - 4 pages.

APPENDIX 1

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS


BASE FORM

PAST SIMPLE

PAST PARTICIPLE

TRANSLATION

Arise

Arose

Arisen

A se ridica, a rasari

Be

Was, were

Been

A fi

Bear

Bore

Born

A (se) naste

Beat

Beat

Beaten

A bate

Become

Became

Become

A deveni

Begin

Began

Begun

A incepe

Bend

Bent

Bent

A indoi

Bet

Bet

Bet

A paria

Bind

Bound

Bound

A lega

Bite

Bit

Bitten / bit

A musca

Bleed

Bled

Bled

A sangera

Blow

Blew

Blown

A bate (despre vant)

Break

Broke

Broken

A rupe, a sparge

Breed

Bred

Bred

A creste (animale)

Bring

Brought

Brought

A aduce

Broadcast

Broadcast

Broadcast

A transmite

Build

Built

Built

A construi

Burn

Burnt / burned

Burnt / burned

A arde

Burst

Burst

Burst

A izbucni

Buy

Bought

Bought

A cumpara

Catch

Caught

Caught

A prinde

Choose

Chose

Chosen

A alege

Come

Came

Come

A veni

Cost

Cost

Cost

A costa

Creep

Crept

Crept

A se tari

Cut

Cut

Cut

A taia

Deal

Dealt

Dealt

A se ocupa de

Dig

Dug

Dug

A sapa

Do

Did

Done

A face

Draw

Drew

Drawn

A desena

Dream

Dreamt / dreamed

Dreamt / dreamed

A visa

Drink

Drank

Drunk

A bea

Drive

Drove

Driven

A sofa

Eat

Ate

Eaten

A manca

Fall

Fell

Fallen

A cadea

Feed

Fed

Fed

A hrani

Feel

Felt

Felt

A simti

Fight

Fought

Fought

A se lupta

Find

Found

Found

A gasi

Fly

Flew

Flown

A zbura

Forbid

Forbade

Forbidden

A interzice

Forget

Forgot

Forgotten

A uita

Forgive

Forgave

Forgiven

A ierta

Freeze

Froze

Frozen

A ingheta

Get

Got

Got

A obtine

Give

Gave

Given

A da

Go

Went

Gone

A merge

Grind

Ground

Ground

A macina

Grow

Grew

Grown

A creste

Hang

Hung

Hung

A atarna

Have

Had

Had

A avea

Hear

Heard

Heard

A auzi

Hide

Hid

Hid

A ascunde

Hit

Hit

Hit

A lovi

Hold

Held

Held

A tine

Hurt

Hurt

Hurt

A rani

Keep

Kept

Kept

A tine

Kneel

Knelt

Knelt

A ingenunchea

Know

Knew

Known

A sti

Lay

Laid

Laid

A intinde

Lead

Led

Led

A conduce

Lean

Leant / leaned

Leant / leaned

A (se) sprijini

Learn

Learnt / learned

Learnt / learned

A onvata

Leave

Left

Left

A pleca

Lend

Lent

Lent

A da cu imprumut

Let

Let

Let

A lasa

Lie

Lay

Lain

A (se)intinde

Light

Lit

Lit

A aprinde

Lose

Lost

Lost

A pierde

Make

Made

Made

A face

Mean

Meant

Meant

A insemna

Meet

Met

Met

A (se) intalni

Pay

Paid

Paid

A plati

Put

Put

Put

A pune

Read

Read

Read

A citi

Ride

Rode

Ridden

A calari, a merge cu bicicleta

Ring

Rang

Rung

A suna

Rise

Rose

Risen

A se ridica, a rasari

Run

Ran

Run

A alerga

Say

Said

Said

A spune

See

Saw

Seen

Avedea

Seek

Sought

Sought

A cauta

Sell

Sold

Sold

A vinde

Send

Sent

Sent

A trimite

Set

Set

Set

A apune

Shake

Shake

Shaken

A scutura

Shine

Shine

Shone

A straluci

Shoot

Shot

Shot

A impusca

Show

Showed

Shown

A arata

Shrink

Shrank

Shrunk

A (se) micsora

Shut

Shut

Shut

A inchide

Sing

Sang

Sung

A canta

Sit

Sat

Sat

A sta jos, a se aseza

Sleep

Slept

Slept

A dormi

Slide

Slid

Slid

A aluneca

Smell

Smelt

Smelt

A mirosi

Speak

Spoke

Spoken

A vorbi

Speed

Sped

Sped

A se grabi, a merge cu viteza

Spell

Spelt

Spelt

A ortografia

Spend

Spent

Spent

A petrece (timp), a cheltui (bani)

Spill

Spilt

Spilt

A varsa

Spin

Spun

Spun

A se roti

Split

Split

Split

A despica

Spoil

Spoilt / spoiled

Spoilt / spoiled

A strica, a rasfata

Spread

Spread

Spread

A (se0 imprastia

Stand

Stood

Stood

A sta in picioare

Steal

Stole

Stolen

A fura

Stick

Stuck

Stuck

A lipi

Sting

Stung

Stung

A intepa

Strike

Struck

Struck

A bate (despre ceas)

Swear

Swore

Sworn

A jura

Sweep

Swept

Swept

A matura

Swim

Swam

Swum

A inota

Swing

Swung

Swung

A (se) legana

Take

Took

Taken

A lua

Teach

Taught

Taught

A preda

Tear

Tore

Torn

A sfasia

Tell

Told

Told

A spune

Think

Thought

Thought

A se gandi

Throw

Threw

Thrown

A arunca

Understand

Understood

Understood

A intelege

Wake

Woke

Woken

A (se) trezi

Wear

Wore

Worn

A purta

Win

Won

Won

A castiga




APPENDIX 2

SPELLING RULES


A. Doubling of consonants


Final consonants (except x) are doubled before ending beginning with a vowel letter when the vowel before it is stressed and spelled with a single letter.

permit permitting, permitted

hot hotter, hottest


There is no doubling when the vowel is unstressed or written with two letters.

enter entering, entered

dread dreading, dreaded


Exceptions:

i.                     Words ending in certain consonants are doubled also after single unstressed vowels:

-g -gg- -c ck-

humbug humbugging, humbugged

traffic trafficking, trafficked


ii.                    British English breaks the rule as regards certain other consonants as well:

-l -ll- -m -mm- -p -pp-

signal signalling, signalled (BrE)

signaling, signaled (AmB)

travel travelling, travelled (BrE)

traveling, traveled (AmE)

programme programming, programmed (BrE)

program programming, programmed (AmE)

worship worshipping, worshipped (BrE)

worshiping, worshiped (AmE)

Most verbs ending in -p, however, have the regular spellings in both BrE and AmE, eg: develop, envelop, gallop, gossip.


B. Treatment of -y

i.                    -y changes to -ie before -s


lady ladies

carry carries

ii. -y changes to -i before -ed

carry carried

iii. -y changes to -i before -er and -est

easy easier, easiest

iv. -y changes to -i before -ly

heavy heavily

v. -y does not change before -ing

carry carrying

vi. -y does not change if the word ends in vowel + y

play plays, played

boy boys

Exceptions: day daily

pay paid

lay laid

say said


C. Treatment of -e

i. Final -e is regularly dropped before -ing and -ed

shave shaving, shaved

ii. Verbs ending in -ie change -ie to -y before -ing

die dying

iii. Verbs with ending in -ee, -ye, -oe, and often -ge, are exceptions to the rule in that they do not drop the -e before -ing; but they do drop it before -ed.

agree agreeing, agreed

dye dyeing, dyed

hoe hoeing, hoed

singe singing, singed






APPENDIX 3

Useful Expressions with Prepositions


At

at a loss / a profit

at a time (when)

at all costs

at Christmas / Easter

at church / the hairdresser's / school

at ease

at first (sight)

at hand

at home / the office

at last

at least

at lunch

at this / any rate

at night

at once

at peace / war

at present

at sea

at the end (place)

at the same time (as)

at the weekend

at times

at work


By

by accident

by air / bus / car / plane / sea / ship

/ train (and other means of transport)

by all means

by chance

by day / night

by far

by mistake

by post

by sight

by surprise

by yourself (alone)


For

for a while / time

for ever

for goodness' sake

for heaven's sake

once and for all



From

from A to Z

from beginning to end

from head to toe

from morning to night

from time of time


In

in a hurry

in a loud voice in a sense

in a way

in all

in any case

in bed

in common

in danger

in debt

in difficulties

in fact

in general

in half

in ink / pencil

in love

in my opinion

in other words

in particular

in prison

in private

in public

in secret

in sight

in spite of

in stock

in tears

in the end (time)

in the morning

in time

in turn


Of

ahead of

by means of

dozens of

hundreds of

in case of

in front of

instead of

on account of

on behalf of



Off

off duty

off limits

off work


On

on business

on duty

on foot

on holiday

on purpose

on sale

on the other hand

on the whole

on time


Out of

out of breath

out of control

out of danger

out of date

out of order

out of practice

out of reach

out of stock

out of the question

out of work


To

according to

due to

in addition to

owing to


Under

under control

under oath (in a court of law)

under orders


Up

up-to-date (modern)

ups and downs (good times and bad ones)


With / Without

(what's) wrong with (?)

green with envy

with / without difficulty

with best wishes

with love

with pleasure

without any fuss


BIBLIOGRAPHY


1. Acsente M, T, 2002, Teste de limba engleza, Ed. Niculescu, Bucuresti

2. Berman J-P., Marcheteau M., Savio M., Teste de limba engleza, Ed. Niculescu, Bucuresti

3. Bidilean V., 2000, Uniunea Europeana - Institutii, Politici, Activitati, Ed. Agroprint, Timisoara

4. Bondrea E., Stefan R., 2006, Dictionar explicativ poliglot de termeni comunitari, Ed. Fundatiei Romania de Maine, Bucuresti

5. Costache Ioana, 2005, Ghid de conversatie si civilizatie roman-englez, Ed. Aramis, Bucuresti

6. Dawson M., 1986, Interractions-English Course , Harcourt Brace, New York

7. Groza-Filip A., Zaharescu D.,1996, Synonyms in Practice. Exercises, Ed. Dacia

8. Hamf D., Thomas A., Chirimbu S., 2006, European Institutions, EWC-ECO, Bucuresti

9. Hoffmann H., Hoffmann M., 2004, Engleza tematica, Ed. Niculescu, Bucuresti

10. Levitchi L., Preda I., 1967, Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed. Stiintifica, Bucuresti

11. Muyskens J., Harlow L., 1989, Bravo! Communication and Grammar, Heinle & Heinle Publishers, Boston

12. Salder R., Hayllar T., Powell C., 1990, Enjoying English, MacMillan, Melbourne

13. Seidl J., Swan M., 1986, Basic English Usage Exercises with Key, Oxford University Press, Oxford

14. Thomson AJ., Martinet Av.,1995, A Practicval English Grammar, Oxford University Press, Oxford

15. Turcu Fulvia, Nastasescu Violeta,1998, Engleza de afaceri, curs intensiv, Ed. Uranus, Bucuresti






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