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Conjunctia (the conjunction)


Conjunctia (the conjunction)




CONJUNCTIA (THE CONJUNCTION)

(lat.: conjunctio, con = impreuna; junctio = legatura)

Este partea de vorbire care leaga in propozitii cuvinte cu aceeasi functie sintactica, sau




1. Clasificarea conjunctiilor

a) conjunctii simple: and, after, but etc.

b) conjunctii compuse: however, unless etc

c) conjunctii corelative: either or ; neither. . . nor; both and ; in order to; as if ; as though

Dupa functii conjunctiile sunt:

1.1. Conjunctii coordonatoare (Coordinating Conjunctions)

Conjunctiile coordonatoare leaga parti de propozitie cu aceeasi valoare sintactica sau propozitii de acelasi fel.

1.1.1. Conjunctii copulative (Copulative Conjunctions)

and = si, iar

I see a boy and a girl. = Vad un baiat si o fata.

He went home and brought the book. = El a mers acasa si a adus cartea.

as well as = precum si

He speaks English as well as German. = El vorbeste engleza precum si germana

both . . . and = atat. cat si

I like both English and German. = Imi place atat engleza cat si germana.

not only . . . but also = nu numai ci si ..

I like not only English but also German. = Imi place nu numai engleza ci si germana.

1.1.2. Conjunctii disjunctive (Disjunctive Conjunctions)

Conjunctiile disjunctive exprima o alternativa.

either . . . or = sau. sau .., fie.. fie.

He can speak either English or German. = El stie sa vorbeasca fie engleza fie germana.

neither . . . nor = nici. nici..

I see neither him nor her. = Nu-l vad nici pe el, nici pe ea.

otherwise = altfel , altminteri

The book is expensive, otherwise it is very useful. = Cartea este scumpa, altminteri este foarte utila.

else (if not) = altfel (daca nu), or else = ca/caci altfel, ca daca nu

Hurry up or (else) you will miss the train. = Grabeste-te, (ca) altfel pierzi trenul.

1.1.3. Conjunctii adversative (Adversative Conjunctions)

Conjunctiile adversative exprima contrastul.

but = insa, dar;

We want to buy a house but we don't have money. = Vrem sa cumparam o casa dar nu avem bani.

however = insa, dar totusi

I didn't want to do it, however I did it. = N-am vrut s-o fac, dar am facut-o.

nevertheless = totusi, cu toate acestea

Mathematics is difficult, nevertheless I like it. = Matematica este grea, totusi imi place.

still = totusi, insa, dar, cu toate acestea

It is expensive, still I'll buy it. = Este scumpa, totusi o voi cumpara.

while = whereas = pe cata vreme, in timp ce, pe cand

Your motorcar is old, while/whereas mine is new. = Masina ta este veche, pe cand a mea e/este noua.

yet (nevertheless) = totusi, cu toate acestea

These goods are expensive, and yet people buy them. = Aceste marfuri sunt scumpe si totusi lumea le cumpara.

1.1.4. Conjunctii conclusive (Illative Conjunctions)

Conjunctiile conclusive exprima o concluzie.

accordingly = in consecinta, deci, prin urmare, ca atare

I found the book I needed and accordingly I bought it. = Am gasit cartea, de care aveam nevoie si, in consecinta am cumparat-o.

consequently = in consecinta, asadar, prin urmare

I found the book interesting, consequently I bought it. = Am gasit cartea interesanta, asadar am cumparat-o.

so = asadar, de aceea, prin urmare, astfel ca, asa ca

I considered the book important, so I bought it. = Am considerat cartea importanta, astfel ca am cumparat-o.

therefore = astfel cA, deci, de aceea, asadar, prin urmare, in consecinta

I didn't find them in the park, therefore I went home. = Nu i-am gasit in parc, asadar am plecat acasa.

1.1.5. Conjunctii cauzale (Causal Conjunctions)

for = caci, pentru ca, intrucat, deoarece, fiindca

It is very hot for it is August. = Este foarte cald caci este august.

Sunt rare insa cazurile cand se intalnesc in engleza vorbita astfel de exemple/cazuri cu for cauzal.

1.2. Conjunctii subordonatoare (Subordinating Conjunctions)

Conjunctiile subordonatoare leaga o subordonata de regenta sa.

1.2.1. Conjunctii de loc (Conjunctions of Place)

where = unde

You must come here where I live. = Trebuie sa vii aici unde locuiesc/traiesc eu.

wherever = oriunde

We'll live wherever it is possible. = Vom trai oriunde va fi posibil.

as far as = pana unde / la

I shall/will go as far as you go. = Voi merge pana unde mergi tu.

whence = de unde

I'm going there whence you are coming. = Merg acolo de unde vii tu.

1.2.2. Conjunctii de timp (Conjunctions of Time)

after = dupa, dupa ce

I came after you had left. = Am venit dupa ce ai plecat tu. = Am venit dupa ce plecasei tu.

before = inainte de a

I must put down your telephone number before I forget it. = Trebuie sa-mi notez numarul tau de telefon inainte de a-l uita.



the first time = prima data/oara cand

I realized he was a serious man the first time I saw him. = Mi-am dat seama ca este om serios cand l-am vazut prima data .

all the time = tot timpul cat

We are laughing all the time we are watching the play. = Radem tot timpul cat privim piesa.

as long as = cat timp

A man must learn as long as he lives. = Un om trebuie sa invete cat timp traieste.

as soon as = de indata ce, imediat ce

I must find out the truth as soon as I arrive. = Trebuie sa aflu adevarul imediat ce sosesc.

since = de cand

I haven't seen him since he was a student. = Nu l-am vazut de cand era el student.

ever since = chiar de cand

I relized he was a good man ever since I met him. = Mi-am dat seama ca este om bun chiar de cand l-am cunoscut.

till = until = pana cand, pana ce, pana la, pana sa, pana

You must wait till they come. = Trebuie sa astepti pana vin ei.

when = cand

I shall tell you everything when you come. = Iti voi povesti totul cand vei veni.

whenever = ori de cate ori

I realize she is an excellent singer whenever I listen to her. = ]mi dau seama ca este o cantareata desavarsita ori de cate ori o ascult.

while = cat timp, in timp ce

While there is life, there is hope. = Omul spera cat traieste.

the moment = in momentul /clipa in care

I recognized him the moment I saw him. = L-am recunoscut in clipa in care l-am vazut.

the very moment = chiar in momentul/clipa in care

I understood the real state of things the (very) moment I entered their house. = Am inteles adevarata stare a lucrurilor (chiar) in momentul in care am intrat in casa lor.

1.2.3. Conjunctii de mod (Conjunctions of Manner)

Conjunctiile de mod introduc subordonate modale.

as = cum, asa cum, dupa cum, intocmai cum, in acelasi fel in care

He talks as he thinks. = Vorbeste cum gandeste.

He knows many things young as he is. = El stie multe lucruri asa tanar cum este.

as if = as though = ca si cand, de parca, parca sa

He opend his mouth as if to say something. = A deschis gura parca sa spuna ceva.

He greeted us as if he knew us. = Ne-a salutat ca si cand ne-ar cunoaste.

not so . . . as . . . = nu asa de . . . ca . . .

Your house is not so big as I thought. = Casa ta nu este asa mare cum am crezut.

as . . . as = la fel de ca.., tot asa de ca.

She sang the song as beautifully as she could. = Ea a cantat cantecul cat a putut de frumos.

so much as = asa de mult cat/ca

I do not like tennis so much as he does. = Mie nu-mi place tenisul asa de mult cat lui.

so far as = in masura in care

You will buy the house so far as you can afford it. = Vei cumpara casa in masura in care iti poti permite

1.2.4. Conjunctii de cauza (Conjunctions of Cause)

Conjunctii de cauza introduc subordonatele cauzale

because = for the reason that = pentru ca, pentru motivul ca , deoarece , intrucat

I bought the ball because it was cheap. = Am cumparat mingea pentru ca era ieftina.

seeing that = vazand ca

Seeing that it was raining I entered the house. = Vazand ca ploua am intrat in casa.

since = intrucat, deoarece, caci

Since it is raining, I must take my umbrella. = Intrucat ploua, trebuie sa-mi iau umbrela.

now that = acum ca, deoarece

Now that I have come I shall/will drink a cup of coffee. = Acum ca am venit, voi bea o ceasca cu cafea.

1.2.5. Conjunctii de scop (Conjunctions of Purpose)

Conjunctiile de scop introduc subordonatele finale.

in order to/that = cu scopul de a, ca sa

We have come to school in order to learn. = Am venit la scoala ca sa invatam.

lest (+ should) = ca sa nu

Turn on the light lest you should knock your head against smth. ! = Aprinde lumina ca sa nu te lovesti cu capul de ceva !

so that = asa incat, ca sa

Turn on the light so that I can see better ! = Aprinde lumina ca sa pot vedea mai bine !

1.2.6. Conjunctii concesive (Conjunctions of Concession)

Conjunctiile concesive introduc subordonatele concesive.

though = although = desi, cu toate ca

I shall/will go there although it is late. = Voi merge acolo desi este tarziu.

even if = chiar daca

I shall go there even if it is very late. = Voi merge acolo chiar daca este foarte tarziu.

however (much) = oricat de (mult)

You must buy it however much it costs. = Trebuie s-o cumperi indiferent cat de mult costa.

no matter how = nu conteaza cat/cum, indiferent cat/cum

You must read it no matter how borring it is. = Trebuie s-o citesti indiferent cat de plictisitoare este.

Boring as it is you must read it. = Plictisitoare asa cum este trebuie s-o citesti.

in spite of = in ciuda

He succeeded in spite of all the difficulties that he came across. = El a reusit in ciuda tuturor dificultatilor pe care le-a intampinat.



in spite of the fact that = in ciuda faptului ca, desi, chiar daca

They failed in spite of their efforts. = Au esuat in ciuda eforturilor lor.

notwithstanding = desi, in ciuda/pofida faptului ca

They failed notwithstanding the efforts they made. = Ei au dat gres in ciuda/ pofida eforturilor pe care le-au facut.

1.2.6. Conjunctii conditionale (Conjunctions of Conditional)

Conjunctiile conditionale introduc subordonatele conditionale.

if = daca

I shall not come if I don't have time. = Nu voi veni daca nu voi avea timp.

if only = doar/numai daca

I shall come if only I have time. = Voi veni doar daca voi avea timp.

on condition that = cu conditia ca

I shall come on the condition that I have time. = Voi veni cu conditia ca voi avea timp.

provided that = cu conditia ca

I shall come provided that I have time. = Voi veni cu conditia ca voi avea timp.

if and only if = daca si numai daca

I shall come if and only if I have time. = Voi veni daca si numai daca voi avea timp.

as long as = atat timp cat, daca

I shall not give you the money as long as you don't tell me the truth. = Nu-ti voi da banii atata timp cat nu-mi vei spune adevarul.

but = daca nu

But for John, I would have gone. = Daca n-ar fi fost John as fi mers.

unless = daca nu

I shall not give you the money unless you tell me the truth. = Eu nu-ti voi da banii daca nu-mi vei spune adevarul.

1.2.8. Conjunctii consecutive (Conjunctions of Result)

Conjunctiile consecutive introduc subordonatele consecutive.

so . . . that . . . = asa de . . . incat . . ., that = incat/ca;

I lent you the book so that you could read it. = ti-am imprumutat cartea ca s-o poti citi.

such . . . that . . . = asa/astfel de . . . incat/ca . . .

Such was the force of the wind that we could not stand. = Asa mare era forta vantului ca noi nu puteam sta in picioare.

1.2.9. Conjunctii atributive (Attributive Clause Conjunctions)

Conjunctile atributive introduc subordonatele atributive sau relative.

that = care, pe care, de care (pentru persoane si lucruri)

This is the book that I need. = Aceasta este cartea de care am eu nevoie.

He is the man that/who knows us. = El este omul care ne cunoaste pe noi.

who (pronume relativ) = care

He is the man who knows us. = El este omul care ne cunoaste.

whose = al, a, ai, ale cui/carui/carei/caror

He is the playwright whose plays are eternal. = El este dramaturgul ale carui piese sunt eterne.

to whom = who(m) . . . to = caruia, careia, carora

The boy, to whom I must give this book, is my friend. = The boy, who(m) I must give this book to, is my friend. = Baiatul, caruia eu trebuie sa-i dau aceasta carte, este prietenul meu.

whom / that = pe care (pentru persoane)

The boys, whom/that you see, are John's friends. = Baietii, pe care ii vezi, sunt prietenii lui John.

which / that = care, pe care (pentru lucruri)

The house, which/that you see, is mine. = Casa, pe care o vezi, este a mea.

1.2.10. Conjunctii subiective ( Subject Clause Conjunctions)

Conjunctiile subiective introduc subordonatele subiective.

that = ca

That we have to work hard is a necessity. = Ca trebuie sa muncim mult este o necesitate.

who = cine, care

Who knows the truth is not here. = Cine stie adevarul nu este aici.

what = ce

What I like is not to be found here. = Ce-mi place mie nu se gaseste aici.

when = cand

When he comes depends on the weather. = Cand vine el depinde de vreme.

why = de ce, din ce cauza

Why he has come is a mystery. = De ce a venit el este un mister.

what . . . for = for what = pentru ce

For what he has come is a mystery. = Pentru ce a venit el este un mister.

how = cum

How he has done it is a mystery. = Cum a facut-o este un mister.

where = unde

Where we shall go is a mystery. = Unde vom merge este un mister.

wherever = oriunde

Wherever we went would be a mystery/secret. = Oriunde am merge ar fi un mister/secret.

whenever = ori de cate ori

Whenever we went would be a mystery. = Ori de cate ori am merge ar fi un mister.

whose = al, a, ai, ale

Whose this book is is a mystery. = A cui este aceasta carte este un mister.

what kind / sort of = ce fel de

What kind / sort of man he is is a mystery. = Ce fel de om este el este un mister.

which = care

Which book I must buy is a mystery. = Care carte trebuie s-o cumpar este un mister.

which of = care dintre

Which of us will travel by train is a secret. = Care dintre noi va calatori cu trenul este secret.

1.2.11. Conjunctii completive (Object Clause Conjunctions)



that = ca

You did not tell me that you would come earlier. = Nu mi-ai spus ca vei veni mai devreme.

Conjunctia that se poate omite: I knew you were very busy. = Stiam ca esti foarte ocupat.

2. Alte cuvinte de legatura

for instance = for example = de exemplu/pilda

one = o data

One, you would have more spare time. = O data, ai avea mai mult timp liber.

two = doi, in al doilea rand

Two, you would be better paid. = Doi, ai fi mai bine platit.

Secondly, and far more importantly . . . = In al doilea rand, si mult mai important . . .

and to conclude . . .= si in incheiere

first / firstly = in primul rand, mai intai

second / secondly = in al doilea rand

third / thirdly = in al treilea rand

to conclude = in incheiere / concluzie

for a start = pentru inceput

I want to begin by saying that. = Vreau sa incep prin a spune (spunand) ca.

Another thing is that . . . = Alt lucru este ca . . .

Which is far more important. = Care este cu mult mai important.

There is still another thing. = Mai este inca un lucru.

The final thing I must say is . . . = Ultimul lucru pe care trebuie sa-l spun este . . .

The second/third reason is . . . = Al doilea/treilea motiv este . . .

Also, it's not . . . = De asemenea, nu este . . .

You didn't read that book. = I didn't read it either. = Neither did I. = Tu nu ai citit cartea aceea. = Nici eu n-am citit-o.

'You are in a hurry.' 'Indeed we are. = Voi va grabiti. Ne grabim, intr-adevar; Da, asa este; Sigur ca da

That reminds me of . . . = Asta imi aminteste de . . .

By the way. = By the by. = Apropo.

In a word, briefly. = Intr-un cuvant, pe scurt.

My conclusion is that . . . = Concluzia mea este ca . . .

That is. = That is to say. = Adica

This is another way of putting it. = Aceasta este un alt fel/mod de a-l spune/ exprima.

Such an example would be . . . = Un astfel de exemplu ar fi

As a result= consequently = Ca urmare; in consecinta

The consequence was that . . . = Consecinta/urmarea a fost ca . . .

The consequence of his being late was that . . . = Consecinta/urmarea intarzierii lui a fost ca . . .

in other words = cu alte cuvinte

in that case = in cazul acela

if so = daca e asa

if not = daca nu

I would rather say = as spune/zice mai degraba

a way of putting it = un fel de a spune

a better way of putting it = un fel mai bun de a zice

It would be better to . . . = Ar fi mai bine sa. . .

on the one hand / side = pe de o parte; on the other hand / side = pe de alta parte

on the contrary = dimpotriva

by contrast = prin contrast

Of course, he . . .= Desigur, el . . .

He is , of course. = El este, desigur

it is true that = este adevarat ca

There is little doubt about that. = Este putina indoiala in privinta aceasta/aceea.

There is no doubt about that. = Nu este nici o indoiala in acest sens.

The truth is that . . . = Adevarul este ca . . .

He will even read it. = El o va si citi. = El chiar o va citi.

'He likes to spend his holidays at the seaside'. 'So do we'. = Lui ii place sa-si petreaca vacanta la mare. Si noua.

'We are at the seaside'. 'So am I'. = Noi suntem la mare. Si eu.

'He can speak French'. 'So can we'. = El stie sa vorbeasca frantuzeste. Si noi.

'He cannot speak French'. 'Neither can we'; 'We can't either' = El nu stie sa vorbeasca frantuzeste. Nici noi.

the first reason = primul motiv, prima cauza

the first suggestion = prima sugestie

He feels so bad today. = El se simte asa (de) rau azi/astazi.

I do not feel that bad. = Eu nu ma simt asa (de) rau.

I expected it to be this big. = M-am asteptat sa fie asa de mare.

in the same way as = in acelasi fel ca

much similar to = mult asemanator cu

The girl other than Jane. = Alta fata decat Jane; Alta fata in afara de Jane.








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