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Find out more about the members of your group.


Find someone who   

wants to be a farmer

wanted to go to another university but was not admitted

likes laboratory work..

lives in the halls of residence

thinks seminars are more important than lectures

has never failed an exam..

is interested in environmental protection-..

would like to drive a tractor..

wants to be a famous scientist

prefers pigs to cattle

lost his way when he first came to the university.


Describe the structure of your university, using the following words and expressions: consist of, contains, belongs to, comprise, is divided into branches, head


Draw a chart of your university . In pairs, take turns to explain the organisational and the management structure of the institute.


In your group, decide what sections you would include in a brochure about your university.Listen carefully to the opinions of every member of your group expressing their likes and dislikes. Make use of the language in the box.


I'm fond of/I'm very keen on .

I like/enjoy/love/adore/do like .

There's nothing I like more than .

What I particularly like about . is

. is a marvellous way to pass your

time /to spend a day


I really don't like/dislike/hate .

I've never liked .

There's nothing I like less than .

I can't bear/stand .

is not one of my favourites

I'm not overenthusiastic about .


Homework: write the introduction to the brochure.Before you start, find other words derived from the following words: student, experience, competence, co-operation, building, management, employment.


experienced expert expertise

experiential    experimental


experimentalise    experimentally

experimentation experimenter

Then use these words in your introduction.


Work in groups . Divide the sections of the brochure about your university. Each person should be responsible for writing word processing and illustrating a section. There should be an editorial board, who collates the material into the final brochure format.Use the language in the box.

Ordering points

First of all, .

Secondly, .

As well as this, .

Finally, .

Concluding points

To sum up I would say that the main advantage of

. is .

All in all .

Alternative project:

In groups, prepare a poster about your university. The groups in turn should present their posters to the audience. The best poster and the best presentation should be voted for.


Discuss with a partner which aspects, if any, made your university attractive to you. Use the following idioms: bark up the wrong tree(choose the wrong course of action) , change horses in midstream(make new plans or choose a new leader in the middle of an important activity) ,bring home the bacon(earn your family`s living), rotten apple(the one bad person among a number of good ones), hold one's horses(wait a moment, don't do anything rash!), pecking order(the way people are ranked in relation to each other).

You are asked to write a feature about your university for a student magazine. To help you, your tutor has provided you with this description of the Edinburgh university to use as a model.


There are 4 main topics in text:

main sites


residential arrangements

present activities

Identify which paragraphs 1-8 describe each of these topics.


Decide whether the following statements are

mentioned in the text (M)

implied in the text ( I )

neither mentioned nor implied in the text (N)

Circle the appropriate answer.

The University of Edinburgh has several halls of residence. M I N

There are at least two buildings used by the Student Association. M I N

The science departments are not situated in the central precinct. M I N

The teaching of veterinary medicine is excellent in Edinburgh. M I N

More information is included in the Commonwealth Universities

Year Book or the World of Learning. M I N

Edinburgh University has kept up with technical and scientific

developments. M I N

One of Edinburgh's top priorities is postgraduate studies. M I N

Residents of Edinburgh are able to take advantage of the University. M I N

The first university building was that of the Old College. M I N

University students have numerous opportunities to do sports. M I N


Make a list of the names of the following organisational units or buildings mentioned in the text.




cultural and social facilities

The University of Edinburgh

Edinburgh is known as 'The University in the City' because its buildings are located within and across the capital whose name it bears, rather than in a single campus outwith the city limits. Those who become members of the University also become citizens of Edinburgh, able to take advantage of both university and city life.

Founded in 1583, the University has a distinguished tradition of learning and of innovation, including examples in the Arts (Edinburgh established the first Chair of English Literature in Britain), in the Sciences (with the UK's first Chair of Agriculture and latterly the first Chair and Department of Artificial Intelligence) and, of course, in Medicine and the other professions.

housed the entire University, on the site where the University began - now the home of the Law Faculty, the Art Gallery and the central offices. Also around George Square, in a mixture of new and historic buildings, are the Faculties of Arts, Music and Social Sciences, the Medical School and the main Students' Association buildings.

Two miles to the south is the King's Buildings Science campus containing virtually all the departments of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, including Agriculture. Halfway between King's Buildings and the city centre are the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine's Summerhall buildings. Seven miles to the south are the Veterinary Field Station, University Farms and the Bush Research estate,

But however distinguished its history, Edinburgh very much sees itself as a University of the 1990s committed to research and teaching covering the hi-tech disciplines of the future, as well as disciplines rooted in the past.

The University is one of the largest academic institutions in Britain and places a particular emphasis on postgraduate studies, with some 3,500 research and taught course graduate students, as well as 12,500 at undergraduate level. It offers courses and programmes in virtually all areas of advanced study, organised through eight Faculties and over 120 departments, with a teaching and research staff of some 2,400.

The Universitv is based on three main sites. Around George Square is the central precinct, including Old College - which once

(designated as the focus for the UK's first 'Technopole' or Research & Development 'Science City').

The Faculty of Divinity is located in the heart of the Old Town, just below the Castle, looking out across Princes Street gardens. The University's main residential precinct, Pollock Halls, is on a magnificent site on the edge of Holyrood Park, adjacent to the Commonwealth Swimming Pool, and some 20 minutes walk from the science or central areas. The other main residential complex is adjacent to the Castle.

If you are interested in other sources of information about the University, you can consult the 'Commonwealth Universities Year Book' or 'The World of Learning'.

Edinburgh Postgraduate Prospectus 1993




Homework assignment

Now write the article describing your university.


Fill in the gaps with the proper form of the appropriate verb from the box. Use each word only once.

provide base date establish comprise locate found house

Lancaster's modern campus university ( in 1964) is located at Bailrigg in 250 acres of parkland.

One of the largest academic institutions in the 16th century.

Residences on campus within the colleges.

The institution on four main sites.

Most of the departments in the colleges.

The extensive Pollock Halls of Residence presently ten separate modern halls.

They accommodation for around 1800 students.

The original buildings from 1776 still stand on the west side.


Fill the gaps with words/expressions from the box. Some of them could be used more times, but use them only once. Underline the complete expressions in the sentences.

adjacent easy access halfway outskirts on the edge within easy reach

The town has to the coastline.

Also of the University is the Lake District.

The theatre studio is to the art gallery.

between the warehouses and the church is the City Museum.

It is located on the south of the city.

A handsome, red-brick villa lies of London's great open spaces, Greenwich Park and Blackheath.



Visitors to a university often ask for directions.


Draw a map of your campus with its main buildings.

With a partner, ask and give directions for the different places, starting from different points.


Imagine you have invited your partner to your home town and won't be there to meet him or her on arrival.

Give directions to a place to meet, perhaps your favourite restaurant or bar, a cinema, or a place of interest. Check that your partner has understood.



List as many reasons as you can for choosing a state/private university.


Read the list on the following page and rank the items from 1 (most important) to 10

( least important) according to how important they were to you when you chose your university:

a. convenient location, commutable distance

b. highly qualified teaching staff

c. flexibility in compiling your study programme

d. national and international reputation for research

e. no entrance exam requirements

f. joint degrees offered

g. size of university

h. easy admission, no competition

i. graduates of that university have excellent employment record

j. friend or relative goes to the same university

k. sports and cultural facilities offered by the university

l. opportunity to transfer to other universities

m. convenient centralisation of all facilities on one site

n. guaranteed accommodation for all new students

o. other:


Form groups and come to a consensus on the 3 most and 3 least important factors


Report back to the class on your group's decision, giving your reasons.



Read the following extracts and decide whether the conversations are part of a lecture, a seminar, an exam, field practice, or take place in a university administration office.

Conversation 1

A: .. and can you recommend any particular books for us to read?

B: Yes, here is the list of compulsory reading for this year. As you see the first section covers marketing and distribution. In the second semester we will be dealing with the distribution of wealth; in economics that means everything that has an economic value measurable in price. But you have already been asked to select two titles on farm revenue and expenditure I believe. Tell me, which books did you find the most useful?

Conversation 2

A: Good morning. Take a seat, please. Now, many horticultural plants are grown for their underground parts. I'd like you to describe two different plants and their methods of propagation.

B: Well, first I'll describe plants with bulbs, like the onion. The bulb is a highly modified shoot, most of which is made up of colourless swollen scale leaves or leaf bases. The central apical bud contains the immature foliage leaves, the future flower, and rudimentary adventitious roots at its base.

Conversation 3

A: I wonder if you can help me. I sent you the original copy of my school leaving certificate with my application form and now I need it to apply for a grant. What shall I do?

B: I'm afraid I haven't time to look for it now, but leave your name and tell me where I can contact you, I'll try and let you have it before the end of the week.

Conversation 4

A: Today we'll be visiting the facilities housing the dairy and dual purpose breeds. I'd advise you to take notes as we go along as I'll be asking you a few questions afterwards. Don't hesitate to ask questions yourselves if there's anything you'd like me to explain.

B: I didn't realise dual purpose breeds were still recommended. Can you tell me what for?

Conversation 5

A: Cattle, sheep and goats are ruminants. These animals have a complex digestive system with four different 'stomachs'. The largest is the rumen which contains bacteria that break down the tough cellulose fibres into substances that can be more easily digested by the other simpler ' stomachs'. The rumen also synthesises important amino acids and B-vitamins. Ruminants can synthesise some of these essential amino acids from others contained in the food they eat. Later on we will be analysing the process of transformation

B: Excuse me, does this mean that we will actually analyse the stomach contents?

Conversation 6

A: Today I'm going to consider very briefly a problem connected with mechanisation of agriculture and that is the suitability of large-scale equipment. In spite of the availability of highly sophisticated technologies such as the laser plane which uses a laser beam to prepare absolutely level rice paddies and thus control water depth at flooding, in some areas the use of such machinery is merely a labour-saving device and will not result in an increase in yield

B: ( whispering to neighbour) Oh, no, not more statistics, I thought this was going to be about


Read the documents on this and on the next two pages and decide which institution you would like to study at.










These schemes of study are offered on a full-time and part-time basis, except

Transport Economics which is full-time only. Core lecture programmes are in the

evenings. Consisting of four components (two more courses and two optional

subjects) these programmes provide an authoritative and challenging

examination of the major controversies and debates in economics and related

fields of study, while offering a thorough training in the use of modern research

methods and computer techniques. Applicants will normally have a good

honours degree or equivalent in economics or a related subject. Contact

Postgraduate Secretary 05312 334460.

MA, MPhil and PhD by RESEARCH

Areas of special interest include applied economics, macroeconomic theory,

industrial and labour economics, finance and accountancy, economic and

social history, and industrial relations. Contact Postgraduate Tutor, Professor

Peter Nolan 0532 334460.

University of Reading, U.K.

Over ninety years in the service of World Agricultural & Food Production


Masters Degrees and Diplomas

Postgraduate Couses (one or two years)

Agricultural Economics MSc & Diploma Agricultural Management MSc

Animal Production Diploma Crop Physiology MSc

Food & Agricultural Biotechnology MSc Food Science MSc

Food Technology MSc - Options in Quality Assurance, Microbiology and Process Engineering

Soil Science MSc & M AgrSc Technology of Crop Protection MSc/Diploma

Tropical Agricultural Development Diploma/MSc & M AgrSc

Animal and Forage Science MSc/Diploma Agricultural and Food Chain Systems MSc/Diploma

Development of Animal Health and Production Programmes MSc/Diploma

Food Science and Technology MSc/Diploma

Laboratory Techniques and Management in Livestock Development MSc/Diploma

Plant Breeding and Crop Improvement MPhil Horticulture MSc/Diploma

Other Courses

PhD (not less than 3 years) or MPhil (not less than 2 years)

Higher degrees by research available in all the above areas and

most other aspects of Agriculture. Arrangements may sometimes be made for part of the research to be undertaken away from Reading- eg in your own country if from overseas.

Short courses (1 week to 6 months)

A range of short courses is available in Veterinary Epidemilogy, Statistical Methods, Rodent Control,

Soil and Plant Analysis and the Use of Computers in Livestock Development Courses in English

available at the University.

Enquiries concerning these courses should be addressed to:

The Sub-Dean, Faculty of Agriculture and Food (OV 91)

No. 2, Earley Gate, University of Reading, Whiteknights Road,

Reading, RG6 2AU, England, U.K.

Telephone (0734) 318374 Telex 847813 Fax (0734) 352063

Are you interested in the problems of

rural development and engineering ?

We could offer you an MSc or PG diploma in:

Land Use Planning and Management

Land Resource Management

Applied Remote Sensing

Geographic Information Systems

Range Management

Soil Conservation

Soil & Water Engineering & Management

Soil & Water Engineering

Irrigation Engineeríng & Management

Dryland Farming

Drainage & Land Reclamation Engineerig

Environmental Water Management

Agricultural Production Technology

Crop Production Technology

Engineering for Agriculture

Agricultural Machinery Engineering &

Mechanization Managernent

Agrochemicals Application Technology

Rural Engineering

Community Water Supplies

Engineering for Rural Development

Postharvest Technology

Tropical Crop Storage & Processing

Crop Market Technology

Marketing & Management

Marketing & Product Management

Management for Agricultural Development

Agribusiness Management

Information Technology

Silsoe College

A Faculty of the Cranfield Institute of Technology

For further details and application form contact: Student Recruitment Executive,

Room 78, Silsoe College, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4DT. Telephone: 0525 60428

The University of Liverpool

Faculty of Engineering

Postgraduate Study

The Faculty of Engineering, which has over 200 postgraduates, enjoys a high reputation for postgraduate teaching and research with excellent facilities and a wide range of topics for study. Higher degrees may be obtained either wholly by research or by a combination of taught courses and research.

The University is sited on a single modern campus close to the city centre which contains postgraduate halls of residence and a large sports centre. The city is noted for its cultural, recreational and shopping facilities.

Postgraduate research degrees

Facilities to study by research for the M. Phil or the Ph. D degree are available in the Departments of the Faculty which are:

(a) Civil Engineering

(b) Electrical Engineering and Electronics

(c) Industrial Studies

(d) Materials Science and Engineering

(e) Mechanical Engineering

There are also associated facilities in Building Engineering within the School of Architecture and

Building Engineering.

The research topics currently being studied in all these Departments are widespread and are

continually developing. Only an indication is given by the coverage of the taught courses listed

below. Further details of these research subjects are available from the Heads of the above


The submission of a thesis and, in the case of the Ph.D an oral examination are required for

the award of the degree.

Postgraduate courses

Courses of one calendar year duration lead to the degree of M.Sc. (Eng.). These courses are:

(1) Maritime Civil Engineering

(2) Structural Engineering (Civil Engineering)

(3) Environmental Civil Engineering

(4) Microelectronics Systems and Telecommunications

(5) Power Plants and Energy Related Studies (Mechanical Engineering)

(6) Mechanical Systems Engineering

(7) Advanced Engineering Materials

(8) Industrial Materials Engineering

(9) Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Technology

The last of these courses is provided jointly by departments (b), (c) and (e) above.

All these courses next start on 5th October 1992, then on 4th October 1993. Prior courses in English are provided by the English Language Unit of the University and for some entrants are compulsory.

Each course includes six months of lectures and laboratory work, assessed by written examination

and continuous assessment. The remainder of the year is spent on a supervised research project

leading to a dissertation.


Studentships for research studies or for the above courses are currently available from all the above

departments. A few are available to students from outside the E.C.

Part-time study

Provision, in certain instances, can be made for part-time study.


All initial applications for post-graduate study should be addressed to:

The Sub-Dean (Postgraduate Admissions)

Faculty of Engineering, The University of Liverpool,

P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England.

Telephone: 051794-4924. Telex: 627095. Fax: 051794 4848

Applicants should indicate their interest in either the research school of one of the above

Departments or in one of the above courses. Ap




Read this letter of enquiry and discuss the points below with a partner.

Manastur Street

Cluj Napoca


Phone: (+40) 264-596384

Phone: (+40) 264-596384

25 November 2003

The Admissions Office

Harper Adams University


Shropshire TF10 8NB

Great Britain

Dear Sir / Madam

Please would you send me a current prospectus and an application form for admission to a course leading to an M.Sc. in agriculture at your university.

I am a Romanian national in my last year of undergraduate studies at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj. I would therefore appreciate it if you told me what the entry requirements for this course are. Please could you also indicate what the fees are and whether I might be eligible for any grants, scholarship, or other funding.

I look forward to hearing from you and thank you in advance for your assistance.

Yours faithfully

Paul Roman

Who has written this letter and where does the name first appear?

Why is the name written like this?

Who is the letter written to and where is this name placed?

What do you notice about the punctuation at the beginning and end of the letter?

Notice how the date is written. Could it be written another way? Could it be placed elsewhere on the page?

Is the salutation 'Dear Sir' and ending 'Yours faithfully' consistent? Do you know the rule about this?

Does the letter look well presented? Is presentation important?

How many requests are made in the letter?

Highlight the different ways used to make a request.


Here is the main part of the Admissions Secretary's (Mrs Margaret Rowlands) reply.

Lay out the letter that Mrs Rowlands would send, using the correct addresses, putting the text into paragraphs and punctuating it as necessary.

Thank you for your enquiry of 25 November about admission to Harper Adams University. I have pleasure in enclosing an application form, the 2004 prospectus and details about entry requirements as you requested. Unfortunately we are not able to offer any funding for your studies but I suggest you approach relevant authorities in your own country or The British Council in Romania which may provide scholarships for certain fields of study. I wish you luck and look forward to receiving your application. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you need further information.


Many students like to spend some time at a university abroad during their undergraduate years. Page 19. is an example of an international undergraduate admission application.


Read through the instructions and guidance on page 14.

Consult the list of schools and subjects most relevant for you on page 15.

Read through the notes you made during a consultation with your home tutor when you discussed this application.


Now fill in the form. Make sure your handwriting is legible.


Discuss with a partner what questions you think might be asked at an interview that are not on the form. How would you answer them?


The University of British Columbia welcomes your application for undergraduate admission.

This form is to used by international applicants who have not previously attended UBC and wish to apply to the undergraduate programs of study. Former UBC students must complete an Application for Re-admission form.

To ensure the timely processing of your application, please read carefully all instructions noting application and document deadlines. Complete all sections of the application form. Ensure ihat all transcripts submitted in support of your application are official (contain original seals or signatures). Photocopies, Fax and student's

Copies are not acceptable. UBC will respond in writing to your application as soon as possible. We advise you to apply early as delays due to volume are expected near application deadlines.

UBC has a telephone voice response system which can be used to obtain undergraduate admissions information. Once you have been Issued a student reference number, you can obtain information on the current status of your application. Phone (604) 822-3014.

Completing the Application Form


Complete Section A in full.

All new applicants to the University must enclose an Application Processing Fee. For applicants presenting academic documents from within the province of B.C., the fee is $17.00 Canadian. For applicants presenting Academic documents from outside B.C., the fee is $42.00 Canadian ($17.00 Processing Fee and $26.00 Evaluation Fee). This fee is non-refundable and should be made payable to the. The University of British Columbia. Applications received without the appropriate fee will not be processed until this is received.


Complete Section B in full.

For other than student authorisation, proof of immigration status must be submitted with this application.

Note: a letter of acceptance from the University is required in order to obtain a student authorisation to study in Canada. Detailed information on Canadian immigration regulations for students is available from all Canadian embassies and consular offices.


Indicate in Section C the category under which you are applying for admission (i.e., what type of student you will be at UBC).

Degree Diploma: Student enrolled in studies leading to a degree or diploma from UBC.

Unclassified: Student enrolled in study not intended to lead to a particular degree or diploma. An unclassified student will normally already have a degree. Course selection and total credits allowed may be restricted.

Visitor: Student in good standing enrolled in a degree program at another accredited university, who wishes to take courses at UBC for transfer to the home university. An official Letter of Permission and transcript from the home university is required. Some faculties with limited enrolment may not be able to accommodate visiting students in particular courses.

Exchange: A visiting student studying at UBC under Senate approved Education Abroad Program and enrolled in studies for transfer to a degree program at another University.

Auditor: Student registered in a credit course whose participation is limited to ihat deemed appropriate by the instructor but who, in general, is expected to maintain the same schedule of readings as regular student although not expected to write examination. No credit is awarded upon course completion. Audit status will appear on the student's record.


Indicate in Section D the session in which you wish to enrol.


Refer to the list of degree programs of page 2 of the Guide and record in Section E:

. the Faculty of School in which you wish to enrol;

. title of degree or diploma sought;

. intended major or specialization (if known).

Note: If you are entering a program in preparation for transfer to another program, record the Faculty / School in which you will first register (e.g., Faculty of Arts or Faculty of Science for the Commerce preparatory year).

Due to limited enrolment and competitive admission to many programs, applicant are advised to indicate a second choice of program. Applicants should be aware that admission to a Faculty / School does not guarantee entrance to a particular major or honours program.

Section F - TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) and MELAB (Michigan English Language Assessment Battery)

Official TOEFL scores should be submitted directly from the Testing Centre. Applicants wishing to take the TOEFL should write directly to: TOEFL, Box 899, Princeton, N.J., 08541, U.S.A.

Official MELAB scores should be submitted directly from the Testing Centre. Applicants wishing to take the MELAB, should write directly to: MELAB. English Language Institute Testing and Certification Division, 3020 North University Building, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. 48109-1057, U.S.A.


Transcripts: Applicants are responsible for submitting official transcripts (photocopies are not acceptable) for all secondary (high school) and post -secondary (e.g., college/university) institutions attended. Official transcripts become the property of the University. Irreplaceable documents will be returned upon written request. Except in those cases where the University is able to consider Early Admission based on interim grades, application for admission will not be evaluated until all official and final documents are received by the University.

Note: If you have attended a post-secondary institution

Outside Canada, please submit a calendar or catalogue

(English Translation required).

Freedom of Information

Personal information provided on this application is collected pursuant to the University Act. R.S.B.C. 1979, c.419, as amended, and the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, R.S.B.C. 1992. c.61. as amended, s.26. The information will be used for the purposes of admission, registration and other decisions on your academic status at the University. Information may also be provided to University student alumni bodies Information may also

be used for research purposes, including research through the records of the BC Educational Records Linkage File. In all cases when used for research individual indentities will not be disclosed.

For further information, please contact Dr. R. Spencer, Registrar, The University of British Columbia, 2016-1874 East Mall, Vancouver, EN Canada, V6T 1Z1.

Schools at University of British Columbia and subjects which might be most relevant for me





Food Processing

Environment Protection

Global Awareness

Consumer and Family Sciences

Food Science



Health Science

Personal Finance

Agricultural Engineering





Land Surveying


Human Resource Management

Organizational Behavior

Financial Management

Marketing Management


Building Construction and Contracting


Electrical Engineering

Industrial Technology

Mechanical Engineering

Notes: discussion with tutor 5 December 2003

Should apply as a Visiting Student from September 2004 to April 2005 on a course leading to B.S. (Americans use this abbreviation for Bachelor of Science degree, not B.Sc.).

My university should accept credits and I can carry on with my degree back in Romania.

Have to take TOEFL exam. Get in touch with the American Embassy.

Have to send 'transcripts' which are official records of progress through school and university.

Only thing to do is send photocopies of pages from index book and send translation too.

Hope they accept this! Better explain in covering letter.


Complete white areas only - please read instructions on preceding pages

The University of British Columbia

Undergraduate Admissions

Office of the registrar

2016 - 1874 East Mall

Vancouver, BC, Canada VGT 121

A personal data and application fees See instructions Section A










APPLICATION FEE (Non refundable)

$17.00 enclosed (B,C Documents only)

$42.00 enclosed (out of province documents)




Female Date of birth Country of birth First Language

If you have any disability that you wish to be noted, please attach a covering letter

B CITIZENSHIP check appropriate immigration status

Student authorization

Permanent resident Data of entry into Canada Country of citizenship

Visitor or other visa

C Applicant category See instructions Section C D Sessions aPPLICATION dEADLINES DOCUMENT DEADLINES

Degree or Diploma    Exchange Winter September -April 19__ March 31 June 15

Unclassified    Auditor    Summer Term 1 (evening) May -July 19__ February 28 April 15

Visitor Summer Term 2 (daytime) July - August 19__ February 28 April 15


Do you intend to complete a UBC degree? yes no

Have you previously applied to UBC yes no month . . . . . . . .19 . . . ..

Faculty/School Degree/Diploma sought Intended major/specification

1st Choice

2nd Choice

No evaluation will be done for 2nd choice program if admitted to 1st choice

FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL APPLICIANTS ONLY- if you wish to enrol in pre-Commerce studies (year 1), please check Arts pre-Commerce Science, pre Commerce

F TOEFL or MELAB REQUIREMENT Have you written the TOEFL? no yes month . . .. . .19 . . MELAB? no yes

G ACADEMIC HISTORY See instructions Section G

Have you ever failed a year or been required to withdraw from UBC or another college or university? no yes---please name the

Institution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Secondary school attended or currently attending

Name of school



Date of graduation

Year month

All college, university or post-secondary institutions attended, currently attending or attended - most recent first

Name of institution



year month


year month




year month


I agree that BC secondary school interim and final grades may be released to UBC.

I will notify Undergraduate Admissions before I register for any course at UBC of any additional post-secondary studies taken subsequent to the date of this application.

I accept that if, in reading and completing this application, I knowingly or carelessly provided untrue or incomplete information, (a) any offer of

admission, whether accepted or not, may be withdrawn by UBC; (b) I may be required to withdraw from any course in which I am enrolled; (c) I may be subject to academic discipline.

I agree that UBC may verify any of the information provided by contacting the relevant institution.

I agree, if admitted to UBC, to comply with all rules and regulations of the University, present and future.


Prepare a 1-minute speech about entrance examinations. Now take turns with your partner to argue for and against them. Make use of the language in the box:

a race    photos goods

an exhibition    collections models

a competition    new models books

a contest paintings photos

an examination    a feeling an attitude


Unit 2 Lesson 2


Covering letters are an important element in the application process. They enable the applicants to show how their skills and interests fit the course for which they are applying. They might contain some background information as well.


Read the following letter.

School of Agriculture

AGAD Building

Purdue University

West Lafayette

IN 47907.

May 14, 2004

The Director of Admissions,

Wageningen Agricultural University,

P.O. Box

6700 HB Wageningen,

The Netherlands.

Dear Director of Admissions:

I wish to apply for admission to Wageningen University as a visiting student for the spring semester of 2005. I have the pleasure of enclosing a completed application form and transcripts from my high school and university.

I have been studying in the School of Agriculture at Purdue University for the last three years and am now specializing in Agricultural Economics. I am particularly interested in Grain Marketing and would like to study the comparison of grain marketing in the USA and in Europe. I believe that the opportunity to follow relevant courses in the Department of Agricultural Economics at Wageningen will give me the European perspective I need.

I would like to be able to transfer my credits from Wageningen to my home university to complete my degree here in 2006.

I very much hope that my application will be considered favorably.


Chris Vidaver

Encl. Application form



Discuss the following questions with a partner.

How does the layout of this letter compare with the letter on page ?

Do you prefer the 'block' or the 'indented' layout? Why?

What does 'Encl.' at the end of the letter mean?

The writer says that he encloses 'transcripts,' in other words an official record of his progress and achievements through school and university. What documents would you be able to send, and what do you call them?

How well do you think the writer explains why he wants to go to Wageningen?

Does he need to give any further information? What?

Would you accept this student on an exchange programme? Why or why not?


Write a covering letter to accompany your application form to UBC.

Present your letter well, choosing one layout and being consistent.

Give enough information about yourself and your intended course of study to persuade the authorities to accept you.

Check your spelling and accuracy.


Financing university studies is a problem all over the world and different countries have different solutions for it. We will see some examples of the various systems.


Read the following extracts.

Find words or word groups related to the main idea, the 'outside sources of raising money for education'.

Write them in the spider chart on the next page.


Our adventure began about 10 years ago, when a colleague was relating to me how much it cost to send his children to college. When he started talking about costs of over $20,000 per year, I started paying closer attention.

At that time, our boys were three and five years old.

A little research showed that college costs had begun a steep climb during the mid-1970s. Going further back, what had cost about $3,500 when I entered college in 1960 had increased over 500 % and was still going up. Earnings - at least my earnings - had not kept pace .

A quick look at outside sources - scholarships, college grants, gifts from our parents or loans from our employers - showed us that none could be counted on.

Savings and investment seemed the only way.


At the most sought-after institutions, the news is even more disheartening. The Consortium On Financing Higher Education, a research organ-ization funded by top U.S. colleges, says the median tuition fee for its 31 members this year is $19,110. When room, board and fees are in-cluded, the average final bill is a scary $26,874.

Indeed, the Federal government will lend nearly $18 billion to some 4 million American college students this year. By far, the most popular vehicle is the Stafford loan, where the student does not have to start repaying the principal until after graduation. Its variable rate, which is reset each July, is the lowest in the array of available loans, currently standing at 7.43 %, up from 6.22 % in the 1993-94 school term. A student can borrow up to $5,500 a year.

But perhaps the most significant trend in financing a college education is the growing use of the 'financial aid package' put together by the schools themselves and now needed by nearly half the students at private colleges. At COFHE schools, for example, this year's typical package consists of a grant ranging around $13,000, a loan of about $4,000, and a campus job that yields another $1,800. That leaves the family to contribute $8,074 to pay off the grand total of $26,874.


Financing Studies


How much does it cost you to attend university or college?

Complete the table below covering the first month of your studies at university.

Fill in the boxes below with the amount spent on your academic and personal expenses.

Add up the total cost.

My First Month's University Costs

Tuition and Fees

Books and Supplies

Room and Board


Cinema or Theatre Tickets

Pubs, Restaurants or Discos

Hobbies Membership Cards

Estimate of Total Expense


Work in pairs.

Ask your partner about his/her 'First Month's University Costs', on the basis of his or her chart.

Discuss why his or her given costs are lower or higher than yours.

Speak about financial problems and solutions.

Do you think parents should contribute to the cost of university education?


Fill in the gaps with the appropriate preposition from the box below. You will use some of them more than once.

via in for (twice) by to (three times) on at


The University's fees include all tuition costs, but do not include other expenses such as travel, field course costs, fees payable to professional bodies.

UK Students

If you are not eligible (1) a grant, you are required to pay your fees

full when you enrol at the beginning of each year of the course. Some students may propose an arrangement (3) phased payment which must be acceptable

(4) the University and (5) the student concerned.

EC Students

Fees for students from EC countries are normally set (6) the same rate as for UK students. These fees will also apply (7) migrant workers or their children. You may be eligible to have them paid for you (8) the Department for Education (9) a local education authority, in which case the University can advise you (10) the application process.



Fill in the table individually.

Then work in groups and discuss the advantages and disadvantages and of different types of accomodation, including living with parents.

Halls of residence

Renting a room

Living with parents




Work with a partner.

Speak about memorable events of your school years.




student societies





Students can follow various courses of study in agriculture. Here are some examples.


Look at the following expressions and put them into the appropriate column in the table below.

management, marketing companies, accountancy, farmers, chartered engineers,

colleges, universities, engineering, horticulture, marketing, polytechnic,

technicians, chartered surveyors, lecturer, business, production agriculture,

tax authorities, land management, local authorities, conservation groups,

animal husbandry.





In pairs describe your faculty, specialization and your subject.



Three extracts have been removed from the following article which was taken from the Undergraduate Prospectus of Edinburgh University. They are printed below.

Read the article. Insert the extracts in the appropriate spaces and explain your reasons

to a partner.

Learning contexts vary from department to department, but, in general, formal lecturing is complemented by group tutorials and seminars and, in many scientific subjects by laboratory and practical classes. The University's highly developed computing infrastructure and body of experience is drawn upon for teaching in many areas, through computing laboratories, workshops and public-access terminals.

Audio-visual methods are also utilized.

For some first-year subjects, the number in class can top 300, but in subsequent courses the numbers are much smaller. Initially, therefore, the tutor forms a link between the student and

the course.

The lecture provides a guide to the subject-matter and sets out the foundations on which the student must build.

The success of the system depends on the student. The number of hours spent in lectures, tutorials or practicals varies for each individual. In some of the applied sciences the number of hours may be considerable while in an Arts course the formal teaching periods may be relatively few. Normally, only a few hours will be spent each day at classes, and private study is the major element in the student's timetable.

These include television teaching programmes, video-taped interviews and discussions, film strip programmes, and slides. First-year students usually have three or four lectures in each subject per week plus a tutorial.

The establishment of a working routine which uses this time to the greatest effect is the most important task of the new undergraduate.

The tutorial provides the opportunity to develop themes or discuss problems on the basis of written work.


Compare the contexts mentioned here with those at your institution.


Which suits you best? Which suits you least? Why? Discuss your preferences.


In Unit 2 you practised filling in an application form for a place as a visiting student at a foreign university. Sometimes you will have to write a CV (curriculum vitae) instead of filling in an application form.


Read the following CV.

Curriculum vitae

Personal details


Susan Priestley


14 Newton Street


Worcestershire WO42LZ


Date of birth

1 January 1971




Conversational French

Computer Literacy

Wordperfect, Lotus 1-2-3


"O" levels

"A" levels


Desford Community High School, Desford

English Language Mathematics History

English Literature Biology French

Technical Drawing Chemistry

Mathematics Chemistry Biology

University of Sussex

BSc(Hons) in Biological Sciences - 2(II)

Work history

Sept 1992-Feb 1993

Summer 1991

Summer 1990

College positions

Summer 1989


BLACKFRIARS CAFÉ, Desford - Waitress

OPEN GOLF TOURNAMENT, Birkdale - Waitress

Entertainments Officer

> Accountable for a budget of £ 15,000

> Required to prepare accounts/reports



Aerobics, netball, cinema, theatre, reading


Available on request


Below is a list of do's and don'ts for writing CVs. How far do you agree with them?


write briefly

spend time getting your layout right

stress relevant skills, qualifications and experience

present a positive image

show knowledge of institutions (speak their language)

check the final version carefully

Do not

write at great length

give unnecessary information

go back into the distant past

use the same CV for each application

make spelling mistakes

tell lies

give up applying if you are unsuccessful


Write your own CV, either for a place as a student at a university abroad, or for a job that you would like. You might like to find an advertisement to help you. In this case, please hand in a copy of the advertisement with your CV.


CVs should be accompanied by a covering letter. Look back at the corrections to your covering letter in Unit 2 Lesson 2, then write a covering letter to go with your CV.

Selection interviews

Students are being selected for an exchange programme. Three of them have the chance to study at Purdue University for one semester. As part of the selection process they are interviewed in English about their plans and expectations in connection with the potential study trip.


Discuss with a partner what you think would be fair criteria for selection.

Write 5 questions for the interview.




Students spend a lot of their time in the library. It might be difficult for some new users to find the right sections in a foreign university's library.



Student A should ask his/her partner to find out where to

make some photocopies

ask for a handbook to be borrowed from another library

read a novel for leisure

find the Encyclopaedia Britannica

search for certain titles on fresh water fish

Student B should give the name and location of the sections asked about, on the basis of his floor map of the library.

Student A now should label the missing sections of his/her map.


Now Student B should ask his/her partner to find out where to

study the back issues of the Financial Times

have a bite to eat

make a phonecall with a phone card

renew your membership

Student A should give the information consulting his floor map of the library.

Student B will now label the missing sections on his map.

Finally, compare your maps to see if you've got the sections and locations right.


Now you are being asked to help a new library user.

Try and answer his/her questions without looking at the flowchart.

A1: Quite often we have to spend a whole day in the library. Apart from the usual lending and borrowing are there any other services provided by the library?


A2: What happens if the book I'd like to borrow is on loan?

B2: ..

A3: We quite often need reference books. What kind of reference books can you find in the library?


A4: Where can I look up my own loan record?


A5: What are the criteria for accessing a book?


A6: How many ways are there of accessing a book?


A7: Can you tell me where the computerised on-line public catalogue is established and how to use it?


A8: When shall I return the book?


A9: How many books can I take at a time?


A10: How many times can I renew a book?



With a partner discuss some problems you have encountered in libraries, these may include rules and regulations or organisation. ( for example taking back overdue books, fines etc.)



On the following page you can see a number of statements people have made about learning.

Interview your partner to find out how far s/he agrees or disagrees with them.

Note down his or her opinion briefly in the questionnaire.

Be prepared to report back to the class.





1. Learning takes place in the classroom.

2. Attendance at lectures and seminars should be optional.

3. The teacher is responsible for my progress.

4. Students should have the freedom to choose their teachers.

5. Teachers should have the freedom to choose their students.

6. Computers should play a more important part in the teaching process.

7. Students should not be asked to evaluate one another's work.

8. Assessment is better through project work then testing.

9. Written work should not be given as home assignments.

10. I cannot learn anything useful from another student in pairwork activities.




Read through the sentences and fill in the missing words in the crossword.

1. Kind of collection in a library to be consulted there but not available for loan.

2. Work station in a computer network system.

3. List of courses at a meal, and also part of a computer system.

4. Essential word.

5. Computerized public catalogue of a library.

6. Site or place where something can be found.

7. Names/places/goods, etc. in a special order.

8. Sheet of microfilm.

9. Person's legal, social or professional position in relation to others.

10. Specimens of books, stamps, etc. gathered or obtained.

11. Dictionary of classified synonyms and antonyms.

12. Writer.

13. An alphabetical list of names, subjects, etc. together with page numbers, usually

placed at the end of a book or publication.

14. Accessible, obtainable.

15. A summary of a subject, consisting of a systematic listing of its most important




















Add letters to complete the incomplete words.

All degrees are divided into three levels. Full-ti.. students ta.. one ye.. to comp. each le, whereas pa..-time stud. take o.. and a ha.. to t.. years.

How., students o. sandwich o. language cou. will usu. take a. extra ye.. to comp.

their deg since a ye.. will b. spent o. a wo.. placement o. abroad.

T. gain a deg, 24 un must b. successfully comp.. .

All stu.. build u. credits throug. their deg course b. completing un which a.. individually asse. and gra .

This sys makes i. easier f.. students t. transfer bet. courses wit London Guil. University. I. also ma it poss. to tran. to ot courses a. many univer throughout

Bri. and Eur since LG.'. system con.. to t.. nationally recog.. Credit Accum. and Tran. Scheme (CA..).

Credit transfer raises a number of questions.


Exchange programmes


You have been admitted to the Purdue exchange programme. Congratulations!

You want to find out as much about it as possible.You will meet new people, will have the chance to visit new towns, and will eat various food. Be careful what adjectives you match to these nouns.

making a study plan

you have the chance of studying abroad at Purdue University for two semesters. You have been admitted to the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and should now register your study plan. You have narrowed your choice to courses either in Agricultural Economics, or in Ecological Agriculture. Since you are a visiting student for only two semesters, your requirements may be different from those of full-time home students indicated in the Calendar. You have been told that you should take a minimum of twenty-four credits for the two semesters, but may take up to twenty-seven if you wish. Twelve credits must be taken in the 'core' courses and twelve or more credits can be chosen from the list of options.


Read about the programs offered by the two Departments of Purdue University. Decide which of the programs you might like to follow.

Skim the description of courses to confirm whether they are of interest to you.

Now read selected course descriptions more carefully to make your study plan.

Fill in the grid below when you have made your choice.






Course No




Course No




Compare your study plan with that of a partner.

Explain how you have made your choices and find out what made your partner choose his or hers.




Raymond Building Rm. R3-019

Tel. (514) 398-7820



Assistant Prolessor: PAUL THOMASSIN



Agricultural Economics Major

Increasingly complex economic problems facing the agriculture and food system have intensified the need for specialized knowledge and training in the field of agricultural economics. The curriculum is designed to provide students with this knowledge and with analyti­cal and decision making skills required for a career in this field in either the public or private sector. The selection of courses from the agribusiness or agricultural system orientation permits a degree of specialization along those lines, in conjunction with the required core courses listed below.

Core Courses, 27 credits



334-200A    Principles of Microeconomics . 3

334-201 B    Principles of Macroeconomics 3

334-2308 Economics of Marketing . . . 3

334-3208 Economics of Agriculture Production . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

334-425A    Agricultural Econometrics . . . . 3

267-211A Principles of Plant Science. . . 3

342-250A    Principles of Animal Science . .. 3

372-210A    Principles of Soil Science .. . . 3

A microcomputer applications course

(approved by advisor) . . . . . .. . . . 3

A statistical methods course(approved by advisor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.



The development of commercial agriculture is characterized by a large supporting sector of manufacturing and service companies in­volved in the supply of inputs to farming and the transportation, processing and marketing of agricultural products. Career oppor­tunities in this field reguire management and marketing skills as well as a thorough knowledge of agriculture. The following courses together with the core courses listed above, are designed to pro­víde these skills.

Additional required courses: 33 credits


380-242A    Management Theories and Practices . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 3

334-231 B Economic Systems of Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3

280-211 Accounting I . . . . . . .. . 3

271-313 Managerial Accounting I . . 3

280-341 Finance I . . . . . . . . ..3

425-20t Effective Written Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

278-382 Introduction to International Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

334-331 A Farm Business Management . .3

382-446A Personnel Management . . . .. 3

334-4508 Agribusiness Management . 3

334-4528 Studies in Agribusiness .. . 3

Total Required Course Credits for the Option 60

Electives to meet the minimum 90 credit requirement for the degree.


Macdonald Stewart Building- Rm. MS3-014

Tel. (514) 398-7911



Associate Professors: STUART B. HILL; DAVID J. LEWIS


Emeritus Curator: VERNON R. VICKERY


This minor program is designed to focus on the principles underly­ing the practice of ecological agriculture and is suitable for stu­dents wishing to farm, do extension and government work, and those intending to pursue post graduate studies in this field. The minor can be associated with existing major programs in the Faculty, but ín some instances it may reguire more than 90 credits to meet the requirements of both the major and the minor.

Students are advised to consult their Major Program adviser and the Academic Adviser of the Minor in their first year. At the time of registration for their penultimate year, students must declare their intent to obtain a Minor in Ecological Agricuture. With the agree­ment of their Major Program adviser they must submit their pro­gram of courses already taken and to be taken in their final year to the Academic Adviser of the Ecological Agriculture Minor. The Aca­demic Adviser of the Ecological Agriculture Minor will then certify which courses the student will apply toward the minor and that the student's program conforms with the requirements of the minor.

The following 4 courses (12 credits) must be taken.

330-2508 Principles of Ecological Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . 3

330-430A Ecological Agriculture Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 3

330-3308 Technology for Low input Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

350-335A Soil Ecology and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

In additon,12 credits must be chosen from the following list

in consultation with the Academic Adviser for the Minor.

330-401B Integrated Crop Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

334-333A Resource Economics . . .. 3

340-434B Weed Biology and Control3

344-205B Principles of Ecology . . . . 3

346-451A Plant Ecology . . . .. . . . 3

349-311BEthology . .. . . . . . . . . .. 3

350-452A Biocontrol of Insect Pests. .. 3

362-331B Microbial Ecology . . . . .3

387-300B Cropping Systems . . . . .. .. . 3

372-430A Soil Biochemistry . . . . . 3

An appropriate Animal Science course . . 3

Notes: 1) Most courses listed at the 300 level and higher prerequisites. Although instructors may waive prerequisite(s) in some cases, students are urged to prepare their program of study well before their final year.

2) Not all courses are available in any given year. Consult departmental listings for full course descriptions and offerings.

4. Description of Courses



(3 credits; 3 lectures and one 2-seminar.). Historical overview; eco­logical basis; environmental, nutritional, socio-cultural, economic and intemational implications; practical examples from soil manage­ment, pest and disease control; integrated crop and livestock pro­duction and marketing systems; appropriate technology; agronomic, economic, institutional and political opportunities for change.

Professor S.B.HilI

330-330B TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW INPUT AGRICULTURE. (3 credits; 2 lectures and one 2-hr. seminar, restricted enrolment; preference given to students in the Ecological Agriculture Minor). Underlying principles and analysis of equipment and techniques for low input systems of crop production, animal housing, waste man­agement, soil and water management and food/feed processing and storage.

Professor Aly-Hassan

330-401B INTEGRATED CROP PROTECTION. (3 credits; 3 lec­tures. Prerequisites: 350-330A). Interdisciplinary approach to plant protection. I P M concepts of economic thresholds, monitoring and forecasting, epidemiology, population dynamics, simulation, delivery systems and other basic elements are integrated with the control components within the agroecosystem.

Professors T.C. Paulitz and R.K. Stewart

330-411A INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURE. (3 credits; 3 lectures and 1 conference). A study of the climate, soils and major eco­nomic plant and animal species in tropical and sub-tropical regions; cropping and agro-forestry systems; pest and disease problems; soil and water management; environmental, health and nutrition, and economic issues in rural development; energy and technology for developing countries; the role of intemational aid and development agencies; case studies on various aspects of food and agricultural systems in developing countries will be presented.

Professor C. Madramootoo

330-430A ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS. (3 credits; 2 lectures and 1 conference). A study of intemational agriculture; physical, biological and social resource basis for agriculture in de­veloping countries; land tenure and marketing; technology transter and programs; sugar, cassava and animal production systems; rural development programs.

Professor C. Madramootoo

330-495D,N SEMINAR AND ASSIGNMENT. (2 credits; 1 lecture). Preparation. presentation and discussion of reports upon approved agricultural subjects chosen in consultation with staff members in­volved in the subject concemed.

Professor K.A. Stewart


344-120A GENERAL BIOLOGY. (3 credits; 3 lectures. 1 lab.). The basis of life in terms of structures and processes; the cell, issues organs, systems, organisms. societies: plant and animal structure, common functions of metabolism, nutrition, growth, perception. re­production: introduction to embryology, ecology, genetics evolution. Higher animals and plants are emphasized.

344-200A BIOLOGY OF ORGANISMS I. (3 credits; 3 lectures and 1 lab.). The major taxonomic divisions of living orqanisms: the Protozoa wifh special reference to parasitic forms: animal em­bryology; a survey of the structure and biology of the major phyla, with emphasis on animal parasites and entomology.

Professor McFarlane and Staff

344-201B BIOLOGY OF ORGANISMS II. (3 credits: 3 lectures and one 3-hr. lab). An introduction to the study of algae, fungi, bryo­phytes and vascular plants. Evoutionary principles are introduced and applied a comparative study of the structural and reproduc­tive characters of the major groups. Topics in higher plant physi­ology such as photosynthesis, growth and development and plant water relations are also introduced.

Professor Waterway

344-202B CELLULAR BIOLOGY. (3 credits: 4 lectures). Cellular biology in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, including their interac­tion with viruses. Structure, function und replication of theoretical cell types with the emphasis on structure and structurally related function. Some examples of specialized cells are then provided to illustrate some of the differences between cell types. Some back­ground in biochemistry is required.

Professor Niven and staff

344-205B PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY. (3 credits: 2 lectures and 1 conference). The interactions of organisms and the physical envi­ronment. Ecological principles will be discussed at the level of the individual, the population and the community.

Professors Hill. Knowles and Bider


346-252B PLANT ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY. (3 credits; 2 lec­tures and one 2-hr. lab.). A detailed study of cells, cell division, tis­sues and their development, and the general anatomy of vascular plants.

Professor Donnelly

348-353B PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. (4 credits; 3 lectures and one 3-hr. lab.). Respiration, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, water rela­tions, translocation of solutes and plant development.

Professor Sparace

346-358A SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. (4 credits, 2 lectures, 1 3-hr. lab, plus a 5 day field week, held the week preceding the start of classes). Principles of classification and identification of vascular plants with special emphasis on those families of economic and practical importance; also an introduction to modem taxonomic methods. Field trips.

Professor Waterway

346-451A PLANT ECOLOGY. (3 credits; 3 lectures and 1 3-hr. lab.). A study of the major vegetation units; the influence of envi­ronmental factors on the evolution, distribution, and succession of plant communities; and on the distribution, form and function of plant species. Methods of ecological analyses.

Professor Sparace


340-331A CEREAL CROPS. (3 credits; 3 lectures and 1 3-hr. Iab. period. Prerequisite: 367-211 A). Cereal crops (small grains, corn, etc.), including historical development, economic importance, botanical relationships, geographical distribution ot types and culti­vars; cultural practices in cereal crop production; quality factors as­sociated with grading, processing and utilization of cereal crop products.

Professor Smith

340-332B INDUSTRIAL CROPS. (3 credits; 3 lectures and 1 3-hr. lab. Prerequisite: 367-211 A). A study of temperate and subtropical crops grown for oil, fibre, sugar and other industrial products. At­tention to historical development and economic importance, botani­cal types and cultivars, cultural practices, quality factors, grading processing and utilization.

Professor Coulman

340-333A FORAGE CROPS. (3 credits; 3 lectures and 1 3-hr. Iab. Prerequisite: 367-211A). The ecology, quality physiology and pro­duction of the important forage species of Eastem Canada. The scientific basis for modem management und utilization practices. Winter survival, seed production and conservation. Laboratories are devoted to a morphological study of our major forage species.

Professor Coulman

340-434B WEED BIOLOGY AND CONTROL. (3 credits; 3 lectures und 1 3-hr. lab. Prerequisite: 367-211 A). A study of the biology of undesirable vegetation as related to the principles of prevention and physical, biological, managerial and chemical control. Emphasis on the environmental impact of the different methods of weed control.

Professor Watson

340-435B PLANT BREEDING. (3 credits; 3 lectures and 1 2-hr. Iab. Prerequisite: 367-211A and 356-204A,B and 356-205A,B). Repro­duction of cultivated plants. Variability and heritability. Breeding methods for self and cross pollinated crops.

Professor Watson


350-330A INSECT BIOLOGY AND CONTROL. (3 credits: no lec­tures, one lab.; and project). Each student plans, in consultation with the instructor, a program from a wide range of modules. These are designed to introduce insect structure, physiology, develop­ment systematics, evolution, ecology and control. The course stresses interrelationships, integrated pest control and information storage and retrieval.

Professor Hill

350-335A SOIL ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT. (3 credits; 3 lec­tures and 1 3-h. lab: Prerequisites: 372-210A end 344-2058.). The physical and chemical environment of soil organism; survey of soil microflora and fauna; processes and optimal agronomic systems of management consistent with the goals of ecological agriculture.

Professor Hill

560-452A BIOCONTROL OF INSECT PESTS. (3 credits; 3 lec­tures). Modern concepts of integrated control techniques and principles of insect pest management, with emphasis on biological control (use of predators, parasites and pathogens against pest insects), population monitoring and manipulation of environmental, behavioural and physiological factors in the pest's way of life. Physical, cultural, and genetic controls and an introduction to the use of non-toxic biochemical controls (attractants, repellents, pheromones, antimetabolites.

Professors Yule und Dunphy


334-200A PRINCIPLES OF MICROECONOMICS. (3 credits: 3 lec­tures). The field at economics as it relates to the activities of in­dividual consumers, firms and organizations. Emphasis throughout is on the application of economic principles and concepts to every day decision making and to the analysis of current economic is­sues.

Professor Gunjal

334-201B PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS. (3 credits; 3 lec­tures; Prereqvisite: 334-200A or equivalent). The overall economic system, how it works, and the instruments used to solve social problems. Emphasis will be on decision-making involving the entire economic system and segments of it.

Professor AI-Zand

334-230B ECONOMICS OF MARKETING. (3 credits; 3 lectures; Prerequisite: 334-200A or equivalent). Marketing principles and practices, their relationship to the agriculture-food system, and the economic impact on all segments of this system. Emphasis on the application of marketing principles in problem-solving and in devel­oping marketing and communication skills of the individual.


334-231B ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE. (3 credits; 3 lectures; Prerequisite: 334-200A or equivalent). The structure and organization of Canada's agriculture-food system, the operation, fi­nancing, linkages, and functions of its components. Focus to be on management of the various components and the entire system, types of problems confronted now and in the future.

Professor Coffin

334-242A MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND PRACTICES. (3 cred­its; 3 lectures). An introduction to contemporary management theo­ries and practices and their effect on the organizational structure and administrative functions of a dietary department.

Professor Westgren

334-320B ECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION. (3 credits, 3 lectures; Prerequisite: 334-200A or equivatent). An in­termediate theory course in agricultural economics, dealing with economic concepts as applied to agricultural production and cost functions. Includes theory and application of linear programming as related to production decisions.

Professor Henning

334-331A FARM BUSINESS MANAGEMENT. (3 credits; 3 lectures; Prerequisite: 334-200A or equivalent). Managing a farm business. Topics include: the decision making process. farm business centre and farm records, farm management and economic concepts, farm planning and budgeting, input management (land, capital. labour and time), tax management (farm organization, estate planning. etc.).

Mr. Baker

334-333A RESOURCE ECONOMIC.. (3 credits; Prerequisites: 334-200A or equivalent). The role of resources in the environment, use of resources, and managment of economic resources within the firm or organisation. Problem-solving, case studies involving pri­vate and public decision-making in organisations are utilized.

Professor Thomasein

334-343B ACOUNTING AND COST CONTROL (3 credits, 3 lec­tures). An introduction to the basic principles and concepts of responsibility accounting and cost control, analysis and utilization of financial statements and control system data for decision making.

334-S50B AGRICULTURAL FINANCE (3 credits, 3 lectures: Prerequisite: 334 ("AB")331A). The economic study of acquisition and use of capital in agriculture. Topics include:

the analysis of financial statements: farm appraisal; investment analysis: risk in financial intermediates serving agriculture; aggregate financing in agriculture.

Mr. Baker

334-350A AGRICULTURAL ECONOMETRICS. (3 credits, 3 lectures: Prerequisite:360-310A,B. 334,200A and 334,201B or equivalent). Concepts and procedures used in defining and estimating econometric modules applied in agriculture. Emphasis on application and estimation of single equation models and solutions

to problems such as auto-correlation, hetroscedasticity and mul­ticollinearity. Use of dummy variable technique.

Professor Henning

334-430B AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND RESOURCE POLICY. (3 credits; 3 lectures: Prerequisities: 334-201B or equivalent and 334-321. Examination of Canadian, North American and Interna­tional agriculture, food and resource policies, policy instruments, programs and their implications. Economic analysis applied to the underlying principles, procedures and objectives of various policy actions affecting agriculture.

Professor Al-Zand

334-440A ADVANCED AGRICULTURE AND FOOD MARKETING. (3 credits; 3 lectures; Prerequisities: 334-201B or equivalent and 334-320A). The nature and the economic organisation of agricultural and food marketing including the application of economic concepts to problems and procedures, and their impact on Canadian and North American agriculture. Pricing and marketing of principal agricultural products in Canada is examined.

Professor Coffin

334-142B ECONOMICS OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL DEVEL­OPMENT. (3 credits; 3 Íectures: Prerequisites: 334-201B or equiva­lent). The description, analysis and factors affecting the develop­ment of food systems in Canada and world-wide. Emphasis is on economic growth and development theories and case studies of developing countries.

Professor Gunjel

334-450B AGRI-BUSINESS MANAGEMENT. (3 credits; 3 lectures; Prerequisites: 334-230B and 330-310A,B). Managament of operations in agribusiness firms. The use of computer models to make decisions on output mix, facilily location. expansion. inventory m­anagement and production and workforce scheduling.

Professor Westgren

334-452B STUDIES IN AGRIBUSINESS. (3 credits) Prerequisities: open only to U. students in Agribusiness Management option in agricultural Economics. This course integrates subject matter from agricultural economics and management through the use of case studies. Topics include feasibility analyses for new ventures, market research, strategic, management decisions, workforce managa­ment, and international dimensions of agribusiness. Students will prepare written and oral presentations of individual and group case studies.

Professor Westgren

334-490D,N SEMINAR IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. (2 cred­its). Oral and written presentation and discussion on topics and re­search problems of current interest in agricultural economics by staff, students and special guests:.

Professor Coffin and Staff

334-491A RESEARCH SEMINAR IN NATURAL ECONOMICS. (3 credit, 3 Iectures. Prerequisites: 334-201B or equivalent and 334-320A). The nature methods and objectives of agricultural economics research concerned with the economic problems affecting the agriculture and food system. Emphasis is on problem identification, and the collection, analysis, and presentation of evidence. Students will present one or more seminars on a research project in agricultural economics.

Professor Thomassin

334-493D,N SPECIAL TOPICS IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. (3 credits, 334-201B or equivalent). Students will pursue topics that are not otherwise available in formal courses. An individual course of study will be followed under the supervision of a member of the staff qualified in the appropriate discipline or area.


334-493D,N SPECIAL TOPICS IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (3 credits) Presentation and discussion of current problems in agricultural economics by staff and/or special guests. This course is offered on an irregular basis under special circumstances.



306-573A,B MICROC0MPUTERS. (3 credits; 3 hours: Prerequi­sites: 308-305). Characteristics and internal structure of microcomputers and workstations. Theoretical concepts and properties of assemblers, loaders and simulators. Assembler and machine languages for microcomputers. System software. Applications for single and networked microcomputers. Students will be assigned 'hands-on' projects.

Section O1 308-573A TTh 10:00-11:30, Section 01 308-573B TTh 10:00-11:30

Professor Ratzer


(3 credits, 3 hours: prerequisite: 306-310). Computational modell and complexity of parallel computations. Fundamental parallel algorithms: searching, merging, sorting, prefix sums, broadcasting. routing,.., etc. Basic data structures (arrays, lists, trees, graphs) and parallel algorithms for their manipulation. Parallel algorithms for numerical and optimization problems. Communication and schedul­ing, algorithms in multiprocessors.

Section O1 MW 08:30-10:00 Professor El-Gindy


380-101A CALCULUS I. (3 credits; 3 lectures; prerequisite: a course in functions). A review of functions and graphs. Limits, continuity, deratives. Differentiation of elementary functions. Anti-differentiation. Applications.

Professor Hayes

360-310A,B STATISTICAL METHODS I. (3 credits; 3 lectures and 1 2-hr. Iab.). Measures of central tendency and dispersion; normal, student's t, chi square, and F distribution; estimation and testing hypotheses; analysis of variance for simple experimental designs; regression and correlations; binominal and Poisson distribution.


367-211A PRINCIPLES OF PLANT SCIENCE. (3 credits; 3 lectures and one 2-hr. lab.). A study of major world crop species with emphasis on their adaptation and distribution in relation to the economic botany of the plants.

367-300B CROPPING SYSTEMS. (3 credits; 3 lectures and 1 3-hr. lab. Prerequisite: 367-211A.) Application of plant science and soil science to production of agronomic and horticultural crops. Use and sustainability of fertilization, weed control, crop rotation, tillage, drainage and irrigation practices.

Professor Smith

367-450A,B SPECIAL TOPICS IN PLANT SCIENCE I., II (2 credits). A course of independent study by the student with the guidance ot a professor of recognized competence in the area of the chosen topic.


372-200A INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCE. (3 credits; 3 lec­tures, one 3-hr lab.). Introductory concepts of geology and geomorphology will be presented including: rocks and minerals, surficial deposits, history and structure of the earth.

Professor Handanhot

372-210A PRINCIPLES OF SOIL SCIENCE. (3 credits: 3 lectures and one a 3-hr. lab.). Origin. development and classification of soils, chemical and physical properties related to crop production, soil conservation and Iand use.

Professor O'Halloran

972-3158 B SOIL FERTILITY AND FERTILIZERS. (3 credits; 3 lectures and one lab.: Prerequisite 372-210A or permission of instructor). Plant nutrients in the soil, influence of soil properties of nutrient absorption and plant growth, use of organic and inorganic fertilisers.

Professor MacKenzie

372-350E SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION credits; 2 lectures plus field trips; Prerequisite: 372-210A). Managament of agricultural soil systems for sustained yield. Causes and forms of soil degradation and impacts on water, including soil erosion by wind and water, soil compaction, structural breakdown, soil acidification. Conservation practices and engineering solutions will be examined. Field trips during the first week of May mandatory.

Professors Mehuys and Madramotoo

372-410B SOIL CHEMISTRY. (3 credits; 3 lectures and one Iab.; Prerequisite 372-210A or permission of instructor. (Offered in alternate years).

Professor O'Halloran


In laboratory practices or when you do any calculations you might need to read some numbers out loud.

Decimal fractions


Work in pairs. Read aloud.

(nought) point one two five [(bnjdt) pjknt bwsn tu afhkv]

(nought) point two five

(nought) point three three

(nought) point five

(nought) point seven five

We can use 'zero', 'nought' or 'oh' [em] for the number 0:

'zero' is the most common US usage and the most technical and precise form

'oh' is the least technical or precise

'nought point five' for 0.5 is more precise than 'point five'


Liquid measure of capacity


Work in pairs. Read aloud.

Using the measure equivalents, ask and answer questions.


How many litres is one pint equivalent to?

One pint is equivalent to 0.5679 litres.

The Imperial system (GB and US)

GB    The Metric system

20 fluid ounces (fl oz) = 1 pint = 0.568 litres

2 pints = 1 quart = 1.136 litres

4 quarts = 1 gallon = 4.543 litres


16 fluid ounces = 1 pint = 0.473 litres

2 pints = 1 quart = 0.946 litres

4 quarts = 1 gallon = 3.785 litres

Apothecaries' fluid measure

GB The Metric system

60 minims = 1 fluid drachm (dram) = 3.552 millilitres

8 fluid drachms = 1 fluid ounce = 2.841 centilitres

20 fluid ounces = 1 pint = 0.568 litres

8 pints = 1 gallon = 4.546 litres

The Metric system GB US

1000 millilitres (mm) = 1 litre = 1.75 pints = 2.101 pints

10 litres = 1 dekalitre = 2.1997 gallons = 2.63 gallons

Temperature equivalents


Boiling point 212o o

Freezing point 32o 0o

Absolute zero -459.67o    -273.15o


Work in pairs. Read aloud.

Dictate temperatures to each other and using the conversion formulae below, convert them.

Conversion formulae:

+ Xo Fahrenheit = (X-32)5 Celsius


- X Fahrenheit = (X+32)5 Celsius


X Celsius = 9X + 32 Fahrenheit


Work in pairs.

Read aloud the sentences (' is for minute, ' is for second).


20ml 121oC 0.122 megapascal

15 minutes is sufficient to sterilize 20 millilitres of medium at a temperature of 121 degrees Centigrade (or degrees Celsius) at a pressure of 0.122 megapascal.

10ml 89oC 0.120 megapascal

30m1 35oC 0.077 megapascal

15ml 139oC    7.349 megapascal


Work in pairs.

Read aloud.

membranes of pore size 0.2micrometre (say: micrometres)/

0.02mm (say: millimetres)/

3.96mm / 0.0534micrometre / 29.017mm


You can increase your vocabulary fast, if you can build words with the help of prefexes and suffixes.

Complete the table with the different forms of each word.












Variable,variation, variety





A student was asked by the funding body to write a report on his study period abroad by answering the following questions:

What kind of activities did you perform during your stay abroad?

What were the results of your activities abroad?

What kind of recognition did you receive at your home institution for the stay abroad, if any?

  1. How will the stay abroad affect your activities at your home institution?
  2. How would you evaluate your stay abroad and what suggestions for improvements would you make?


Write down the opposites of the words below.Put the opposites into five lists, depending on which of the following prefixes you have used.

dis-, un-, in-, im-, il-

fertile sentimental accessible

moral liberal realistic


Answer the questions from task 1 using the adjectives above:







Read the report below.

Individual Grantholder Report

I completed a study period of 9 months from October 2003 to June 2004 at the University of Edinbrough, School of Veterinary Science, under the European Union's Socrates Programme as part of my ongoing veterinary science course at the University of Veterinary Science in Cluj.

Since the structure of veterinary training of the University of Edinbrough is completely different from the training of the University of Veterinary Science in Cluj, I had the opportunity of attending lectures, tutorials and practicals on clinical subjects of both the fourth and fifth years. These included anaesthesia, radiology, basic surgery, soft-tissue surgery, large and small animal internal medicine and dermatology. I also attended several lectures given by guest lecturers on the subject of clinico-pharmacology. I came to know the use of the most efficient recently-developed drugs and their pharmacokinetics. These drugs will be available shortly in Romania and I intend to draw attention to their advantages.

While at Edinbrough, I took part in the clerking-duty-system which gave me the opportunity of complementing my theoretical knowledge with practical experience. For example, during the internal-medicine clerking weeks, I learnt how to use ECG and ultrasound equipment and to carry out thorough clinical examinations. During the anaesthesia and surgery clerking weeks, I became familiar with the control of the X-ray machines, the principles of radiological interpretation and the use of anaesthetic equipment. In addition, I was able to master basic surgical interventions and techniques and gain experience by assisting in operations which demanded greater professional knowledge.

Another of the benefits of my study period was that I could use the Veterinary Science Library in Churchill Building at Langford and the main library in Edinbrough. Access was available 24 hours a day. I could use clinical textbooks, atlases, course notes and the current issues and bound volumes of the journals of veterinary science. Both the availability of the most useful books and the private study room facility gave me good help in developing my knowledge during the year.

I hope I will be able to use this knowledge satisfactorily during my further studies and in my practical work as a veterinary surgeon. My aim is to share my practical and theoretical knowledge with my colleagues and to draw attention to the subjects which are not emphasised adequately.

I would like to thank the European Union's Tempus Mobility Joint European Project, the University of Edinbrough School of Veterinary Science, the Cluj University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine and Iasi University of Agricultural Sciences for the opportunity of spending a very useful, efficient and enjoyable academic year at the University of Edinbrough School of Veterinary Science.


1. Highlight or underline the passages in the report that answer questions 1 to 5.

2. Which question is not answered? What might the student have said here?

3. What does the candidate add that is not asked for? How useful is this?


1. Read the comments below.

2. Work out the answers to the questions individually.

3. Check your responses with a partner.

Organising information

If you were able to answer question 1 above relatively easily, it suggests that the report writer has organised his material well. Task: What points are dealt with in each of the paragraphs?

Technical vocabulary

Several terms are used which are specific to veterinary science. Would these confuse the reader of the report, who may not be a specialist, or does the writer give help through the context in which the words are used? Task: Find three examples of where technical terms are explained by the context.

'Signposts' and link words

How easy is it to read this report? One of the ways for a writer to make his piece read smoothly is to pay attention to the words used to link parts of sentences, sentences, and paragraphs. Task: Underline or highlight in the text connecting words and then try to categorise them under the following headings:

A: words used to indicate additional ideas.

B: words used to indicate a consequence.

C: words used to illustrate a point previously made.


1. Improve the following extract of a report by arranging it into paragraphs.

Use suitable connecting words and punctuate the text appropriately.

You may change the order of sentences if you wish.

2. Compare your revised version with a partner's.

I studied in the Department of Agricultural Economics of Reading University in Great Britain. I was there from 27 September until 18 March 1994. I had a personal tutor in the department. He and the visiting students officer helped me a lot in the new environment. During the two terms I chose six subjects. I was required to hand in essays. I had to prepare for seminars, too. My first assignment was interesting. I had to write about Consumer Behaviour in Southern England. I had to imagine that it was to be written for a magazine like the 'Farmers Weekly'. I studied the following subjects. Term 1: Advanced Food Policy Analysis, Agriculture and the Environment, Consumer Behaviour, Econometrics 1, Food Industry Analysis 1, World Growth, the Environment and Famines. Term 2: Econometrics 2, European Agricultural Policy, Food Industry Analysis 2, Marketing Research Methods, Project Appraisal, Trade Issues in Agricultural Economics. The education was practical and very useful. Most of the lecturers spoke clearly and gave well organised lectures. To complete my assignments I had to follow up references in the library. This was useful from the point of view of language learning and my academic progress. Computer facilities were available 24 hours a day. I used the computers to write essays and to maintain contact with my university's Tempus Office for information. At the end of the second semester I took exams in my chosen subjects. I attach notification of my results. Final marks were created from the average of my assignments and my exam marks added together. I received credits for all my courses.


In their second year students usually need to specialise in certain courses of study.


Choose one of the special fields in Table A, B, C or D.

Table A


Agricultural extension services

Animal nutrition

Dairy farming

Fish farming

Game management

Herb production

Meat production

Plant protection and weed control

Plant genetics and breeding

Specialist language translator

Tropical and subtropical agriculture

Table B


Agricultural production technology and machine maintenance

Engineering economics andmanagement

Engineering mathematics

Environmental techniques

Food processing

Product and manufacturing design

Table C


Agricultural economics

Agricultural extension service

Agricultural marketing

Applied computer science

Business administration

Human resources management

Finance and accountancy

Rural development

Specialist language translator training

Teacher training

Table D



Land evaluation

Monitoring, analysis and environment

Nature and land protection

Regional development

Organic farming

Soil science


Work with a partner.

Justify your choice to your partner, using the expressions provided below.

Useful language

I would like to specialise in .., because

I think choosing .. will give me the opportunity

In order to . I have decided to specialise in

The field of specifically interests me, since




Before listening, discuss with your neighbour if you would like to participate in a studying and training programme in an English-speaking country. What kind of qualifications would you have to have for this? Would you meet these requirements?


Imagine you live with a host family.

1. Make a list of the kind of problems you could face in a host family.

2. Find ways of solving these problems. Suggest ways of building a good relationship with the host family.



You have just started your studies abroad. On the first day you have to go to the following places in sequence: bank, library, international relations office. Make inquiries where these are.


Ask your partner for directions and follow them on the map. Identify the buildings and fill in the numbers.

Dean's Office ..

Foreing Languages Department ..

Library ..

Bank ..


Sort the following expressions into categories: applying to a university (write A)

studying at a university (write S)

S to take the core module

to apply for a place at a university

to enter a program

to sit/re-sit an examination

to enclose the official transcript



to study on a full-time or part-time basis

to register for a course

to provide training/offer courses in

to take/complete a course

to contact the relevant institution

to provide untrue or incomplete information

to gain technical knowledge and practical skills

to do research/a course in

to offer a place

full-time degree course

limited enrol(l)ment

to accept/decline an offer

to choose an optional module

to apply for admission

entrance to a program

to withdraw from a course

studies leading to a degree or diploma

this degree combines courses in

to be subject to academic discipline

to attend an interview

the faculty offers an Ordinary or General degree

to study for a degree in a faculty

competitive admission to swhere

to enrol(l) in a course

vocationally oriented courses

to assess one's application

to choose an elective module

this course covers 12 months of full-time study


Practise your word building strategies. Find the verbs of the noun forms in the previous task, and the nouns for the verb forms listed. Collect any related adjectives as well that you can think of.


Graphs AND Charts

On the following pages you will find information on the farming industries of various countries. This information is presented in different ways.


Identify the graphics by writing their number in the table below. There might be more than one example of each type of graphic.



Bar chart or bar graph


Pie chart

Pictogram or pictograph



Check your answers to Task 1 with a partner.


With a partner, decide if each graphic is the best way to illustrate the information given. Explain why you think so. If not, what other type of graphic could have been chosen?


Look at graphic . Consider why there is such a difference in the figures shown in the first column from those displayed in the second and third columns.

Compare your explanation with a partner's.


Look at graphic . Why is it unsatisfactory and what do you suggest to put it right?

Discuss your solution with a partner.

Are there any other graphics you think could be improved? Explain how.


Look at graphic again.

Label the curves after reading the following commentaries.

A.    The value of the production of horticultural crops rose dramatically from the mid-60s and by 1990 looked as though it would continue its steep rise.

B.    The value from poultry remained relatively stable in the last four years under review.

C.    Revenue from pig farming fluctuated considerably in the 80s, reaching an all-time high in 1988. Prices levelled off as the decade ended.

D.    The value of the production of cattle rose sharply from the early 70s and peaked in the early 80s. Although there was a marked decline after that, the value still remained over 10 billion guilders per year by the end of the decade.


Now describe to a partner the performance of arable crops.

Graphs 1,2,4 adapted from those in 'An Introduction to the flow of information in Dutch Agriculture, Nature management and Fisheries, 1992

Graph 3 taken from ' Farm Figures and Facts from Denmark' Agricultural Council of Denmark, 1991

Graphs 5,6,8 as for 1,2,4

Graph 7 as for 3


Read the following texts and decide with a partner which kinds of graphics could be used to illustrate them.

Text 1

The 20 million jobs in the U.S. food and fiber system account for 18 percent of all the Nation's jobs. Food and fiber wholesaling and retailing account for about half (52 percent) of the jobs in the system. About 3.8 million jobs (19 percent) are in farm production - farmers, hired farm-workers, and workers in forestry, fisheries, and agricultural services. About 15 percent of agricultural jobs are in agricultural marketing and processing industries; other related agribusinesses account for 12 percent, and industries providing farm supplies account for 2 percent.

Text 2

Agricultural employment is extremely seasonal. Farmwork has periods of peak labor use, for example during the harvesting of perishable fruits and vegetables. In most states, labor use reaches its peak during summer and few workers are employed during the winter. Only 36 percent of all hired farmworkers last year worked in January or February. The proportion rose to nearly 50 percent in May and increased to more than 60 percent in June, July, and August and then steadily declined through December


Draw the graphics.

Although you do not have enough detail in Text 2 to complete the graphic in detail, sufficient is provided to enable you to do the greater part.

Think carefully of the title to use for each graphic and how and where you will label them.


Look at the following graph and read the sales report below it. Fill in each gap with the appropriate word from the words given.

depth average dramatically stood summit low peak levelled off

At the beginning of the year sales (1) at 1,800 loaders. Sales then climbed steadily and reached a (2) of 3,000 loaders in February but fell slightly to 2,700 at the end of March and (3) during the next two months. By the end of June, however, sales had fallen (4) to 1,200 (an all-time (5) ). The (6) number of loaders sold during the first six months was thus 2,350 per month.


Find the word/s in the charts or paragraphs A-D in Unit 7 Lesson 1 which mean/s:

1. the agricultural sector of the economy

2. land or theowning of land

3. suitable for ploughing; usually ploughed or cultivated

4. animals put to or kept on grassland or pasture

5. animals that feed on grain such as barley or rye

6. eat and drink; use up

7. exports from the country

8. produce sold (with)in the country


Explain what the underlined words mean in the sentences below and what their other meaning/s is/are.

the bulk of the primary production is processed in the food industry

, as far as the home market share is concerned,

120,000 people are engaged in farming

the number of farm-hands is approx. 13,000

they have to pay 228 per cent more for their production aids etc.



Lots of young people like working their way around the world and thus getting to know different countries and cultures as well as obtaining some professional experience. You are going to read an article about their experiences.


Look at the following headline, caption and photo.

Decide whether the article from 'The Independent' is going to be about the difficulties or the pleasant aspects of doing summer jobs abroad.

Roll up your sleeves and see the world

Working abroad may sound the perfect way to experience other cultures, but what is the reality?


Collect a few difficulties you might encounter working abroad.


You will be working in three groups,each group reading a different extract.

When you have finished reading the text, fill in the table below.


Emigrating or marrying a native working abroad is the best way of experiencing a foreign culture from the inside. It's true that the traveller who spends a few months on a Queensland sheep station will have different tales to tell about Australia than the one who busks in the big cities. Yet both will have had a chance not only to reach below the surface of another country but to experience the sense of possibility, the moments of stick-out-your-thumb-and-be-glad-for-whatever-happens-next, the feelings of triumph and absolute freedom.

Anyone with a taste for adventure has the potential for exploring far-flung corners of the globe on very little money. In an ideal world, it would be possible to register with an international employment agency and wait to be assigned a glamorous job as an underwater photography model in the Caribbean or ski-tow operator in New Zealand. But life just isn't like that and no one is going to hand you a job abroad on a platter.

Yet there are a few 'easy' ways to prearrange a working holiday, for instance as counsellors on American summer camps and as volunteers on an Israeli kibbutz or European workcamp. Student exchange organisations such as the British Universities North America Club can help with the nitty gritty: Bunac has a choice of programmes in the US, Canada, Australia, Jamaica and Malta.

Most itinerant job-seekers will have to depend on the two industries that survive on seasonal labour: tourism and agriculture. Campsite operators, hoteliers and catering managers from Cannes to Cape Town depend on transient workers, as do farmers in much of the over-developed world. The casual-cum-seasonal job is always easier to secure on the spot: an evening in a village bar frequented by farmers or in a pub serving Guinness to homesick Britons is worth dozens of speculative applications. from home. Nothing can beat the walk-in-and-ask method.

The other major fields of temporary overseas employment are au pairing (almost exclusively women), English teaching (difficult for periods of less than nine months) and voluntary work. Commercial and charitable agencies can fix up a placement ahead of time, primarily for participants willing to finance themselves.







International workcamps are the most accessible form of voluntary service abroad, since they last only a couple of weeks, operate mostly in Europe and accept unskilled volunteers to build communal facilities, restore or excavate historic monuments or clean up the local environment. The registration fee of £50-£100 covers accommodation and communally prepared food but not travel. A few other worthy projects cost even less: for example a fortnight spent building a bridge in a US national park will cost only the $50 registration fee in addition to the air fare.

Every country in the world has immigration policies which are job protection schemes for their own nationals. The European Union is meant to have done away with all that, though red-tape snags persist for those who want to work for more than three months. Outside the 15 member nations, work authorisations become decidedly tricky unless you participate in a government-sponsored scheme, such as the Japan Exchange & Teaching (JET) scheme or the Norwegian Farm Working Guest programme, or qualify for special schemes such as the Australian working holiday visa for bona-fide travellers under 26.

Less structured possibilities abound, however. Enterprising travellers have managed to earn money by doing a bizarre range of odd jobs, from selling home-made peanut butter to American tourists to busking on the bagpipes, from doing Tarot readings on a Mediterranean ferry to becoming film extras (Hong Kong, Bombay, Tel Aviv). The expression 'working holiday' is a contradiction. Jobs are jobs: there is seldom scope for swanning around museums, cafés and clubs if you are picking grapes seven days a week. Yet some lucky individuals do end up exchanging their labour for the chance to participate in some otherwise inaccessible holiday, such as an outback camping trip, a cruise to the midnight sun or summer in a Loire chateau or Tuscan villa looking after the offspring of the rich.

Susan Griffith is the author of `Work Your Way Around The World' (Vacation Work Publication £9.99).







Oh no, here comes another timber truck

Public school may be a fine preparation for prison, but nothing in England had prepared me for an honest job.

I had pitched up in rural Sweden in May 1977, with a girl with whom I was reasonably in love. We married, and I found a job. The interview was a piece of cake. Leif Krüger, my new employer, had built his factory inside a barn. There was a buzz-saw, two fork-lift trucks, and 20 nail guns driven by compressed air. There was also a cracked plastic loud-speaker tuned to the accordion channel of Swedish radio. Most of these were going at once as we

talked, so we were wearing fibreglass hearing protectors. I yelled and grinned and nodded, and so did they; and at the end of the interview we decided that my Swedish was up to the job.

That was all Leif needed to know: had it not been, he would have been obliged by law to pay for me to go to end-less language lessons. He and his foreman, Rolf, were among the hardest-working men I have ever known.

We built the wooden pallets on which Volvo marine diesels were shipped around the world.

We also sawed the wood; stacked them man-high by

hand; delivered them to the factories; repaired our own fork-lift trucks and cars; spread asphalt, and, worst of all, unloaded the great timber lorries that drove up once a fortnight.

Everything was done at tremendous speed from 6.30 in the morning until 3.30 in the afternoon. For the first two months, I ate ravenously, except when I fell asleep while eating, and still lost weight. The pallets weighed 40 to 50 kilos, and I had to make and stack 72 a day.

I decided I would never do an honest job again.

Andrew Brown







Choose a partner from each of the 2 other groups.

Fill in the missing information with the help of those who have read the other two extracts.









In your group of 3, discuss the following questions:

Do the articles describe summer jobs and odd jobs abroad in a positive light?

Have you ever worked abroad ? What are your experiences?

Have you heard of any friends or acquaintances to have done work abroad? How did they like it? Did they have any difficulties?


Make a note of slang or colloquial expressions from all the three texts.

Work with a partner and compare your lists.

Try to give the formal equivalent of the words.


These are synonyms or definitions of words you may not have met before.

1. singing or playing music for money

2. victory

3. to be given a job

4. tray or big plate

5. minor details to arrange or work on

6. arrange

7. mainly

8. two weeks

9. official; adhering to rules and regulations



really easy


14. transported

15. very fast


Find the relative clauses in Texts 1 and 3. Decide whether they are Defining (D) or Non-defining (ND) ones.


1. We unloaded the great timber lorries that drove up once a fortnight. (D)

2. He and his foreman, Rolf, were among the hardest-working men I have ever

known. (D)

3. Au pairing, which is almost exclusively taken by women, is one of the major fields of temporary overseas employment. (ND)


Fill in the gaps with the appropriate relative pronouns (who, that, which or -).

The one concern I have is that I have is that I am not putting sufficient quantities of P and K on.

I have just received my cheque for the bulk of feed wheat I sold forward last January at F

I am presently sitting on a tonnage of milling wheat, feed barley, and the balance of rape was not sold forward and paid in August.

They are currently considering a report has embarrassed organic farmers acutely.

Organic agriculture is a different system is characterised by low external inputs but focuses on re-structuring and optimising processes within the systems.

His main reason for using the product is the service comes with it.

The business also employs an agronomist, also oversees the purchase of fertiliser and pesticides.


Student and professional life often takes people to different countries. The fastest way to travel is by air.


Study the following expressions used to describe places at an airport.

Put them into the order passengers must visit them when they are preparing to fly.

a. security gate

b. departure lounge

c. customs

d. check-in desk

e. passport control


In pairs, work out what is happening in the listed places, using the verbs below.

go through





go to



When travelling, you need to have certain documents on you, and you might be asked to fill in some forms as well.

Make a list of these documents and forms.


On arriving in Britain, non-EC citizens need to fill in a 'landing card' to hand in to the immigration officer.

Fill in the form and explain why this information is important for the authorities. Guess what might be written under the last rubric.








Mark is at the airport to meet some American students who have just arrived in Budapest for an exchange programme. He is talking to Mary, one of the members of the group.


Read the dialogue between Mark and Mary .

Student A has Mark's part missing.

Student B has Mary's part missing. ( Student B's sheet is at the pairwork section, at the end of the book)

Fill in the missing part of the conversation.

Student A


Mary: Oh, thank you!


Mary: Oh, yes, there was fog in Indianapolis and we had to leave a day later than planned.


Mary: Yes, but there is one more problem. I only have one of my baggages.


Mary: I I talked to a man at the baggage reclaim and they said that the bag is in Amsterdam and


Mary: Yes, Amsterdam, and it will be here in about four hours.


Mary: OK.


Mary: Yes, but thank you.


Mary: It is a large brown or light tan bag CUT (and about medium size). Very, very heavy.


Mary: Yes, I did. It was two kilograms over the limit.


Mary: Good.


Mary: There weren't too many problems. There was a little bit of turbulence, we flew on North-West Airlines, out of Indianapolis through Minne-apolis and on to Amsterdam. It was a very crowded flight, because of the delay with the fog. I had an aisle seat. And we had three meals. It was a really good flight.


Mary: Yes, actually, it was very good.


Mary: Yes, we had about five hours. So we had a chance to go into the city. At the airport we exchanged about ten dollars, for some Amsterdam for some Netherlands money, the Guilders. And we took a boat-ride in Amsterdam. It was a beautiful day, we got to see the city, and it was all in all, it was a great time.


Mary: Yes, I do. Where could I get those?


Mary: I'll start with twenty dollars.


Mary: OK.


Mary: OK. Great.


Work in pairs - Student A and B are asked to work together.

Read out the dialogue with your own answers. See if they match, if you get a meaningful dialogue.


Explain what the following words mean:

aisle seat

excess baggage


baggage reclaim

exchange rate



Your friend has received an information leaflet from Haygrove Fruit in reply to his letter.


Read the information on the next two pages and discuss in class:

Is there anything surprising in the information provided?

What are the most inviting aspects in this scheme?

What are the least attractive aspects in this scheme?

Would you like to work in shifts? Why? Why not?

What is your overall opinion about this job?


Work in pairs.

Look back at the letter at the end of Unit 7 Lesson 2. Note down the answers to the questions.


Change the verb in CAPITAL LETTERS into an appropriate noun to complete the



It offers a valuable addition to many courses. ADD

If your country has a reciprocal with the British Government for

medical costs, you will not be charged. AGREE

If it does not, you are required to take out before leaving home. INSURE

You are advised to take out insurance for personal POSSESS

Our is important for us. REPUTE

Showers and other are provided. FACILITATE

£1 per lesson will be deducted automatically from your weekly .


Haygrove Fruit charges £30 for administration and Work fees. PERMIT


Redbank, Ledbury, Herefordshire HR8 2JL, UK

Tel. (01531) 633659, Fax (01531) 635969


Haygrove Fruit is a diverse but specialised fruit farm producing and marketing soft fruit from 114 acres to most major UK supermarkets. We offer Work Experience placements to full-time students from Eastern European countries. Preference is given to those who intend making a career in the soft fruit business or in marketing or production management.

The programme has been specially designed to complement in a practical way the courses which students are following in their home countries. Based in the UK, it provides a hands-on experience of working to western standards demanded by our customers. Taken as an integral part of a student's study, we believe it offers a valuable addition to many horticultural, agricultural and management courses.

We will also offer 1 day training courses covering the following topics:






In addition, English language lessons are offered to all students.


Planting, picking, packing: April to late October. Also some general farm work. The main crop is strawberries from May to October, starting in a glasshouse. Raspberries are also grown inside in May, outside July to October. Blackberries and blackcurrants start in July, plums and apples in August. Most of the work is with strawberries.

Picking begins at 6 am in mid-summer and usually finishes 2-4 pm depending on the weather. Packing starts from 7-9 am and continues till 6-9, in two shifts when necessary. We have one day off each week, usually Saturday, when coach trips to places of interest are often arranged.


The Work Permit states a weekly allowance of £120 per week. This is not a guaranteed amount, but a guideline of expected average earnings. For most jobs payment is piece rate, which means you earn according to how much you work.

Students are expected to open a bank account. Pay will be put into this account by us by the Friday of the following week. Students working for three months or less will not pay Income Tax. Students staying longer than three months must pay Income Tax but may be able to reclaim it or some of it at the end of the Work Experience.


You are advised to take out insurance for personal possessions. If your country has a reciprocal agreement with the British Government for medical costs you will not be charged. If it does not, you are advised to take out insurance before leaving home.


Haygrove Fruit charges £30 for administration and Work Permit fees. In addition, some TWES students are required by law to register with the Police and pay a charge of £30 to them. Both these fees can be deducted from your weekly allowance.


It is a requirement of the Work Experience that you attend English lessons. These are available at £1 per lesson, which will be deducted automatically from your weekly allowance.


TWES students are housed in self-catering mobile homes. Showers and other washing facilities are provided.


Sleeping bag, eating utensils, plate, bowl, cup and saucepan, wet weather jacket, trousers, gloves and boots, 'good' clothes for weekend outings. You will need about £25 for your first week on the farm for food, etc.


Haygrove Fruit at Redbank Farm is situated 1 mile from Ledbury, one of England's most picturesque market towns in a very beautiful area of rural England. With a population of about 6,000 people it has 2 supermarkets, post office, four banks, bus and train station, swimming pool, laundry, etc and is a pleasant friendly town.


Our reputation and a friendly atmosphere is important to us. Students who disobey farm rules or the laws of the country, or who are disruptive in any way, will be sent home immediately.


In 1994 we had more than 20 different nationalities working together at Haygrove Fruit, making it truly international experience.


BY COACH (from Heathrow Airport)

NATIONAL EXPRESS Coaches run every two hours from Heathrow Central Bus Station to Gloucester, but there are not many buses from Gloucester to Ledbury. The last leaves around 18.05 hrs. You must therefore arrive at Gloucester 18.05 hrs. Fares are around £17.50 single (£21.50 on a Friday); return £18.50 (£22 on a Friday). Return tickets are valid 3 months.

As an alternative, PRIMROSE Coaches leave Heathrow Central Bus Station, Bay C at 18.35 hrs, arriving Ledbury 21.25 hrs.

BY TRAIN (from Heathrow)

Trains run several times a day to Ledbury. You must take the Coach Rail-Air link to Reading then catch the train for Ledbury via Worcester. The ticket should cost about £25 single journey (do not buy a return ticket - it is only valid for 1 month). Do not come by train through Gloucester.

From Ledbury to Redbank

In the centre of the town is a black and white market-house on pillars with no walls. Walk under the clock opposite this, down Bye Street. After 1/2 mile you reach a roundabout. Take 2nd exit signposted 'Little Marcle'. Redbank is about 1/2 mile down this road on the right.

BY TAXI: ring 01531 633596 or 0836 777196. Cost: about £3 from station, £2.50 from town.

CARS: We do not allow cars on the farm with prior arrangement and permission.


National Express Coaches (0171) 7300202

British Rail (01452) 529501

Primrose Coaches (01568) 612271


We are invited to a farm in Scotland to the North of Glasgow. Angus , a young farmer is taking us around his farm.


Work in pairs. Match the pictures and the names.

a. blackberries c. gooseberries e. raspberries

b. blackcurrants d. bilberries f. strawberries


The Metric system


GB and US

10 millimetres(mm)= 1 centimetre (cm)= 0.3937 inches (in)

100 centimetres(cm)=1metre(m)=39.37inches or 1.094 yards (yd)

1000metres(m)=1 kilometre(km)=0.62137 miles or about 5/8 mile


GB and US

100 square metres( sq m )= 1 are (a)= 0.0247 acres

100 ares = 1 hectare (ha)= 2.471 acres

100 hectares = 1 square kilometre = 0.386 square miles

are [h(r), ee

hectare ['hecth(r) US: 'hectee

The Imperial system (GB and US)

Length Metric

1 inch (in)= 25.3995 millimetres (mm)

12 inches = 1 foot (ft)= 30.479 centimetres(cm)

3 feet = 1 yard (yd)= 0.9144metre (m)

220 yards = 1 furlong (fur)= 201.168 metres

8 furlongs = 1 mile = 1.6093 kilometres (km)

1760 yards = 1 mile = 1.6093 kilometres


Study and read out these measurements.

10 millimetres (mm)= 1 centimetre (cm)= 0.3937 inches (in)

100 centimetres(cm)=1 metre(m)=39.37inches or 1.094 yards(yd)

1000 metres(m)=1kilometre(km)=0.62137 miles or about 5/8 mile

100 square metres (sq m) = 1 are (a)= 0.0247 acres

100 ares = 1 hectare (ha)= 2.471 acres

100 hectares = 1 square kilometre = 0.386 square miles

1 acre = 0.405 hectares (oh point four oh five)

1 square mile = 2.599 sq kilometres



You are going to find out some facts about Oatridge Farm which is a special farm enterprise in Scotland, since it belongs to Oatridge Agricultural College and, apart from being a commercial unit, it also helps train young people who wish to follow a career in agriculture.


Read the general description of Oatridge Farm below.

Choose the appropriate heading for each paragraph.

There are 2 headings you won't need.

farm objectives

farm workforce

geographical data


summary of cropping and land use

parts of the farm



Oatridge farm extends to 289 hectares and lies at the eastern side of an area of elevated land known as the Bathgate Hills. Whilst the majority of the farm is between 135-180m (450-600ft.) above sea level, Binny Craig, a volcanic outcrop, rises to 219m (720ft.) almost central to the farm.

Originally comprising three steadings, Oatridge, East Broadlaw and Hangingside, all activities are now centred on the Oatridge steading with some sheep still being housed at Hangingside.

The soils within the College farm boundaries are complex and very varied deriving from a series of exposed soft carboniferous shales and sandstones giving rise to sandy clay loams and clay loams which have impermeable subsoils requiring artificial drainage. On almost all parts of the farm the soils are easily damaged by cultivation, farm traffic and livestock throughout the winter months.

Rainfall averages 940 mm (37ins) per annum and the 'growing temperature' for soils of 6 C is not generally reached until late April.

Ten people are employed on Oatridge Farm. They are the Manager, Assistant Manager,Dairyman, Pigman, Beefman, Shepherd, Calf Rearer/Stockperson, 2 Tractor Drivers and the Estate Carpenter.

Oatridge College Leaflet


Work with a partner.

Make a list of the activities you would expect to find on this farm.


Read the text on the following page to see which of your ideas are included.

Complete your list with the activities mentioned in the text.

Cereal Production

The farm is divided into three main rotational areas for cropping purposes. Basically the rotation is grass followed by winter wheat, winter barley, roots and spring barley which has been undersown to grass.

The majority of the grain is stored moist in a tower silo (200 tonnes)for winter feeding, and surplus is sold off the field for malting or feed.

One of the most important crops on Oatridge Farm is grass and this is either grazed in the summer, or cut and stored as silage for feeding to cattle and sheep during the winter. Hay is also made on the farm but it is more difficult to make than silage as a spell of dry, sunny weather is needed to ensure a good crop.

Sheep Enterprise

A flock of 190 Scottish Blackface ewes are kept on Binny Craig and are the only stock remaining unhoused during the winter.

Whilst the bulk of the ewes lamb from lst April,140-150 Suffolk cross Friesland/Cheviot ewes are put to the Suffolk tup to lamb late December/January. These lambs are early weaned and finished intensively indoors to meet the Spring lamb trade.

Homebred ewe lamb replacements for the crossbred ewe flock are put to the Texel and Suffolk tups to lamb down as ewe hoggs.

Housing is available for 700 sheep in a 1983 purpose-built sheep house capable of housing 400 in-lamb ewes, other modified accommodation houses a further 300 sheep.

Dairy Enterprise

Oatridge runs a dairy herd of 90 cows. Traditionally these were all Friesians, but in 1988 Holstein semen was introduced and is now used exclusively.(A.I). Cows calf all the year round with heifers being introduced in batches. All bull calves are sold at one week old.

During the summer months, the herd runs as one group at grass. They are buffer fed silage as grass supply dictates.

The cows are housed in cubicles from around the end of September until the end of April. A number of dairy improvements are to be carried out during the next 12 months including extending the milking parlour from a 6 x 12 to an 8 x 16 Herringbone. This will aid throughput at milking and allow the dairyman more time for husbandry and routine stock work.

Beef Enterprise

Beef production is centred around 70 suckler cows which include Hereford x Friesian and Lincoln Red x Friesian cows. The herd is roughly divided into two groups, one spring calving and the other autumn calving.

The suckler cow winter feeding is based on straw and big bale silage.

The beef stockman may have to carry out some veterinary tasks and weighing stock in the cattle handling pens.

Pig Enterprise

A herd approaching 70 large white x landrace sows and gilts are kept producing approximately 1200 finishing pigs/annum. The sows are housed in a variety of systems whilst dry and in raised farrowing crates while suckling piglets.

The piglets are weaned at 4 weeks into insulated weaner boxes with a slatted dunging area. At about 60kg the growers are moved into a slatted finishing house. The majority of the progeny are sold as baconers at weight of 95-l00kg to D.A. Halls Ltd of Broxburn.

Horse and Stable Management

A number of horses are stabled on the farm and provide practical work and instruction for students. Facilities include a menage, cross country course and indoor school.

Estate Department

Both building maintenance/construction and forestry are carried out by college staff and, where possible, students are involved in all aspects of this work including drystone dyking. Recent emphasis has been on the building of pole type structures with economy in mind (sheep housing).


Look at the map and work out which buildings are used for which activities.

Write the names of the buildings against the corresponding parts in the text you have just read.


Some of the buildings on the list are marked with an asterisk and you are told to keep out.

Work in pairs and discuss why entry to these buildings are prohibited.


Work in groups.

Discuss the following questions.

Have you ever been to a model farm?

What activities was it involved in?

What buildings did you work in?

What jobs did you have to do?


Find the words in the texts under Task 4 which can be used both as a verb and as a noun.

Example: a purpose-built sheep house (noun); capable of housing (gerund < verb)


Homework assignment.

Draw up a word list for sheep, pigs and horses similar to the one below



(young of the cow for the first year)

heifer bull

(young cow that has (uncastrated male of any

not yet had a calf) animal of the ox family)

cow bullock steer

(fully grown female of    (castrated bull)young (usually

the ox family) castrated) male of the ox family,

raised for beef


(fully grown castrated bullock,

used as a draught animal)

NB: beef the flesh of an ox, bull or cow, used as meat

~ cattle bred and reared for ~

bull (GB) = steer (US)


Read the text on the following page. Discuss any vocabulary you don't know.

Adrienne has done her field practice on a farm in Bridgwater, in the USA. The farm consisted of three units. The dairy unit had a manageress who only did administrative tasks. On the farm, just like in Romania, they milked the cows twice a day, to increase their yield.

Adrienne had to help with the morning milking. It was very easy to milk the cows, because the cows were standing in a ditch. They were all standing on one side - this is the so-called herring bone system. Their udders had to be disinfected after milking to prevent them from getting dirty. The farm used a computerised system for giving the cows their portion of fodder, according to the size of the animals.

The main difference between Romanian farms and Bridgwater farm in Adrienne's opinion is that Romanian farm workers work harder than labourers in Bridgwater.


Underline the statements that are incorrect.


Correct the statements.


Extend the following expressions into sentences.

Cow / milk / day / increase / yield.

I / show / disinfect / udder / prevent / infections.

Number / bottom / cow / type / machine / automatically / give / fodder

I / teach / calf / walk / take / exhibition.

Farm workers / lazy / weekend / holiday / 5 / 7.





What do you know about farming in the United States of America? See if you can answer the following questions. All questions relate to facts taken from the 1987 Census of Agriculture.

1. How many farms are there in the U.S.?

a 0.5m b 1m c 1.5m d over 2m

2. Of these farms, what proportion keep livestock and poultry?

a 1/4 b 1/3 c 1/2 d 3/4

3. Which type of livestock is most commonly kept in the U.S.?

a hogs and pigs c sheep and lambs

b beef cattle d dairy cows and calves

4. What other livestock is kept for purposes other than to provide food products? Name the animals and the reasons for which they are kept.

5. What is by far the most widely produced crop in the U.S.?

6. What are the next three most important crops? Place them in order of importance.

7. How specialised do farms in the U.S. tend to be?

a most are highly specialised c about 1/2 the farms are specialised

b most are general farms d few are specialised

8. What criterion is used to designate a farm as a 'specialised' farm?

9. What of the following is the most common type of farm in the U.S.?

a dairy b grain crops c beef cattle d cotton


Compare your answers with a partner or with the rest of the class.   


With a partner, write four other questions you would like answered about agriculture in the U.S.


Read the text on the following page and see whether your answers are correct.

Hundreds of Commodities Produced on U.S. Farms

Beef cattle, hogs, milk, corn, wheat, and cotton come readily to mind when we think about what U.S. farmers produce. However, farmers also produce a bewildering variety of other com-modities for domestic and export markets. The 1987 Census of Agriculture lists more than 200, but the actual number is even greater, because some minor specialty commodities are grouped together for statistical purposes.

The diversity of the farm sector reflects not only the climatic and resource variations across the United States, but also the many occupational and lifestyle choices of farm operators, as well as the local and regional markets and opportunities for profits. In addition to providing a cornucopia of food and fiber for the American consumer, U.S. farms provide for many of our industrial, recreational, and aesthetic needs.


In 1987, nearly 1.5 million farms, representing about three-quarters of the 2.1 million farms counted in the 1987 Census of Agriculture, produced livestock. Although more farms produce beef cattle than any other kind of livestock, roughly one-third of these farms keep 10 or fewer beef cows. These are frequently part-time or rural residence farms. Because of its low labor requirement, the raising of beef cattle is well suited to small operations where farming is a sideline to the farm operator's primary occupation.

Although most farmers focus on raising livestock and poultry that produce the major meat, milk, and poultry items, some produce specialty livestock commodities that not only add variety to our food and fiber supply but also serve other needs. Nearly 90,000 farmers raise horses and ponies for sale to fill recreational demands. Other recreational demands are filled by farmers who raise game birds, such as pheasant and quail.

Nearly 40,000 honeybee keepers not only provide our tables with a delicious sweetener but also provide a vital pollination service to many crop farmers. Beekeepers rent hives of bees to farmers to pollinate crops and ensure high yields. Without bees, the production of most fruits, legume seeds, and many vegetables would be sharply reduced. For many beekeepers, the production of honey is secondary to the pollination services they provide for other farmers.


Crops were produced on more than 1.6 million U.S. farms in 1987. The most widely produced crop in the United States is not corn, soybeans, or wheat (the major grain and oilseed crops). It is hay, which is grown on about 995,000 farms. Some farms are specialized hay farms, which produce hay as their principal cash crop, but most hay is produced on other farms. Nearly half of all hay-producing farms are beef cattle and dairy farms, where hay is grown for livestock feed. Beef cattle and dairy farms accounted for 58 percent of the acreage in hay crops and 53 percent of hay tonnage produced in the United States in 1987. Hay crops accounted for about one-fifth of the harvested cropland in 1987.

Hay is also commonly produced on other types of crop farms - such as grain, vegetable, potato, cotton, and tobacco farms - as a rotation crop. Hay crops grown in rotation with other crops serve as soil builders, reduce soil erosion, and help farmers control insects and other pests. Legume hay crops, such as alfalfa and clover, also add nitrogen, a vital crop nutrient, to the soil.

In addition to hay, grains, and oilseeds, U.S. farmers produce a wide range of food, ornamental and industrial crops (fig. 2). The nursery and greenhouse group, for example, encompasses more than 37,000 farmers and includes such commodities as cut flowers, potted plants, ornamental shrubs and mush-rooms, greenhouse-grown vegetables and lawn sod. Although some farmers producing these crops specialize in growing only one or two specific crops, others (probably most) produce a wide range of nursery or green-house crops.

The fruit and vegetable categories also include a large number of commodities. In addition to apples and oranges, fruits include such products as raspberries, olives, kiwis, and mangoes. The 1987 Census of Agriculture lists nearly 50 different major fruits, berries, and nuts produced in the United States. The vegetable category, in addition to such widely known crops as tomatoes, lettuce, and green beans, includes many less well-known commodities, such as artichokes, daikons, and hot peppers. Over 50 different major vegetable and melon crops are listed in the 1987 Census count. Many fruits and vegetables are distributed nationally, whereas others are produced by a few farmers to meet local or ethnic demands.

Farm types

Most farmers produce more than one commodity. For example, it is common for corn and soybeans to be raised on the same farm. Many livestock producers grow feedgrain and forage crops, such as hay or silage, to feed to their animals. Also, sound agricultural practices often call for several crops to be grown in rotation for soil building, disease control, and insect control. Even so, most farms in the United States are highly specialized in the production of a specific commodity.

One method of classifying a farm is by type, based on the commodity that accounts for the largest proportion of the farm's gross sales. A farm is classified as a cotton farm, for example, if 50 percent or more of the value of its commodity sales comes from cotton. A farm on which no one commodity (or commodity group) accounts for at least half the value of products sold is classified as a general farm-either general crop or general livestock, depending on whether crop or livestock products generate the most sales value.

Using this scheme, the Census of

Agriculture classifies U.S. farms into 14 different types (see table). Beef cattle operations (excluding feedlots) and cash grain farms are the most common types. Together, beef cattle and cash grain farms account for more than half of all farms in the United States.

The specialization ratio is the proportion of a farm's commodity sales that are generated from its primary commodity or commodity group (specialty). General farms, both crop and livestock, are the least specialized, because they produce a variety of commodities with no single commodity domin-ating their product sales. Among the specialized farm types, cotton and tobacco farms are the least specialized. On average, they ob-tain the smallest proportion (less than 80 percent) of their total sales values from their primary com-modities. The most highly special-ized farm types are horticultural specialty, animal specialty, fruit and tree nut, and poultry farms. These farm types, on average, obtain over 96 percent of their total sales values from their primary commodities.

Americans in Agriculture

1990 Yearbook of Agriculture

U.S. Department of Agriculture

Number of farms by type and

specialization ratio, 1987


Type of farm Number ratio

Cash grain 458,396 0.863

Cotton 27,674 0.796

Tobacco 87,776 0.793

Other field crops 128,178 0.811

Veg and melon 28,801 0.873

Fruit and tree nut 88,323 0.963

Horticult. speciality 31,469 0.985

General, primarily

crops 57,888 NA

Beef cattle

(excludes feedlots) 643,831 0.879

Livestock, except

dairy, poultry and

animal specialties

(includes feedlots) 248,436 0.865

Dairy 138,311 0.842

Poultry 38,494 0.963

Animal specialty 87,855 0.966

General, primarily

livestock 22,327 NA

All farms 2,087,759 NA

NA, Not applicable.

Source:1987 Census of Agriculture.


Discuss in groups:

what you found most surprising

whether all the questions you had before you read the text were answered

whether anyone can answer those unanswered questions

if not, where you can find the answers

how you think things have changed since the 1987 Census


The text provides many specialised terms and expressions which should become part

of your vocabulary. Without looking back at the text, try to give the technical terms for the following definitions. The figures in brackets will help you later to find the answers.

1. Goods for sale at home and abroad (1)

2. Collective name for animals kept on a farm (3)

3. Collective name for birds kept for eggs and/or meat (3)

4. Another way of saying 'leisure-time activities' (4)

5. Different crops grown one after the other to prevent soil depletion (7)

6. Plants grown for their beauty, not for food (8)

7. Young plants sold commercially for planting out or planting in greenhouses (8)

8. Crops whose seeds are used for animal feed (10)

9. Crops like hay grown to feed animals (10)

10. A building or area where animals are fattened for market (12)

11. A farm's most important product (13)

12. Plants produced specially for the garden (13)


Check your answers by going through the text again. The numbers in brackets will indicate the paragraph in which you will find the answer.


Vulgar fractions

1/2 a/one half 1/3 a/one third 1/4 a/one quarter 2/5 two fifths

1/8 a/one eighth [eitp


Using the data below, ask and answer questions. Take turns.

Example: What is the approximate proportion of the woodlands to the total land area?

About one fifth.

LAND USE IN HUNGARY (1 000 hectares)

Arable land 4 705

Gardens 339

Orchads 99

Vineyards 147

Meadows and pastures 1 234

Woodlands 1 659

Reeds 40

8 223


Fill in the gaps with the appropriate word/s.

1. Two thirds the production exported.

2. The Danish farm run unaided the owner and his family only.

3. The annual output person working farming trebled 1960.

4. The farm size is 35 hectares.

5. Grain grown about 55 of Denmark's agricultural lands.

6. The major grown are barley, wheat, oats and rye.

roots and potatoes as well as grass are also grown to the livestock.


Fill in the gaps with the appropriate word. The first letter of the word has been given for you.

In 1987, nearly 15 million farms produced (1) l and poultry. Because of its low labour requirement, the raising of (2) b (3) c is well suited to small operations.

Although most farmers focus on raising livestock and poultry, some produce specialty livestock (4) c . Nearly 90,000 farmers raise horses and ponies for sale to fill (5) r (6) d s.

The most widely produced crop in the US is hay, which is also commonly produced as a (7) r crop. In addition to hay, grains, and oilseeds, US farmers produce a wide range of food, (8) o , and industrial (9) c s. Many livestock producers grow feedgrains and (10) f crops, such as hay or silage, to feed their animals.

One method of classifying a farm is by type, based on the commodity that accounts for the largest proportion of the farm's (11) g (12) s s.



In the last lesson you got an introduction to farming in the US and Britain. Now we would like you to present the agriculture of your own country. To present the information more effectively you should use a poster. This is a technique widely used at conferences or meetings.


Open discussion.

What types of presentations do you know?

Where are they given and to what audience?

What is the aim of presentations based on posters?

Have you ever seen one presented or have you ever given one?

What audience was it given to?

What was the ratio of the presentation and the questions following it?


Work in groups.

Rank the following items according to how important you think they are in the case of a presentation based on a poster (1 stands for the most important idea, 10 for the least important one).

a. clear pronunciation of individual words

b. expressive intonation

c. well-designed poster

d. confident posture

e. fluent speech

f. loud, understandable volume of voice

g. helpful signposting

h. ability to answer the follow-up questions

i. ability to deal with interruptions

j. well-structured presentation


Form 3 groups.

Make a plan for a poster based presentation of your country's agriculture to be given to a group of visiting students from the USA. You can use materials given to you by your teacher or ones you have collected.


which pieces of information to present

in what order to present them

in what visual way to present them (text, graphs and charts, other illustrations etc.)

what materials you will need to prepare a poster

If you don't have any material at your disposal, use the samples provided in the book.





Published by the Agricultural Council of Denmark on behalf of its member organisations

Denmark's Farming Industry Today

In spite of its key role in Denmark's economy, only 120,000 people or 5 per cent of the country's work force are engaged in farming.

Number of Farms: There are approx 78,000 farms today compared with 200,000 in 1950. Their average size has risen from 21 to 35 hectares over the last decade. Since the number of farm­hands is approx.13,000 - one fifth compared with 1950 - ­only one farm in five employs outside labour on a permanent basis. The average age of Da­nish farmers is 52. The typical age of people setting up on their own for the first time is 32.

Denmark's agricultu­ral production today corres­ponds to the total needs of about 15 million people, against 10 million in 1950. This means that every farm satisfies the needs of 115 people, against 27 in 1950.

Processing and supplies: Rapid rationalisation has reduced the number of dairy factories from aprox. 1500 in 1950 to ca.60. The huge pig industry is covered by 9 slaughterhouse companies. Similar developments have changed the structure of poultry and egg production as well as the sector supplying farms with seed grain, feeding stuffs and fertilisers.

Exports: Farm produc­tion is so keyed to exports that two-thirds are sold abroad. Of that, half goes to other EC countries (the UK accounting for 20 per cent), the remain­der to more than 100 markets with the US and Japan as the most important.

These exports earned 48.0 billion Danish kroner in 1989. Since only approx. one-quar­ter of this is spent on the purchase abroad of production aids, machinery, fuel etc., agriculture is by far Den­mark's major net earner of foreign currency.

Prices and costs: Since 1972, the prices received by farmers for their products have risen 127 per cent while they have to pay 228 per cent more for their production aids etc.

Danish Agriculture in Profile

1. Two-thirds of the produc­tion is exported.

2. The organisational struc­ture of Danish agriculture is

very strong and com­prehensive. The Farmers' and

Family Farmers' Unions membership in­clude

virtually all farmers and the various production

sectors are dominated by co-operative societies.

3. Only every fifth farm employs full-time outside labour. More than ever, the Danish farm is run unaided by the owner and his family only.

4. Increasingly, the typical farmer and his wife earn part of their income from work outside the farm.

5. The annual output per person working in farming has trebled since 1960.

6. The average farm size is 35 hectares, second-largest

in Europe though still only half the British average.

Facts about Denmark

Geographical position:

Area: 43,000 km2. 65 per cent agricultural. 360 km from south to north, 400 km from east to west.


5,120,000, an average of 119 per km2.

Principal regions: Jylland (Jutland) and the islands of Fyn (Funen), Sjaelland (Zealand), Lolland-Falster and Born­holm.

Principal cities: Copenhagen (662,000), Arhus (183,000), Odense (137,000), Aalborg (115,000).

Climate: Average temperature 7.9°C. War­mest month, July, 16.6°C; coldest, February, minus 0.4°C. Average annual rainfall 662 mm. Wettest month, August, 80 mm; driest, February, 33 mm.

The Kingdom of Denmark also includes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Danish Agriculture - past and present

Owner-occupancy is characteristic of Danish agriculture and more widespread than anywhere in Europe, with a very small proportion of farms tenant-run.

Full-time employees on the farms in 1990 numbered 13.000 compared with 16,000 in 1985. Only on in six farms has full-time employees. Including industries directly linked to agriculture, the farming sector provides jobs for 238.000 people.

Approx. 2,000 young people embark on an agricultural education every year.

The average age of people setting up in farming is 32-33 years. The average age of all farmers is 52 years.

No of farms: 76,900 in 1990, compared with 140,200 in 1970. The average size rose from 21 to 36 hectares, second-largest in Europe after the UK.

Production: The annual output of animal products could satisfy the requirements of 15 million people, or 178 per farm.

Processing and supply: Today, there are approx. 64 dairy factories, compared with 1,350 in 1960 while the number of slaughterhouse companies has dropped from 77 to 6. The poultry sector, grain trade and feeding stuffs and fertiliser supply have also been rationalised considerably.

Exports: More than two-thirds of the total farm production is exported. In 1990, 55 per cent of exports went to other EC countries (Britain and West Germany 18 per cent each), while the US and Japan were the major markets outside the EC.

Agricultural exports in 1990 were worth 48 billion kroner in foreign currency. The industry's requirements for imported operational materials accounted for 10 billion only. The difference - 38 billion - contributed significantly to payment for imported raw materials and equipment for other industries as well as foreign cars and other consumer goods.

Farm product prices and costs: Between 1980/84 and 1990, the farmgate prices on products for the home market rose by 28 per cent only while the general price level rose by 66 per cent.

The EC and Denmark: Since joining the European Commu­nity in 1972, continuous improvements in productivity have led to an volume increase of 44 per cent, while exports increased by 60 per cent. This has served not only to stabili­se the Danish economy and lessen Denmark's considerable balance-of-payment problems but has ensured that agricul­ture remains a significant employer in spite of the rapid rationalisation.

Farm Figures and Fact from Denmark

Annotated statistics 1991



Prepare your poster .

Pay special attention to logical and clear layout and to eye-catching colours and arrangement of your material.


Prepare notes for your presentation.

Rehearse it together.


Each student will now have the opportunity to present their group's poster.

While you listen to the presentations, make notes on the evaluation sheet below so that you can compare the presenters' performances.























intonation and pro-nunciation

fluency of speech

structure of


volume of voice

ability to answer questions


one good point

one point to improve


Work in groups.

Now discuss which poster and which presentation you found the best and why.

Come to a consensus and give your reasons.

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