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TC f

Curs 1

The Alphabet

A [ei] - What is your name? My name is Anna.

Please spell it: [ei] [en] [en] [ei]

B [bi:] - What is his name? Ben.

Please spell it: [bi] [i:] [en]

C [si:] - What is her name? Carol.

Please spell it: [si:] [ai] [a:] [ou] [el].

Spell the names:

D [di:] - Donald

E [i:] - Eva

F [ef] - Felicity

G [dʒi:] - Garry

H [eit∫] - Hilda

I [ai] - Iris

J [dʒei] - Jim

K [kei] - Kay

L [el] - Larry

M [em] - Mary

N [en] - Nicole

O [ou] - Ophelia

P [pi:] - Paul

Q [kju:] - Quinn

R [a(r):] - Raymond

S [es] - Sally

T [ti:] - Tania

U [ju:] - Umberto

V [vi:] - Vicky

W [dablju:] - William

X [eks] - Xavier

Y [ωai] – Yvette

Z [zed] - Zara

My name is _____ _______ ______ _______. Please spell it_____ _______ ______ ______________

I am from_____ _______ ______ _________. Please spell it. _____ _______ ______ _____________

Pronunciation drill:






me; tree; he; people


ship; it; ticket; this; king


bed; pen; egg; yes; men; well

man; that; am; and; Paris; can; Spanish


past; dark; arm; are; car; hard

not; lot; wash; song; form; rock; coffee

all; small; ball; or; forty; morning


put; full; look; good; book


who; move; noon; blue; do; too

a; the; under; father; address; servant; Saturday

her; Thursday; burn; third; worth; work


up; cup; much; sun; some; but




say; baby; train; plate; table; waiter; Spain


no; smoke; those; motor; only; Poland; hotel


five; nine; ice; eye; my; side


how; count; flower; cloud; hour; now


boy; noise; boil; voice

dear; clear; beer; really; ear

where; there; their; chair; hair; care

four; door; your; more; floor

sure, poor






pen; people; pull; open


be; baby; boy; bad; husband


train; tree; treat; sit; hotel


door; day; sad; kind; desk; Friday


cold; back; clock; car; class; king


gold; bag; girl; dog; good; go; egg-cup


fine; far; safe; flower; after


very; save; vegetable; seven; never

thank; thick; thin; nothing; think; twentieth, worth

then; that; there; weather; with; together


so; sit; sleep; thinks; place; cigarette


zero; noise; has; knives; comes; plays

ship; sharp; fish; English; short; wash

pleasure; measure; enclosure


Charles; each; Richard; rich; much; church

John; judge; age; Japan; language


his, happy; here; help; unhappy


man; swim; make; my


name; near; then; finish

sing; thing; working; English; king


red; around; very; rich; every; room


leave; long; last; full; greatly; last

will; work; away; when; window; wash


yellow; you; year; young; yes; piano

Basic Verb Forms

TO BE I am ________________ We are ___________

(a fi) You are ___________ You are ___________

He is ___________ They are ___________

She is ___________

It is ________________

TO HAVE I have ___________ We have ____________

(a avea) You have ___________ You have ____________

She has ___________ They have ____________

He has ___________

It has ___________


doctor She is a_______________

teacher You are a______________

accountant Fred is a______________

economist I am an________________

driver He is a________________

secretary She is a______________

mechanic Jeff is a _______________

waiter He is not a _____________

cook She is a _______________

electrician Dan is a ______________

engineer He is a ________________

pilot She is a _______________

manager Tim is a _______________

clerk Sarah is a ______________

nurse Joe is a ________________

policeman He is not a _____________

Practise the verb TO BE:

I am not a doctor. You _________ a teacher. She is an economist. He _____ a driver. You are a teacher. I ________ an economist. He is a lawyer. She _____ a doctor, she ______ not an actress. We are managers. You _____ not teachers, you _____ drivers. We ______ doctors. He __________ a pilot, he ______ not an electrician. She _____ an engineer.

More words: Car ______________ It is a car.

Office ______________ It is an office.

Dress ______________ _____ a dress.

Paper ______________ ____ a paper.

Cup ______________ _____ a cup.

Phone ______________ _____ a phone

Chair ______________ _____ a chair

Desk ______________ _____ a desk

Window ______________ _____ a window

Shirt ______________ _____ a shirt

Stapler ______________ _____ a stapler

Practise the verb TO HAVE:

I _________ a car. You have a ____________. She ________ a coffee cup. He ______ a red shirt. We _______ a big office. You __________ a blue car. They ________ two phones. She ______a new dress. I _______ a comfortable chair. He _____ an office. She ______ a large window. They ______a small company.

Greeting, introducing people, AGREEING, apologies,

excuses and promises, thanks:


Hello (Am. E. Hi) folosit in raporturi familiare

Good morning! - pana la ora 12 sau 13

Good afternoon! – intre orele 12/13 si 18

Good evening! – intre 18 si ora culcarii

How do you do (Sir/Madam)? – situatii formale cand intalnim pe cineva prima data; Nice to meet you. sau Pleased to meet you.

Good bye! /Farewell! – La revedere!

So long! - Pe curand!

Bye-bye! – pe ton familiar pentru copii sau prieteni apropiati

See you later! / I’ll be seeing you! / See you! (Am. E.) – Ne (mai) vedem.

Observati ca: Formula Good day!este de evitat fiind (rar) folosita pentru despartiri definitive pe ton dispretuitor, dar niciodata ca formula de salut.

Introducing people:




Introducing people


May I present . ?

I’d like you to meet .

A: How do you do?

B: How do you do, nice to meet you.

This is .

A: Hi/Hello.

B: Nice/Glad to see you.

Parting remarks:

(formule pentru despartire)

It was so nice to meet you.

It was a pleasure to meet you.

Hope to see you again!

See you soon!


Excuses/Apologies (saying sorry):

I’m sorry.

I beg your pardon.

I’m very/terribly/awfully/so sorry.

I’m really/very sorry I’m late.

Sorry to keep you waiting

I’m sorry about the mess. I’ll clear it up. (I’ll tidy up).

I’m sorry about the confusion. I’ll sort it out. (I will solve the problem.)

Thanks (saying Thank you):

Thank you very much.

Thanks a lot.

Thank you. That’s very kind of you

Thank you very much for inviting me/having me here.

Thank you for everything. You’ve been very kind.

Make the following conversation more formal:

Barbara: This is Rod James, the new Sales Manager.

Rod: Hello!

Barbara: This is John Grant, one of our best customers.

John: Nice to meet you!

Rod: I’m happy to know you. Sorry, I have to go now. See you soon.

Impersonal expressions with the verb TO BE/ Expresii impersonale cu verbul TO BE:

IT It is dark._____ _______ ______ _______ It is hard.____________________

It is cold._____ _______ ______ _______ It is hot. ____________________

It is warm._____ _______ ______ ______ It is enough. _________________

It is not late. ___________________ It is chilly. ___________________

It is early. _____ _______ ______ ______ It is sunny. __________________

It is not cloudy. _________________ It isn’t difficult. _______________

It is new. _____ _______ ______ _______ It is nice. ____________________

It is 10 o’clock. _________________ It is good. ___________________

It is not bad. ___________________ It is far, not close. _____________

It is wonderful. _________________ It is true. ____________________

THERE IS There is much rain in this region. _____ _______ ______ __________

There is silence in this room. _____ _______ ______ _______________

There is not enough coffee. __________ ______ ____ _

There is a doctor here. __________ ______ ____ ____

There is a good film on TV tonight. _____ _______ ______ _________

Have you got any money? Yes, there is some in my bag.

THERE ARE There are many people here now. _____ _______ ______ _____________

There are big trees in the park. __________ ______ ____

There are four engineers there. __________ ______ ____

There aren’t children in here. __________ ______ ____ _

There are some big trees in the garden. _____ _______ ______ _________

There aren’t many accidents on this road. _____ _______ ______ _______

More words: company __________________ money ___________________

salary __________________ job_____ _______ ______ ________

family __________________ partner___________________

colleague __________________ position __________________

friend ___________________ boss _____ _______ ______ ______

Forma negativa si interogativa a verbelor la timpul Prezent

(Present Simple - The Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative Aspects)

TO BE ( a fi)



Aspectul Afirmativ

Aspectul Negativ/

Forma scurta

Aspectul Interogativ

SG:  I

I am

I am not / I’m not

Am I?


You are

You are not/ you aren’t

Are you?


He is

He is not/ he isn’t

Is he?

She is

She is not/ she isn’t

Is she?

It is

It is not/ it isn’t

Is it?

PL:  I

We are

We are not/ we aren’t

Are we?


You are

You are not/ you aren’t

Are you?


They are

They are not/ the aren’t

Are they?

TO HAVE (a avea)



Aspectul afirmativ/

Forma scurta

Aspectul Negativ/

forma scurta

Aspectul Interogativ

SG:  I

I have/ I’ve

I do not /don’t have

Do I have?


You have/ you’ve

You do not /don’t have

Do you have?


He has/ he’s

He does not /doesn’t have

Does he have?

She has/ she’s

She does not /doesn’t have

Does she have?

It has

It does not /doesn’t have

Does it have?


We have/ we’ve

We do not /don’t have

Do we have?


You have/ you’ve

You do not/ don’t have

Do you have?


They have/ they’ve

They do not/ don’t have

Do they have?

TO DO (a face)



Aspectul afirmativ/

Forma scurta

Aspectul Negativ/

forma scurta

Aspectul Interogativ


I do

I do not do/ I don’t do

Do I do?


You do

You do not do/ you don’t do

Do you do?


He does

He does not do/ he doesn’t do

Does he do?

She does

She does not do/ she doesn’t do

Does she do?

It does

It does not do/ It doesn’t do

Does it do?


We do

We do not do / we don’t do

Do we do?


You do

You do not do/ you don’t do

Do you do?


They do

They do not do/ they don’t do

Do they do?


La aspectul afirmativ la persoana a III-a singular (he/she/it) se adauga la terminatia verbului +s/es: I do an exercise. He/She does an exercise.

We come home late. He comes home early.

They eat sweets. Jim eats pizza.

La aspectul negativ la toate persoanele se adauga auxiliarul Do/Does + negatia NOT + verbul de conjugat (varianta scurta pentru do+not este don’t; does+not este doesn’t):

I do not do an exercise. I don’t do an exercise.

She does not do an exercise. She doesn’t do an exercise.

They don’t eat sweets. Jim doesn’t eat pizza.

La aspectul interogativ structura pozitiei este auxiliarul (Do/Does)+ subiect+ verb:

Do (auxiliar) I (subiect) do (verb) an exercise? Does she do an exrecise?

Do they eat sweets? Does Jim eat pizza?

Adverbe de frecventa folosite cu Prezentul Simplu:

USUALLY __________________

NEVER _________________

ALWAYS _________________

EVERY DAY/ MONTH/ WEEK / YEAR _____ _______ ______ _____________

EVER __________________

OFTEN _________________

RARELY _________________

SOMETIMES __________________

GENERALLY _________________

FREQUENTLY _________________

NORMALLY _________________

OCCASIONALLY _________________

REGULARLY ___________________

FROM TIME TO TIME __________________

AS A RULE ____________________

EVERY ONCE IN A WHILE _____ _______ ______ ____________

Fill in with the verb TO HAVE:

I ______ a job. She_____a partner. We______a company. You_____ a salary. He _______ a family. We _____ money. They ________ a family. She______ a big salary. He_______ a good position in the company. They______a small company. We_____ a lot of money. I_____ a salary. He_____a new car. You______a good colleague.

Phrases with the verb HAVE (Expresii cu verbul HAVE) :

have breakfast/ lunch/ dinner We usually have breakfast at 7 am, and lunch at 1 pm.

have good/bad weather We hope to have good weather when we go on vacation.

have a visitor Do you have many visitors every weekend?

have someone as a guest We have the manager of Microsoft as a guest at this hotel.

have a good/wonderful time She hopes to have a good time in Tahiti.

have the house repainted/decorated The Smiths have their house painted.

have a watch repaired My watch is broken, I have to have it repaired.

have a chat I haven’t seen you in a while, let’s have a chat over coffee!

Read and translate this text:

1) I am Sally. I am an economist. I have a job and a car. You are his partner. You have an office¸ a salary¸ and a good position. We are colleagues. We have big offices. He is Larry and he is a lawyer. He has a job and his own office. He has a small salary. She is Mary. She is an accountant. She has a small company. Larry and Mary are married. They have a beautiful family. They are business partners. Jim has an old car, but he is a good driver. He has a good salary and a small, beautiful house. Jim has a furniture company and a family. He is a manager and has a lot of money.

2) Yvonne is 22 and she is a successful model. Her friends describe her as strong and independent. ‘I have to be in my job – I started modelling when I was 15.’ She is also good-looking and intelligent. ‘I like people who have similar interests and opinions, and who make me laugh’.

3) Robert is 34 and he is a doctor. According to his wife he is very patient and hard-working, and he has a good sense of humour. ‘That is important in my job! I get on well with people who are honest and say what they think.’ He often comes home tired and only has dinner and watches TV. His patients appreciate him because he is a good doctor.

Practise: Fill in the forms of the verb TO BE:

_______ you in the office? Yes¸ I am in the office. Yes¸ I am.

Is she at home? No¸ she ________ at home. /She isn’t at home. No¸ she isn’t.

______ he at the company? Yes¸ he is at the company. Yes¸ he _______.

Is she at work? Yes¸ she ______ at work. Yes¸ she is.

Is it yellow? No¸ it _______ yellow¸ it is white. No¸ it isn’t. It’s white.

Are we lawyers? Yes¸ we ________ lawyers. Yes¸ we are.

_______ you doctors? No¸ you are not doctors. No¸ you ________. You are accountants.

Are they economists? No¸ they ________ economists. No¸ they aren’t, they _____ lawyers.


1. Make the following sentences affirmative, interrogative, or negative:

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

1. This is a king. ____________________ _____ _______ ______ ________

2. _______________ Is she my doctor? _____ _______ ______ ________

3. _________________ _____ _______ ______ ______ The boys don’t play football.

4. That is the Moon. ____________________ _____ _______ ______ ________

5. _________________ ____________________ Matt isn’t my friend.

6. Those are stars. _____ _______ ______ ______ _____ _______ ______ ________

7. ________________ Is the door open? _____ _______ ______ ________

8. _________________ ____________________ We never go to the seaside.

9. She sells seashells. _____ _______ ______ ______ _____ _______ ______ ________

10. ________________ Does he work here? _____ _______ ______ ________

2. Translate into English using impersonal expressions as IT IS/ THERE IS/ THERE ARE:

1. Este frig in Februarie. _____ _______ ______ _________

2. Cursul se afla pe birou. _____ _______ ______ _________

3. Sunt multi oameni aici. _____ _______ ______ __________

4. Nu sunt multe cladiri in oras. _____ _______ ______ _______

5. Este placut sa zambesti. _____ _______ ______ __________

6. Nu e greu sa fii bun. _____ _______ ______ ___________

7. Sunt 20 de elevi in clasa. _____ _______ ______ ____________

8. Este o poza cu tine in ziar. _____ _______ ______ __________

9. Nu sunt probleme, totul este in regula. _____ _______ ______ _______________

10. Nu avem unde sa ne asezam, nu sunt scaune. _____ _______ ______ ________

3. Read this text and translate it into Romanian:

This is Mary Johnson. She is a nurse at St. Michael Hospital. This is a classroom in a local high school and Mary is in Mr. Thompson’s language class. There are other people there with her. They are all here to learn a new language. The teacher, Mr. Thompson, is new in town. He comes from London. The door is behind the teacher, and a window is open. On the teacher’s desk there are some sheets of paper and some pencils. In five minutes the English class begins.

4. Inlocuiti spatiile libere cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului TO BE (a fi) si TO HAVE (a avea):

I ______ a student.

This ____ a school.

Larry ______ an old phone.

The doctor _____ many patients.

The company _____ a head office.

It _________ sunny.

She ____ sad.

They ____ accountants.

It _____ dark.

This _____ a cup.

That ______ very good coffee.

Those _____ my air tickets.

It _____ enough.

You ______ a good car.

She _______ a company.

This is all we _____ with us.

We _____ money.

He ______ a partner.

The president _____ an office.

You ____a doctor.

These _____ teachers.

Jessica _____ a lawyer.

I ______ happy.

Those _____ economists.

That ______ a supermarket

Larry ______ a good career.

The secretary ______a new desk.

The office _____ a computer network.

I _____ a party dress.

He ______ a good job.

They _____ several companies.

You ____ this telephone number.

I _____ cold, close the window, please.

Jane _____ at home at the moment.

Tina ____ 23 and her sister _____ 29.

My brother _______ very tall.

Tom _____ not interested in politics.

John _______ afraid of dogs.

It ____ 10 o’clock. You ____ late again.

Anna and I ______ good friends.

Those people _____ not English.

Your keys ______ on the table.

It _____ not sunny today, but it _____ warm.

I ______ tired, but I ____ not hungry.

5. Where do they work? Complete the blanks:

A teacher __________ ______ ____ _______

A doctor __________ ______ ____ ________

A waiter __________ ______ ____ ______

A secretary __________ ______ ____ ____

A shop-assistant __________ ______ ____ ___

A hairdresser __________ ______ ____ ___

A farmer __________ ______ ____ ____

An engineer __________ ______ ____ _____

A taxi-driver __________ ______ ____ ___

A mechanic __________ ______ ____ _

A nurse __________ ______ ____

A writer _____ _______ ______ __________

What do you do? _____ _______ ______ _________

Where do you work? _____ _______ ______ ______

Is it an interesting job? ____________________

Curs 2

2.1 Substantivul (The Noun)

In limba engleza sunt doua categorii de substantive (nouns) cu subcategorii:

Nouns – proper (proprii): England, Romania, John, Anna, Hawaii, Everest, Paris;

common (comune):

1. countable (numarabile): - concrete (concrete): boy, car, flower;

Common - abstract (abstracte): dream, idea;

nouns 2. uncountable (nenumarabile): - concrete (concrete): milk, bread;

- abstract (abstracte): advice, love;

The Plural of Nouns (Pluralul substantivelor)

Countable Nouns (Substantive numarabile)




Substantive cu terminatii diverse la singular

+ S

car-cars¸ office-offices¸ doctor-doctors¸ lawyer-lawyers¸ drivers¸ cups¸ papers;

Substantivele terminate in consoana + y (y se transforma in i+es)


company - companies¸ city-cities¸ salary-salaries, industry-industries, fly-flies;

Substantive terminate in -s¸ -ss¸

-ch¸ -sh¸ -x¸- zz

+ ES

bus- buses¸ dress – dresses¸ lunch-lunches

bush-bushes¸ box-boxes¸ buzz-buzzes

Substantive terminate in –f¸ -fe


half - halves¸ thief-thieves¸ wife-wives, life-lives, wolf-wolves, knife-knives.

Substantive terminate in –o

+ ES

potato – potatoes¸ echo-echoes, hero-heroes;

BUT: piano-pianos¸ photo- photos;

Substantive exceptie (Irregular Plural) - nu formeaza pluralul prin adaugarea lui +s/ es)

man-men¸ woman-women¸ tooth-teeth¸ foot-feet¸ child-children, mouse-mice;

Plurale straine:

datum-data¸ criterion-criteria¸ phenomenon - phenomena

Pluralul identic cu singularul

A sheep - sheep¸ a deer - deer¸ a fish – fish (fishes diferite specii de peste)¸ a fruit – fruit; a series – series;

2. Uncountable Nouns (Substantive nenumarabile)




Substantive care formeaza singularul prin cuantificatorul a piece of . sau some, a lot of, much, a little

information, equipment, news, advice, furniture, damage, luggage, knowledge;

a piece of information, a piece of advice, a piece of furniture, little damage, a piece of luggage;

Substantive care formeaza singularul prin cuantificatorii some, a lot of, much, a little

cash, money, homework, applause, music, luck, progress, traffic, work; coffee, sugar, milk, butter, bread, chocolate, wine, oil;

some money, a lot of work, much traffic, little progress; some coffee, a little bread, a lot of sugar, some water;

We use: much + uncountable noun:

We use: many + countable noun:

Do you need much food?

We haven’t got much luggage.

Have you got any money? I’ve got some, but not much.

Do you have many books?

We don’t know many people.

How many photos did you take?

Did you take many photos? I took some, but not many.

We use: a lot of + all types of noun:

We buy a lot of food for the trip.  Paula hasn’t got a lot of free time.

There is a lot of money in her wallet.  We buy a lot of books for this exam.

Did they ask you a lot of questions?  There are a lot of shops on this street.

A lot of people speak English.  He has a lot of friends in this town.

Treceti urmatoarele substantive la PLURAL:

doctor ____________________  teacher_____ _______ ______ _______

economist _________________  accountant___________________

driver ____________________  secretary_____ _______ ______ ______

accountant ________________  company_____ _______ ______ ______

salary ____________________ job_____ _______ ______ ___________

partner ___________________  family_____ _______ ______ ________

cup _____ _______ ______ _______  paper_____ _______ ______ _________

dress _____ _______ ______ ______  office_____ _______ ______ _________

money ___________________  advice _____ _______ ______ ________

engineer __________________  manager _____ _______ ______ ______

office _____ _______ ______ ______ chair _____ _______ ______ __________

colleague __________________  friend _____ _______ ______ _________

Read the following text: (READ _______________):

Sally and Mary are partners. They have a company together. They both have jobs¸ salaries¸ and cars. Sally has a big family. She has two children. Mary has a nice office¸ a car¸ and a personal driver. The office has a desk and four chairs. The company has a lawyer and a good manager. They have good salaries. The company is prosperous. They are all happy.

More words: Fruits and Vegetables

apple ____________________

apricot ____________________

avocado ___________________

banana _____ _______ ______ ______


bell-pepper ___________________

beetroot _________________

blueberry ___________________

blackberry _____ _______ ______ ______

cabbage ___________________

carrot __________________

cauliflower ___________________

celery ___________________

cherry _____ _______ ______ ______

chestnut ______________

chili/hot pepper ________________

coconut ____________________

cranberry _____ _______ ______ ______

cucumber _____ _______ ______ _______

(black) currant ____________________

dill _________________

eggplant _________________

garlic _______________

gooseberry ___________________

grape __________________

grapefruit ___________________

hazel _______________

horseradish _________________

kiwi __________________

lemon _________________

lovage ________________

mango __________________

mandarin ________________

(water) melon ________________

olive __________________

onion ________________

orange ___________________

parsley ___________________

parsnip ______________

peanut ___________________

peach ___________________

pease ______________

pear _________________

pineapple ____________________

pickles _______________

plum __________________

pomegranate ________________

potato ________________

pumpkin _______________

quince ______________

raspberry __________________


sour cherry _____________

spinach ______________

strawberry __________________

sugar beet _________________

sugar cane ________________

tangerine _______________

tomato _________________

turnip ________________

walnut ________________

wheat ___________

zucchini _______________


basil _____________

calamint _____________

curry ______________

ketchup ______________

marjoram ________________

oregano ______________

salt ____________

mustard _________________

oil ________________

pepper __________________

white pepper _______________

red pepper _________________

green pepper ______________

black pepper ______________

vinegar __________________

2.2 Adjectivul (The Adjective)

Tipuri de adjective (din punctul de vedere al continutului):

Adjective calificative

Exprima calitatea

Au grade de comparatie

This is a good book.

This book is the best.

Adjective relative

Exprima relatia de loc¸ originea¸ nationalitatea¸ materialul. Nu au grade de comparatie

An English book

A Japanese man

A wooden chair

Adjective determinative

Nu arata insusiri

Clarifica sensul substantivului

My mother

That house

Any book

Adjective demonstrative

de apropiere: This – these (acesta/aceasta) (acestia/acestea)

This man – these men

de departare: That- those

(acela/aceea) (aceia/ acelea)

That lady – those ladies

de identitate: The same (acelasi/aceeasi; aceiasi/aceleasi)

Such (asa, atat de)

The same course

The same books

Such noise!

Adjective posesive

My – al meu¸ a mea¸ mei¸ mele

Your – al tau¸ a ta¸ tai¸ tale

His- a/al lui

Her- a/al ei

Its- ale sale

Our – a noastra¸ nostru . .

Your – a voastra¸ vostru . .

Their – a/ale lor

my office¸ my car¸ my box

your family¸ your money

his office¸ his job

her mother¸ her children

its colour, its food

our company¸ our car

your papers¸ your cups

their money¸ their office

Adjective nehotarate

Some – cativa¸ cateva¸ niste

Any – oricare¸ orice

No – nici

Each – fiecare

Every – fiecare

All - toti¸ toate

Either - oricare¸ sau

Neither - nici una¸ nici unul

Both - ambele¸ amandoi

Other - altul¸ alta¸

Another - un altul ¸ o alta..

Much – mult

Many – multi, multe

Most - majoritatea

Little - putin

Few – cativa¸ cateva

Several – mai multi¸ numerosi

some cups¸ some papers

any man¸ any office

no message¸ no paper

each man¸ each woman

every book¸ every paper

all women¸ all lawyers

either secretary

neither office

both children¸ both bags

other offices¸ other women

another man¸ another box

much noise, much coffee

many cars¸ many offices

most cars, most people

little coffee, little money

few people

several hurricanes


interogativ -relative

Who – cine

What – ce¸ care¸ ce fel de

Which- care¸ ce

Whose – al¸ a¸ ai ¸ ale carui

(To) Whom - cui

Who is the manager?

What car? My car?

Which lady? That lady?

Whose car is that?

To whom do I give this? To Joe.

Practise the demonstratives:

This is – Acesta/Aceasta este

That is – Acela/Aceea este

These are – Acestea/Acestia sunt

Those are – Acelea/Aceia sunt

This is a man.

These are .

That is a man.

Those are men.

This is an office.

These are.

That is an offices.

Those are offices.

This is a paper.

These are .

That is..


This is a car.

These are .

That is .

Those :.

This is a job.

These are .

That is


More words: Colours:

Red - rosu light red – rosu deschis dark red – rosu inchis

Yellow - galben light yellow – galben deschis; dark yellow- galben inchis

Orange - portocaliu light________________ dark_________________

White – alb  bright white __________________

Pink - roz light________________ dark_________________

Blue - albastru light________________ dark_________________

Green - verde light________________ dark_________________

Brown - maro light________________ dark_________________

Black – negru pitch black ____________________

Grey - gri light________________ dark_________________

Silver - argintiu

Golden - auriu

Complete the blanks with the given adjectives:

little  I have _________________ coffee.

many She has _______________ books.

several There are ______________ people.

much I don’t have ___________ time.

the same This is _______________ room.

neither _________ Mary, nor Tom speak Japanese.

some Please give me __________ water.

another Take ____________ pen and finish the test.

other ___________ people go to work now.

few We have ____________ guests.

all  ________ children like sweets.

such  He hates ___________ noise!

either  They want ___________ colour.

Practise: Read these sentences:

England He is an English man. This is an English national. He speaks English.

Romania She is a Romanian lady. This is a Romanian national. She speaks Romanian.

Japan We are Japanese. These are Japanese nationals. We speak Japanese.

America They are Americans. Those are American nationals. They speak English.

Hungary I am Hungarian. This is a Hungarian national. I speak Hungarian.

Italy Veronica is Italian. This is an Italian national. Veronica speaks Italian.

Germany Lisa is German. This is a German national. Lisa speaks German.

France Pierre is French. That is a French national. Pierre speaks French.

Spain Juanita is Spanish. Those are Spanish national. Juanita speaks Spanish.

Russia Olga is Russian. This is a Russian national. Olga speaks Russian.

Observati ca: Numele tarilor/ nationalitatilor se scriu intotdeauna cu litera mare indiferent de pozitia lor in propozitie.

Practise other types of adjectives:

The same This is the same office! Those are the same ladies! This is the same course.

Such Such noise! Such a book! Such a good coffee!

My This is my car. These are my children.

Your That is your office. Those are your companies.

His This is his job. These are his papers.

Her This is her dress. Those are her cups. This is her coffee.

Its This is its colour. This is the company and those are its branches.

Our These are our children. This is our office. This is our company.

Your These are your jobs. Those are your papers. These are your cups.

Their These are their cars. Those are their parking lots.

More words:

to want – a vrea¸ a dori I want some coffee. You want some papers. She wants a new phone.

to take – a lua Take a taxi. She takes a cup of tea to her colleague.

to know – a sti, a cunoaste I know my all my colleagues. She knows the manager. He knows all the answers.

to answer – a raspunde Please answer the phone. They answer the question rapidly.

to ask – a ruga, a cere, a intreba I want to ask you a favour. Please ask her to wait. Ask him that question.

to bring – a aduce I always bring good news. He brings her flowers every time.

to arrive – a sosi, a ajunge They arrive in Bucharest at 9 pm. She arrives 10 minutes earlier than her boss.

to leave – a pleca, a parasi He leaves the building at 10 o’clock. They leave for Bucharest by plane tonight.

to live – a trai, a locui We live in Romania. She lives on Sunshine Boulevard.


1. Turn into the plural (making all necessary changes):

This is a tree. _____ _______ ______ __________

This man is a manger. ___________________

That woman is a nurse. _________________

He is my friend. _____ _______ ______ ________

She isn’t here. _____ _______ ______ __________

He buys the book. _____ _______ ______ _______

This pack of cigarettes is his. ____________

This is my favourite movie. _______________

She is the best actress. ___________________

He has only one prize. __________________

She has a diploma. ___________________

I have a little money left. _______________

The door is open. __________________

There is a man in the bank. _____________

This is the train for Bucharest. ___________

This waitress brings coffee. _____________

That is her car. __________________

That mountain is high. ________________

This star has no name. __________________

One student is missing. _________________

I need further information. ______________

No news is good news. _________________

She gives good advice. _________________

Our luggage is lost. ____________________

I have to buy milk. ____________________

2. Completati spatiile libere cu THIS, THESE, THAT, THOSE:

__________ is a car.

__________ is an office.

__________ are doctors.

__________ are schools.

__________ are chairs.

__________ is your money.

_________ is a bike.

_________ are telephones.

_________ is a manager.

_________ are tests.

_________ is not a doctor.

_________ are not your accountants.

3. Translate the sentences into English:

a) Am o masina rosie.__________ ______ ____ _________________

b) Sally are o rochie roz deschis __________ ______ ____ _________

c) Ceasca mea este alba __________ ______ ____ ________________

d) Hartiile mele sunt albe__________ ______ ____ ______________

e) Cafeaua ei este neagra __________ ______ ____ ______________

f)  Masinile lor sunt de culoare verde__________ ______ ____ _____

g) Rochiile lor sunt de culoare galben inchis_____ _______ ______ _______________

h) Cestile noastre sunt albastre__________ ______ ____ __________

i)  Biroul nostru este de culoare alba__________ ______ ____ ______

j)  Masina ta este gri __________ ______ ____ __________________

k) Rochia ei este aurie__________ ______ ____ _________________

l)  Cartile mele sunt de culoare maro inchis__________ ______ ____

m)    Foile tale sunt albe.__________ ______ ____ _________________

n)      Acest sfat e folositor, iti multumesc. __________ ______ ____ __

4. Finish each sentence:

a) It is important to __________ ______ ____ _

b) It is hard to _____ _______ ______ ____________

c) It’s so easy to_____ _______ ______ ________

d) Is it difficult to _____ _______ ______ _____________?

e) It’s unnecessary to _____ _______ ______ _______________

f)  It’s vital to _____ _______ ______ ___________

g) What is essential is _____ _______ ______ ____________

h) Always remember to _____ _______ ______ __________

i)  _____ _______ ______ ______ is unforgettable.

j)  It’s a miracle to _____ _______ ______ ________

k) It’s understandable if_____ _______ ______ ____________

l)  It’s illegal to _____ _______ ______ __________

m)    It’s safe to _____ _______ ______ ________

n)      It’s unusual to _____ _______ ______ _______

o)      It’s better to _____ _______ ______ ________


The Article (Articolul)

FELUL articolului

folosire – inaintea:


Articoul hotarat


– cuvintelor care incep cu sunete consonantice si semiconsonantice (y)

cand este clar/cunocut la ce facem referire

anumite institutii/agentii



nume de oceane/rauri/mari/canale

– pentru evidentiere si/sau singularizare; se pronunta /ði:/

What is the name of this street?

Can you tell me the time, please?

My office is at the first floor.

The police investigate the case.

My brother is in the army.

Write your name at the top of the page.

My house is at the end of the street.

Do you drive on the left or on the right in your country?

Are you going to the bank?

We are on a cruise on the Mediterranean.

This is the car. It’s the best ever.

Articolul nehotarat


– trimitere la o persoana sau un obiect

cand spunem ce este o persoana sau un lucru/fenomen

– inaintea sunetelor consonantice si semiconsonantice (y)

– pentru referire la ocupatii

Alice works in a bank.

Can I ask a question?

She is a singer.

Football is a game.

The sun is a star.

There is a woman at the bus stop.

Picasso was a famous painter.

Articolul nehotarat



– cuvintelor care incep cu sunetele vocalice a/e/i/o/u

pentru referire la ocupatii

Obs: a university; an hour; a European

Do you want an apple or a banana?

There is an interesting documentary on TV.

Mark is an engineer.

Zero Article

(in limba romana nu se pune articol)

– numele persoanelor: Mary¸ Smith, Peter, Jessica;

– denumirile continentelor: Asia¸ Africa, Australia;

– denumirle localitatilor: London, Tokyo, Maramures, Iasi;

– varfuri muntoase: Mount Everest; Kilimanjaro;

– denumirile lunilor anului: June¸ May, August, March;

– denumirea zilelor saptamanii: Sunday, Tuesday, Friday;

– anumite expresii: watch television;; at night; by day; go home, go to prison, go to school; go to work; go to bed, go to hospital, go to university.

– denumirile meselor: breakfast; lunch, dinner, supper;

– repere temporale cu: NEXT / LAST : I am not working next week.

Did you have a holiday last summer?

– idei generale: I like jazz music. Life is not possible without water. We don’t eat meat very often. I hate exams. I’m not good at writing letters.

Articulati cu articol hotarat urmatoarele substantive

_______ office

________ car

_______ dress

________ company







________ manager

________ box

Articulati cu articol nehotarat urmatoarele substantive






_______ electrician






________ actor

Completati cu articol hotarat sau nehotarat¸ dupa caz:

_____Mary is _____doctor. She has _____car. She has _____family. _____Mary is in ____Cluj-Napoca. _____Larry is ____lawyer. He has _____company. He has _____job. He is from _____Asia. _____Mary and _____Sally are ______partners. They have _____company. _____Mary and ____Sally are ______accountants. ______Tom is _____teacher. He goes to _____school every day except from _______ Saturday and Sunday. He has ______job. He has ______salary. He likes ______ school and _______ children.

More Words:

to go _________

to come _________

to make __________

to buy ___________

to sell ___________

to come __________

to work __________

to drive __________

to walk __________

to listen ___________

to inform _________

to tell ___________

to ask ____________

to answer _________

home __________

before ____________

after _____________

at __________

in ________

from __________

to __________


To go to work ____________________ I go to work on ______________.

To go to school___________________ I go to school on _____________.

To go to office____________________ _____ _______ ______ ____________.

To go home _____ _______ ______ _______ _____ _______ ______ ____________.

To come home ___________________ _____ _______ ______ ____________

To drive a car ____________________ _____ _______ ______ ____________

To buy fruit _____ _______ ______ ______ _____ _______ ______ ____________

To sell a company ________________ _____ _______ ______ ____________

Read the text:

Mary and Sally are managers. They work at their own company. The company has an office in London and two offices in Asia. Mary and Sally are partners. The company has a lawyer. Larry has an office in London and an office in Asia. He has a car that he drives to work. He has a job and a salary. He walks in the park every evening. Tom is a teacher. He goes to school before 9 o’clock. He has a job. He has a salary. He buys new books. He is from Spain. He goes on vacation in the summer holiday.

Days of the Week:

Sunday ___________¸ Monday ___________¸ Tuesday ___________¸ Wednesday___________¸ Thursday__________¸ Friday___________¸ Saturday ____________.

On Monday – luni¸ in ziua de luni: On Wednesday¸ on Saturday¸ on Sunday.

Observati ca: Denumirea zilelor se scrie intotdeauna cu litera mare¸ indiferent de pozitia lor in propozitie: Tom goes to school on Monday.

Next Thursday we go shopping.

Months of the Year – Lunile anului

Denumirile lunilor se scriu intotdeauna cu litera mare indiferent de pozitia lor in propozitie!

January They go to Lausanne in January.

February We go to work______________.

March Sally goes to office __________.

April Jim goes to work ____________.

May I go to Cluj-Napoca __________.

June You go to Hawaii ____________.

July They go to Asia ______________.

August She goes to Mamaia __________.

September Tom goes to school ___________.

October We go to work _______________.

November He goes to Romania __________.

December We go to home _______________.


WINTER: December¸ January¸ and February are winter months.

SPRING: March¸ April¸ and May are spring months.

SUMMER: June¸ July¸ and August are summer months.

AUTUMN: September¸ October¸ and November are autumn months.

Read these texts and then translate them into Romanian:

a) The weather is different all around the world. In Death Valley, California, the weather in summer is hot and dry with temperatures of 48.90 Celsius. In Alaska the winters are very sold with snow and ice and temperatures of – 500 C. In Hawaii there is no summer or winter. It is warm all year with temperatures of 200 C to 260 C.

b) The town of Prima is the place for a perfect holiday. The beautiful sandy beach runs for ten kilometres and never seems crowded even in the town centre. There are many pretty restaurants where you can enjoy the typical food of the region as well as the international cuisine loved by Prima’s visitors from all over the world. In the evening the town come to life. Everyone enjoys a walk along the sea front before going to one of the many discos or clubs. Hotel Great Britain is the favourite hotel for everyone who visits this part of the country and is just across the road from the golden sands. this is just the place for the young, for the old, for everyone.

Describe the weather in your country filling in the blanks:

There are _______ seasons in my country. In summer the weather is _________ with temperatures of _________. In winter the weather is ___________ with temperatures of ________. As to rain, there is __________ rainfall in this region.

Complete the sentences with the right prepositions IN or ON:

__________June __________Monday

__________Thursday __________Autumn

__________Winter __________Sunday

__________March __________Spring

__________October __________Summer

__________Friday __________August

__________Saturday __________December

__________Monday __________July

__________Summer __________Winter

__________Tuesday __________September

Read the following text:

It is September again. September is an autumn month. Children start school in September. In the morning I go to work. I work in an office with my colleagues. In the afternoon¸ I am still at work. I go home in the afternoon. I have a family and many friends. In the evening¸ we are all at home. We watch TV or listen to the radio.

Sally is a manager. On Monday she starts a new job, too. She goes to work in the morning. In the afternoon she is in the office. Late in the afternoon¸ she goes home by taxi. She is at home in the evening. In August Sally is on holiday and she usually goes to Hawaii. In September¸ Sally is comes back to work.

Fill in the blanks with a/an/the or zero article:

I am at home in _____evening. You are still at ______work in the afternoon. This company has offices in ____ Asia and ______ Australia. _____ company driver is here. ____ Mary is at ____work in ______morning. _____ children go to ____school every weekday morning.

_____ Mary and ___ Sally are business executives. _____delegation from Japan is here on _____ Monday. _____ company lawyer is very good. I go to ___ work on ____ Saturdays, too. On Tuesday, we open _____ company. This is ______ salary for this job. ____ accountants at our company are very good. ____ papers are on ______ desk. Our partners have _____ interest in _____ business. We visit _____ Bucharest in _____ February, in ___ April, in ____June. ____ rain is good for the crops.

How do you greet people at these specified moments:

in the morning, 9 o’clock _____ _______ ______ ____________

in the evening, 10 o’clock _____ _______ ______ ____________

at noon __________ ______ ____ ___________

in the afternoon, 4 p.m. _____ _______ ______ ______________

in the morning, 6 o’clock _____ _______ ______ _____________

in the afternoon , 3 o’clock_____ _______ ______ ____________

any moment of the day__________ ______ ____


1. Write a/an/the/ zero article/ some to finish this sentence: We want .

___ meat

___ picture

___ chair

___ water

___ newspaper

___ knife

___ bottle of juice

____ help

___ wool

___ glass of wine

___ answer

___ cups of coffee

___ holiday

___ food

___ diamond

___ money

___ role

___ cheese

___ apples

___ advice

___ bread

___ soup

___ notebook

___ match-box

___ whisky

___ pencil

___ fork

___ egg

___ orange

___ tea

___ handkerchief

___ ice-cream

___ star

___ mice

___ ships

___ bees

___ butter

___ roses

___ tomato

___ children

___ autumn

___ gold

2. Fill in the right article:

a) I need some money; I must go to ____ bank.

b) David usually goes to _____ church on Sundays.

c) In Britain, children go to _____ school form the age of five.

d) There were a lot of people at ______ station waiting for the train.

e) I phoned you ____ last night but you weren’t at _____ home.

f)  I’m going ______ home now. Goodnight!

g) She is going to ____ Post office to get some stamps.

h) If you want to catch a plane you have to go to ______ airport.

i)  There is a good film at _____ cinema tonight. Shall we go?

j)  Mary doesn’t feel well; she has to go to _____ doctor.

3. Read the text and underline the articles in it:


In the mountains of Georgia, in what was once the Soviet Union, a 60-year-old is twice as likely to live over 90 as the average person in the developed world. Georgians also tend to give birth and work until they are much older. They live on a balanced and varied diet that comprises daily helpings of matzoni, a low-acid yogurt containing enzymes that are said to reduce cholesterol levels.


likely: probable, possible

average: normal, usual, typical

to tend: to have the habit of doing something; to be inclined, to be apt

varied: different, various

to comprise: to have, to include,

helping: portion, serving, plateful

to contain: to have, to include, to comprise

to reduce: to decrease, to make smaller

4. Cross out the wrong variant:

My favourite sport is tennis/the tennis.

I like this hotel. Rooms/The rooms are very nice.

Everybody needs friends/the friends.

Jane doesn’t go to parties/the parties very often.

I went shopping this morning. Shops/the shops were very busy.

‘Where’s the milk/milk?’ ‘It’s in the fridge.’

I don’t like juice/the juice. I never drink it.

‘Do you do any sports?’ ‘Yes, I play football/the football.’

Nowadays a lot of people use computers/the computers.

We went for a swim in the river. The water/water was very cold.

Excuse me, can you pass salt/the salt, please?

I like this town, I like people/the people here.

Vegetables/The vegetables are good for you.

‘Where are children/the children?’ ‘They are in the garden’.

I can’t sing this song. I don’t know the words/words.

I don’t like to swim in cold the water/water.

I enjoy taking photographs/the photographs. It’s my hobby.

English/The English is used a lot in international business/the international business.

I must show you photos/the photos I took when I was on holiday.

Money/The money doesn’t always bring happiness/the happiness.

Curs 4


WH-QUESTIONS – are used to ask for more/further information regarding a person, situation, event;

Wh-Questions begin with a pronoun or adverb;




WHO (cine)


Who is your manger?

Mr. Smith is my manager.

WHOSE (a cui)

Identificarea posesorului

Whose car is this?

This is Susan’s car.

(TO) WHOM  (cui)

Identificarea destinatarului

To whom do you give the flowers?

I give them to Sally.

WHAT  (ce, care)

Obiecte, situatii, fenomene

What is your name?

My name is Angela.

What kind (of

(ce fel de)

Particularitate, elemente specifice

What kind of books do you read?

I read adventure novels.


(care/ care dintre)

Individualizare, identificare prin singularizare

Which office is yours?

My office is that, on the corner.

WHY  (de ce)

Motive, argumente

Why do you want this job?

Because I like to do this.

WHEN (cand)

Coordonate de timp

When do you go home?

I go home at 5 pm today.

WHERE  (unde)

Coordonate/ Locatii spatiale

Where do you live?

I live in Boston.

HOW  (cum)

Maniera, modalitate

How do you spell it?

I spell it A N N A.

How much

(cat de mult)


How much do you earn?

I earn $ 500 a month.

How many

(cati, cate)

Numar, participare numerica

How many colleagues do you have?

I have 10 colleagues.

How long

(cat timp)

Durata/ extindere temporala

How long do you stay in Tokyo?

I stay in Tokyo for two weeks.

How far

(cat de departe)

Distanta spatiala, limite

How far do you live?

I live 3 blocks away.

How far do you go in business?

How soon

(cat de curand/ repede)

Limita temporala initiala

How soon can you start?

I can start tomorrow.

Practice WH-Questions: Read the text and answer the questions:


A gesture is any action that sends a visual signal to an onlooker. To become a gesture, an act has to be seen by someone else and communicate some piece of information to them. It can do this either because the gesture deliberately sets out to send a signal – as when he waves his hand – or it can do it only incidentally – as when someone sneezes. The hand wave is a Primary Gesture, because it hasn’t got another existence or function. It is a piece of communication from start to finish.


gesture: movement of the hand or head

visual: related to seeing

onlooker: viewer, spectator

to communicate: to pass on, to convey meaning

either – likewise, also

deliberately: on purpose, intentionally

to set out: to begin

wave: movement

incidentally: by chance, accidentally

What is a gesture? _____ _______ ______ ____________

To whom does the gesture send a visual sign? _____ _______ ______ ____________

What has to be seen by someone else? _____ _______ ______ _________

What does the act have to communicate? _____ _______ ______ _________

What does the gesture deliberately set out to do? _____ _______ ______ ____________

Which is a primary gesture? _____ _______ ______ _________

Why is the hand wave a primary gesture? _____ _______ ______ ________

More words:

at work ___________________

on holiday _________________

at home ___________________

on the phone _______________

busy _____ _______ ______ _______

out _____ _______ ______ ________

every (day/ week) __________

daily _____ _______ ______ _______

weekly ____________________

monthly ___________________

by (car; taxi; plane) __________

to watch ___________________

to listen ___________________

to start ____________________

Change the statements to questions using the question word in parenthesis:

They do their homework at night. (when)  __________ ______ ____ ____

Mr. Robertson comes to the party alone. (who)  _____ _______ ______ _______________

The car is across the street. (where)  __________ ______ ____

I like the red blouse, not the blue one. (which)  __________ ______ ____ __

She feels better after she takes a nap. (how)  __________ ______ ____ ___

That is an English book. (what)  __________ ______ ____ ___

My sister calls her boyfriend every second day. (who)  _____ _______ ______ ___________

She talks to him for an hour. (how long)  __________ ______ ____ ____

He studies piano at the university. (what)  __________ ______ ____ ___

The party lasts all night. (how long)  __________ ______ ____ ____

Where are you from? I am from ____________________. I am a Dutchman.

Where is he from? He is from ____________________. He is a Russian.

Where is she from? She is from ____________________. She is Spanish.

Whose car is that? That is _____ _______ ______ ______.

What do you prefer coffee or tea? I prefer _____ _______ ______ _______.

Practice: Read this text and underline the WH-words in it:


Many people today are worried about drugs. It seems that more and more people are becoming addicted to substances such as cocaine and heroine that damage their health. But what leads to people becoming addicts? What makes someone inject a drug into their veins? Is it because of their inability to cope with problems in their everyday lives? One thing is for sure. When we complain about the problems caused by hard drugs, we need to remember that people suffer from all kinds of health problems caused by legal drugs, such as alcohol and tobacco. We would all benefit from more education and the government should attempt to make sure we all know the risks it involves.


worried – concerned, preoccupied

to seem – to look, to appear

addicted - dependent on something habit-forming

to damage – to harm, to wound, to injure

to lead – to cause becoming, to conduct

to become – to transfigure, to modify

veins – blood vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart

to cope – to deal with, to handle

to complain – to object (to)

to need – to necessitate, to require

kinds – types

to benefit – to assist, to help

to attempt – to try

to involve – to engage, to participate

More Words: Weather

Weather conditions:

Look at this table and notice that it is common to form adjectives adding –y:




























shower – when it rains for a short period of time; We had several showers yesterday.

it’s pouring/ it’s pouring with rain – when it is raining a lot.

it’s raining cats and dogs.

It’s not just raining, it’s pouring with rain. I’m afraid we can’t go out.


boiling/ very hot hot warm not very warm cold/chilly freezing


50 C (five degrees centigrade) is freezing for many Brazilians.

- 10 0 C (minus ten degrees / ten degrees below zero) is very cold but quite normal in the mountains in Switzerland during the winter when it usually snows a lot.

30-35 0C is boiling for England and very unusual, but it is very common in parts of Spain during the summer.


a breeze a wind a strong wind a gale a hurricane


It was a hot day but there was a lovely breeze.

The wind blew my hat off.

The hurricane in Florida destroyed trees and buildings.


A spell (a period) of very hot weather often ends with a thunderstorm. First it becomes very humid (hot and wet), then you get thunder and lightning, and finally, very heavy rain (it pours with rain). Afterwards, it is usually cooler and it feels fresher.

Practise: Read and translate these sentences:

It’s a sunny day in Tokyo today, but it’s cloudy in Hong Kong. _________________

It’s foggy in Sydney and it’s snowing/snowy in Moscow. ___________________

It’s raining in Barcelona cut the sun is shining in Granada. ____________________

It’s a horrible day, isn’t it! _____ _______ ______ ________

It’s lovely weather today, isn’t it! ___________________

It’s very hot in Mexico – it is often 45 degrees in the summer._____ _______ ______ _______

It’s very cold in the Arctic – it is often minus 50 degrees there. __________________

It is very wet in London – carry an umbrella when you go sightseeing there. _______

It is very dry in the Sahara – it doesn’t often rain there. _____ _______ ______ ______

A hurricane is a very strong wind. __________________

A storm is when there is a strong wind and rain together. ___________________

A thunderstorm is when there is thunder, lightning, rain and sometimes winds together. __________ ______ ____ ________


1. Ask questions to find out details from these sentences:

a)    I always go to work by car. How _____ _______ ______ __________

b)    Ann often plays tennis. Who _____ _______ ______ ________

c)     You sometimes look unhappy. When _____ _______ ______ _________

d)    We rarely watch television. How often _____ _______ ______ ________

e)     Richard is a good footballer. What _____ _______ ______ __________

f)     I’ve got three sisters. How _____ _______ ______ ___________

g)    She is never ill. Who _____ _______ ______ _______

h)    This is my favourite book. Which _____ _______ ______ __________

i)      It is often very cold here in winter. Where _____ _______ ______ _____________

j)      Linda is still in Japan. Who _____ _______ ______ __________

k)    His brother is a doctor. Whose _____ _______ ______ ___________

l)      I will always remember you. Who _____ _______ ______ _________

m)   She is a good lawyer. What kind _____ _______ ______ ___________

n)    I go to the exhibition with Margaret. With who _____ _______ ______ _________

o)    This office is Michael’s. Whose _____ _______ ______ ___________

p)    I need two kilos of sugar. How much ____________________

q)    There are many people at the press conference. How many _____ _______ ______ _______

r)     It’s late, I should go home. What _____ _______ ______ ___________

2. Complete the questions:

I want to go out. Where _____ _______ ______ _______________?

Ann and Paul aren’t going to the party. Why __________ ______ ____ ?

I’m reading. What _____ _______ ______ ________?

Sue goes to bed early. What time _____ _______ ______ ______?

My parents are going on holiday. When _____ _______ ______ ____________?

I’m meeting Tom in a few minutes. Where _____ _______ ______ _______?

Tina has gone away. Where _____ _______ ______ __________?

I can’t come to the party. Why _____ _______ ______ ________?

I need some money. How much _____ _______ ______ __________?

Angela doesn’t like milk. Why _____ _______ ______ ______?

It rains sometimes. How often _____ _______ ______ _________?

Mother and I did the shopping. Who _____ _______ ______ ________?

She can’t tell you the truth. Why _____ _______ ______ _______?

Somebody saw the accident. Who _____ _______ ______ __________?

He has just come from the cinema. How ____________________?

3. Translate into Romanian:

a) He isn’t very tall, he’s short and stocky. __________ ______ ____ __

b) She’s tall and slim; she’s got a lovely figure. _____ _______ ______ ______________

c) Tim is quite a big guy. He’s well-built. __________ ______ ____ _

d) Jess is a bit overweight. She is quite plump. _____ _______ ______ ____________

e) Mat is very fat, he’s enormous. _____ _______ ______ ______________

f) He’s very thin, he’s skinny. _____ _______ ______ __________

g) The police are looking for a man of average height and medium built, in his mid-thirties. He was last seen wearing a dark green or grey anorak. The police suspect he broke into e bank and robbed the big diamond. __________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ ____________________

h) The tallest man in medical history is Robert Pershing Wadlow who was born on 22nd February 1918 in Illinois, USA, and who died on 15th of July 1940 in Michigan. He was last measured on 27th June 1940 and was found to be 272 cm tall.


degrees of comparison of adjectives (Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor):







Adjective monosilabice¸ bisilabice terminate in -y¸ -able¸ -er¸ -le¸ -ow adauga +ER

(ex: brighter, smaller, wider, bigger, lighter)

As bright as

As small as

As wide as

Not so/as bright as

Not so/as big as

Not so/as light as

Darker than

Bigger than

Wider than

Adjective bisilabice si polisilabice adauga MORE + ADJECTIV (ex: more intelligent, more beautiful, more spectacular)

As intelligent as

As beautiful as

Not so/as intelligent as

Not as beautiful as

More intelligent than





Adjective monosilabice¸ bisilabice adauga the . +EST (the brightest, the easiest, the fastest)

The brightest (of all)

The easiest

The fastest

Very bright

Very easy

Very fast

Adjective bisilabice si polisilabice adauga the . MOST ADJECTIVE (the most intelligent)

The most intelligent (of all), the most beautiful

Very intelligent

Very beautiful

Irregular Comparison (Adjective cu gradul comparativ si superlativ neregulat)

Gradul pozitiv/ POSITIVE

Gradul comparativ/ COMPARATIVE

Gradul superlativ/ SUPERLATIVE

Good (bun)


The best

Bad/Ill (rau)


The worst

Much (mult/a)

Many (multi/e)


The most

Little (putin)

Less/ lesser

The least


(batran, vechi)

Older (pentru oameni, obiecte)

The oldest

Elder (pentru membrii familiei)

The eldest



Later (mai tarziu)

The latest (cel mai recent)

Latter (al doilea dintr-o enumerare)

The last (ultimul)



Farther (pentru distante)

The farthest (pentru distante)

Further (pentru spatiu¸ timp; mai inseamna aditional, suplimentar)

The furthest (pentru spatiu, timp)




The nearest (pentru distante)

The next (ordonare¸ timp)

Fore (in fata)

Former (anterior)

The first (primul)

*** Observati transformarile ortografice la adjectivele monosilabice¸ atunci cand se adauga sufixele de formare ale comparativului si superlativului:

Big bigger the biggest

Hot hotter the hottest

Thin thinner the thinnest

More Words Family Members aunt - ________

brother - ___________

elder brother -________

cousin -________

daughter -________

ex-husband -________

ex-wife - ________

parents- ________

mother - ____________

father –________

grandparent(s) -________

grandchild -________

granddaughter / son -________

grandfather / mother -________

great-grandchild -________

husband -________

sister-in-law - _____________

(the) in-laws -________

mother -________

nephew -________

niece -________

sister -________

son -________

uncle - ___________

son-in law– ________

spouse - ________

step-daughter/son -________

step-father/mother -________

twin -________

twin-sister/ brother -________

widow (woman) -________

widower (man) -________

wife –________

husband - __________

divorced - ________

engaged -________

married - ________

separated -________

single -________

widowed -________

acquaintance -________

separated ________

fiancé -________

fiancée -________

friend -________

brother-in-law - __________

best friend -________

neighbour -________

best man - ________

bridesmaid – ________

kin - ______________

godmother - _______________

godfather - ___________

Practise: Underline the adjectives in all degrees of comparison:

The Oldest Man in the World?

Lerik is one of the highest and most remote villages in Azerbaijan. Some of the oldest people in the world live there. Mirzahan Movlamov is one of them. He is 121 years-old, the oldest man in the village and one of the oldest people in the world.

He lives in one room with his third wife who is nearly half a century younger than he is. He sits there all day talking to dozens of children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great-grandchildren.

Mirzahan has a son called Bodahan who is 41. Bodahan was born when Mirzahan was 80 and his wife was 36. He also has a grandson aged 84, the son of a child from his first marriage. In other words, Bodahan is 43 years younger than his own nephew. Mirzahan has a son, grandson, and great-granddaughter who were born in the same year.

His first wife was his true love and his best friend. They married in 1905 when he was 28 and she was 12. ‘I stole her’, he said. ‘I was in the Tsar’s cavalry. I rode into the next village on my horse and took her away. I loved her very much’. She died in 1961.

Why do people live so long in the mountains near Lerik?

The people in Azerbaijan are some of the poorest in the world. There are very few doctors and there is very little medicine. There are no schools and they receive no education. They eat vegetables, fruit, and sour cheese – but they don’t eat very much and they work very hard. But the air and water are cleaner than other places and their lives are stress-free.

Translate into English:

Sally este la birou? Nu¸ ea este acasa astazi. _____ _______ ______ _______________

Esti acasa? Da¸ sunt acasa. Noi suntem toti acasa. _____ _______ ______ _______________

Biroul meu este mai spatios decat biroul tau. __________ ______ ____ _

Acesta nu este atat de mare ca si biroul tau. __________ ______ ____ _

Biroul meu este mai mic decat al tau. _____ _______ ______ ______________

Masina mea este cea mai rapida. _____ _______ ______ ____________

Masina ta nu este atat de rapida ca si a mea. _____ _______ ______ __________

Masina ta este mai veche. _____ _______ ______ _____________

Masina mea este de culoare verde. _____ _______ ______ _______

Calculatorul ei este mai inteligent decat al meu. _____ _______ ______ ___________

Calculatorul meu nu este atat de performant ca si al ei. _____ _______ ______ ___________

Acela este mai nou si mai performant. _____ _______ ______ _________

Ea are familie? Da¸ are familie, ea are doi copii. _____ _______ ______ ____________

Copiii ei sunt la scoala si ea la serviciu. _____ _______ ______ ____________

Ea are un salariu bun. _____ _______ ______ _________

Postul meu e mai bun decat al Anei. _____ _______ ______ ______________

Ea nu are un salariu tot atat de mare ca si al meu. _____ _______ ______ _______________

Ea are o casa si o masina. __________ ______ ____

Avem noi calculatoare performante? _____ _______ ______ ______________

Calculatoarele lor sunt mai putin noi decat ale noastre._____ _______ ______ _____________

More words: Describing People

tall ___________________

short __________________

kind __________________

good looking ______________

fair/blonde _________________

red _________________

brunette ___________________

thin __________________

plump __________________

handsome __________________

beautiful ___________________

slim _________________

overweight ________________

skinny _________________

modest _______________

shy _______________

loyal _________________

sensible __________________

sensitive __________________

proud ________________

honest __________________

fair/correct _________________

thoughtful __________________

absent-minded ________________

self-confident ___________________

patient _________________

hard-working __________________

lazy ________________

outgoing __________________

easy-going ____________________

cheerful ____________________

miserable ___________________

tense _____ _______ ______ ______

generous ___________________

mean __________________

arrogant __________________

amusing __________________

selfish __________________

stubborn _________________

bossy _________________

fussy ______________

nosey _________________

reliable ________________

impatient __________________

ambitious _________________

mature ________________

wise _______________

silly _____________

optimistic ______________

pessimistic ________________

pushy ______________

intolerant _________________

clumsy ________________

tactful _________________

rude ______________

Practise: Describe a person you know. Refer to their appearance, character, features, temperament, qualities, likes and dislikes. Use as many adjectives as possible.


1. Read this text and then answer the question:

Bob Hunter’s Family

Bob Hunter is forty years old. He lives in Derby with his wife and three children. His wife’s name is Linda and she is an artist. Their eldest child, Richard, is studying Engineering at Derby University. Their middle child is called Claire. She’s fourteen and a student at Derby Grammar School. Their youngest child is Sally, who is twelve. She enjoys horse-riding and cycling. Bob is an accountant and works for Toyota at Burnaston. He enjoys his job but always looks forward to the weekend, when he can spend some quality time on the golf course. He is a member of the Mickleover Golf Club and has been playing since he was eleven years old.

Who is the paragraph about? __________ ______ ____ ___________

How old is he? __________ ______ ____

Where does he live? __________ ______ ____ ____

Is he married? __________ ______ ____ ____

How many children does he have? __________ ______ ____

What is his wife’s name? __________ ______ ____

What does his wife do for a living? __________ ______ ____ _______

What is the name of their eldest child? _____ _______ ______ ______________

What subject is he studying? __________ ______ ____ ____

How old is Claire? _____ _______ ______ _______________

Which school does Claire go to? __________ ______ ____

What is the name of their other child? _____ _______ ______ _____________

How old is she? _____ _______ ______ ____________

What hobbies does she have? __________ ______ ____

What does Bob do for a living? __________ ______ ____ ____

Which company des Bob work for? __________ ______ ____ __

Does he like working there? _____ _______ ______ _______________

What does he do at the weekend? __________ ______ ____ __

What is the name of his golf club? _____ _______ ______ _____________

At what age did he start playing? __________ ______ ____ __

2. Answer these questions about yourself:

a) What do you do for a living? __________ ______ ____ _________

b) How log have you worked there? __________ ______ ____ __

c) What do you dislike about your job? __________ ______ ____ __

d) What is the most important for you? __________ ______ ____ _

e) Why is it important? __________ ______ ____ _____________

3. Describe the perfect job in your view. Use some of these words: good, important, difficult, essential, like, love, easy, difficult, stressful, tiring, refreshing, break, open, closed, kind, dislike, ignore, overlook, omit, reject, accept, solve, leave, earn, continuous, INTERRUPTED, enter, exit, desk, ask, answer, help, efficiency, promptness, permanent, temporary, necessary, optional:

4. Translate into Romanian:

Acelea sunt cele mai bune calculatoare. _____ _______ ______ _____________

El este cam agitat dupa sedinta. _____ _______ ______ _________

Avem o afacere tot atat de buna ca si a lor. __________ ______ ____

Ei sunt muncitori si harnici. __________ ______ ____

Ele sunt cele mai bune din companie. _____ _______ ______ ___________

Ei nu sunt prea autoritari. _____ _______ ______ ________

Noi muncim foarte mult. _____ _______ ______ ___________

Avem bonusuri foarte bune. _____ _______ ______ __________

Noi avem conexiune internet lenta. _____ _______ ______ ____________

Vreau o sarcina mai rationala. _____ _______ ______ ________

Lisa e prea sensibila uneori. _____ _______ ______ _________

Masina lor este mai noua. _____ _______ ______ ____________

El e mereu intelept in decizile pe care le ia. _____ _______ ______ ___________

Secretara noastra este mai amabila decat a lor. _____ _______ ______ _______________

Nu avem multi bani. _____ _______ ______ ______

Avem nevoie de informatii suplimentare. _____ _______ ______ ________

Avem mai putini bani decat ieri. _____ _______ ______ ________

El este un om mandru si corect. _____ _______ ______ _____________

Vrei o cafea mai dulce? _____ _______ ______ _______

Noi avem la fel de multe sarcini. _____ _______ ______ ________

Curs 6

PRONOUNS (Pronumele)

Treceti corespondentul din limba romana in dreptul fiecarei forme pronominale:

Personal; Subject

In limba romana




In limba romana

Possessive Adjective

(+ noun)

In limba romana

Possessive Pronoun

In limba romana

Reflexive Pronoun

In limba romana








































Indefinite Pronouns


In limba romana


In limba romana


In limba romana




no one









Underline all the pronouns in this text:

‘This is Rick, the private detective. I am outside the Marina hotel. Your wife is by herself speaking to a hotel porter. I think she asks him to bring her the car. Yes, she gives him the keys. Now the porter is back, your wife pays him and gets into the car. We are driving down Fulton Street and your wife is turning left into Sunset Avenue.

She is driving rather fast I must say. We are going 120 kilometres an hour now! And it is beginning to rain! We are driving by the Transworld Building and crossing the Bay Bridge. It looks like your wife is heading for the airport, but I’m not sure. The wind is blowing hard and we are slowing down a little – in fact your wife stops.

There’s a small shop here. She gets out of the car and she enters the shop. I’m not sure what she wants to buy. Oh, I don’t believe my eyes, it’s a gun! She is paying for it now with her credit card. Now Mrs. Gimbell is back in her car and we are driving slowly again. There’s heavy traffic in Grant Avenue and a big truck is blocking the road in the middle. I wonder what the police are doing.

We are turning into a small side street and she is pulling up in front of a large Victorian house. Wait a minute! Isn’t that your house, Mr. Gimbell? She is searching for something in her handbag. Yes, the key. But she has something else in her hand, too. She looks very happy. In fact I think she is smiling! Now she unlocks the door and she is inside. Mr. Gimbell . ? Mr. Gimbell . ?’

Practise; translate the following sentences into English:

Nu te vad. __________ ______ ____ _____

Iti trimit flori. __________ ______ ____ ________

Ii trimit un mesaj foarte scurt. __________ ______ ____ _______

Nu vad pe nimeni cunoscut aici. __________ ______ ____ ___

Pe mine ma vede profesorul tot timpul. __________ ______ ____ _

Casa aceasta este a noastra¸ nu a voastra. _____ _______ ______ _____________

Vrea sa faca ea insasi proiectul. __________ ______ ____ _____

Nu te vad bine¸ ochelarii acestia nu sunt ai mei. _____ _______ ______ _____________

Nu e masina mea¸ nu stiu s-o conduc. __________ ______ ____ __

Ce vrei de la mine ? __________ ______ ____ ______________

Eu insami am facut planul. __________ ______ ____ ______

Nu ma deranja. __________ ______ ____ _________________

M-am saturat de zgomotul acesta. __________ ______ ____ _

Ne vedem maine. __________ ______ ____ ___________

Lasa-l in pace. __________ ______ ____ ____________

Give the Romanian correspondent for the words in bold:

I know Tom.

Tom knows me.

It’s my car.

It’s mine.

You know Tom.

Tom knows you.

It’s your car.

It’s yours.

He knows Tom.

Tom knows him.

It’s his car.

It’s his.

She knows Tom.

Tom knows her.

It’s her car.

It’s hers.

We know Tom.

Tom knows us.

It’s our car.

It’s ours.

You know Tom.

Tom knows you.

It’s your car.

It’s yours.

They know Tom.

Tom knows them.

It’s their car.

It’s theirs.

Practise on the following example:

This is my computer. This computer is mine. It’s mine.

This is your dress. _____ _______ ______ ___________

This is her book.__________ ______ ____ ________

This is your cream__________ ______ ____ _____

That is his file.__________ ______ ____ ______

These are our apples.__________ ______ ____

Those are your papers.__________ ______ ____ _

These are their phones.__________ ______ ____ ______

Answer the following questions:

Who are your best friends? __________ ______ ____ ____

Where do you spend your weekends? __________ ______ ____ ______

How do you feel after work? __________ ______ ____ _____

Which is your favourite film? __________ ______ ____ ________

Whose map is this? __________ ______ ____ ______

What makes you happy? __________ ______ ____ ________

Make sentences with these words in various degrees of comparison:


Romanian correspondent

your sentence























Continue and finish the following sentences with choices of your own:

This pen is not mine¸ it doesn’t belong to me¸ it is__________ ______ ____

These are not my bags¸ she left them here¸ these __________ ______ ____ _

Mother’s bag doesn’t look like that¸ it is not __________ ______ ____ _____

Don’t bring the coffee here; we didn’t ask for it¸ it is not _____ _______ ______ ___________

What is mine is mine¸ and not _____ _______ ______ _______________

Their car broke down¸ it is _____________ problem.

Fill in the right form of the reflexive pronouns:

She (insasi) __________ is travelling to Japan. We sent the money (insine) ___________. Don’t contradict (pe tine insuti) _______! It is not polite to invite (pe tine insuti)__________ to the party. What computer program is this? It destroys (pe sine) _____________. Did you type this (tu insati) ________ ? Nobody came here: I locked the door (insami) ______________. She washes (pe ea insasi)_________ at the age of 4.

Choose the correct pronoun:

Mark is (their / theirs) neighbour.

This is our car. It’s (our/ours).

These are Mary’s books; they’re (her/hers).

Blue is (my/mine) favourite colour.

You can’t have this money. It isn’t (your/yours).

(Her/hers) house is bigger than (him/his).

Is this (your/yours) coat? No, it isn’t (my/mine).

Are these offices Bill and Lenny’s? Yes, they’re (their/theirs).

These are Jesse’s goods. They are (his/him).

That is (our/ours) house. It’s (our/ours).


Fill in the suitable pronouns:

Brian: Hello, what are ______ doing here?

Linda: Hello, __ am Linda! This is my younger sister. ____ are waiting here for our friend Carla. ______ is in the department store over there, and ____ are already tired. Who are ______?

Brian: Oh, ___ am Brian. Yes, __ am also waiting for a friend. ____ is in the department store, too. Do ______ come here often?

Linda: Yes, ____ are here every day.

Brian: Yes, the department store is very big!

Linda: Look! There ______ is.

Brian: My friend is there too! And what are ______ doing tonight?

Linda: _____ are going to the cinema! And what are you doing?

Brian: First, ____ are drinking something and then ____ don’t know yet. My friend is here since this morning. ____ is just on vacation here.

Linda: Are ______ also new here?

Brian: Yes, actually ____ am from Germany and my friend is from Sweden. My father, however, is British.

Linda: Oh, that is interesting. Unfortunately, ____ have to go. ______ are very nice.

Brian: Thanks! ______ are nice, too! Maybe ____ will see you around!

2. Read the text and complete the sentences after it:


There is no simple answer to the question, 'How can I enhance my memory?' But there are some general points one can make. Firstly, you have to practice. Practice remembering things. Secondly, use your memory. Preferring to make notes all the time rather than rely on one's memory is a terrible mistake. It's certain that you actually risk making your memory worse that way. In order to utilize your memory, you have to be keen to remember – eager to remember. If you really mean to remember things, you can. And thirdly, always make associations when you want to remember anything.


to enhance: to develop ____________

to rely on: To trust ___________

to risk: To take the risk of ___________

to utilize: To use _____________

keen: Willing, enthusiastic, eager ________

eager: Ready/ willing, keen __________

associations: Links, relations _________

Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above

Clothes are important – you should wear something which ___________ your own self esteem and creates the right kind of impression

I have always ___________ the kindness of my friends.

We have to find a way to ____________ our fifty thousand members as an educational and propaganda machine.

Music, obviously, can make a mood; build familiarity and memory, and ____________ for a happy event.

He has always been ___________ to help the needy.

Choose the variant that reflects the contents of the text:

1. To better one's ability to remember, one should not ______

A) make general points

B) practice everything one learns

C) force oneself to remember

D) use one's memory

E) write down the things one should remember.

2. Writing down everything ______

A) helps a lot to remember

B) makes a person's memory worse

C) improves memory

D) leads to mistakes

E) is another way of using one's memory.

3. The writer points out that one _____

A) should not be so eager to remember

B) must try to remember everything

C) should make small notes when one wants to remember anything

D) can also connect things in mind to remember them

E) should sometimes risk making one's memory worse


Cardinal numbers (Numeralul cardinal)

0 - zero

1 - one

2 - two

3 - three

4 - four

5 - five

6 - six

7 - seven

8 - eight

9 - nine

10 - ten

11 - eleven

12 - twelve

13 - thirteen

14 - fourteen

15 - fifteen

16 - sixteen

17 - seventeen

18 - eighteen

19 - nineteen

20 – twenty

21 – twenty-one

28 – twenty-eight

30 – thirty

33 – thirty-three

37 – thirty-seven

40 – forty

41 – forty-one

44 – forty-four

50 – fifty

53 – fifty-three

58 – fifty-eight

60 – sixty

62 – sixty-two

69 – sixty-nine

70 – seventy

75 – seventy-five

80 – eighty

88 – eighty-eight

90 – ninety

98 – ninety-eight

100 – a hundred

101 - a hundred and one

110 - a hundred and ten

119 – one hundred and nineteen

139 – one hundred thirty-nine

200 – two hundred

225 – two hundred twenty-five

309 – three hundred and nine

491 – four hundred ninety-one

1,000 – a thousand

1,106 – a thousand one hundred and six

10,000 – ten thousands

10, 520 – ten thousand five hundred and twenty

100,000 – one hundred thousands

560,201 – five hundred sixty thousand two hundred and one

1,000,000 – one million

10,000,000 – ten millions

100,000,000 – one hundred millions

1,000,000,000 – one billion

Obs! Anii se citesc impartind cifra in doua: de exemplu 1945 vom citi 19 si 45 (nineteen forty-five), dark 2003 vom citi ca atare (two thousand and three), dar 2012 vom citi dupa regula (adica twenty twelve).

Ordinal Numbers: (Numeralul ordinal)

1st - first

2nd - second

3rd - third

4th - fourth

5th - fifth

6th - sixth

7th - seventh

8th - eighth

9th - ninth

10th - tenth

11th - eleventh


13th – thirteenth

14th – fourteenth

15th – fifteenth

16th – sixteenth

17th – seventeenth

18th – eighteenth

19th – nineteenth

20th – twentieth

21st – twenty-first

30th - ___________

32nd – thirty second

40th - ____________

43rd – forty-third

50th – fiftieth

55th – fifty fifth

60th - ____________

62nd – sixty second

70th - ___________

73rd – seventy third

80th - ____________

88th – eighty eighth

90th - ____________

97th – ninety seventh

101st – one hundred first

321st – three hundred twenty-first


1 x . - once   1 x 8 = 8 (once eight is eight)

2 x . - twice 2 x 2 = 4 (two times two is four)

3 x . - three times 3 x 4 = 12 (__________________)

4 x . - four times   4 x 5 = 20 (_________________)

5 x . - __________  5 x . = . (________________)

6 x . - __________ 6 x . = . (________________)

7 x . - __________  7 x . = . (________________)

8 x . - __________ 8 x . = . (________________)

9 x . - nine times  9 x . = . (________________)

10x . - ten times  10 x . = . (________________)


1/2 - a half

1/3 - a third

1/4 - a quarter

1/5 – a fifth

1/6 – a sixth

1/7 – a seventh

1/8 – an eighth

1/9- a ninth

1/10 – a tenth

1/11 – an eleventh

1/12 – a twelfth

1-13 - a thirteenth

2/3 - two thirds

3/4 - three quarters

2/5 - two fifths

4/10 - four tenths

1 1/2 - one and a half

2 3/4 – two and three quarters

3 5/7 - three and five sevenths

4 8/12 - four and eight twelfths


2.5 - two point five

1.25 - one point twenty-five

10.35 – ten point thirty-five


10% - ten per cent

52% - fifty-two per cent

0.25% - zero point twenty-five per cent

89.62% - eighty-nine point sixty-two per cent

Practice: Read this text and identify the numbers in it:


The causes of headaches, whether they are the common kind of tension or migraine headaches, or any other kind, are usually the same. During the periods of stress, muscles in the neck, head and face are contracted so tightly that they make tremendous pressure on the nerves; headaches, taking many forms from a continuous dull pain to an insistent hammering result.

Although at least 50% of American adults are estimated to suffer one or more headaches per week, it is the 20 million migraine-sufferers who are in special difficulties. Migraines, which are mostly suffered by women, can entail tremendous, unrelieved pain.


tension: stress, anxiety

to contract: to make or become tighter, narrower

tightly: firmly, strongly

tremendous: great, remarkable

pressure: weight, force

dull pain: pain not felt distinctly

insistent: persistent

to hammer; to hit, to pound

to estimate: to guess, to calculate approximately

to entail: to necessitate, to involve

unrelieved: constant, chronic

Practice: Write in words the following numbers:

Date – What date is today?

Today is March 10¸ March 10th¸ 10 March¸ 10th March¸ 10th of March¸ March the 10th

Answer the following questions:

What date is today? Today is the __________ ______ ____ _______________

What date was yesterday? Yesterday was __________ ______ ____ ________

What date was the day before yesterday? __________ ______ ____ ________

What date will be tomorrow? __________ ______ ____ __________________

What date will be after tomorrow? __________ ______ ____ ______________

Expressing time

quarter = 15 minutes

half = 30 minutes

past - ___________

to - ____________


A.M. – ante meridian (from 0:00 to 12 o’clock)

P.M. – post meridian (from 12 o’clock to 24:00)

What is the time? – Cat este ceasul/ Ce ora este? The time is ____________________

What is the time? – The time is 11: 15. It is 11:15

What time is it? It is 3 sharp. (ora trei fix) .

What time is it? It is 10 minutes past 12.

What time is it? It is half past 12. (12.30).

It is a quarter past 12. (12:15).

It is a quarter to one. (12:45).

It is half to one. (12:30).


What time is it? What is the time¸ please?

It is :10:15 ____________________ 12:30 _____ _______ ______ ______

What is the time? I do not know! My watch is slow! _____ _______ ______ _______

What is the time ? I don’t know! My watch is fast. _____ _______ ______ ________

When is your birthday? My birthday is on ________________.

Read the following years

A week has 7 days.

A fortnight consists of two weeks.

A month is made up of 28, 30, 31 days.

A year has 12 months or 365 days, 366 days in leap years.

A century consists of 100 years.

A millennium consists of 1000 years.

Practise: Translate these into Romanian:

I will be in London in a fortnight.

You can call me in a week’s time.

You have only one month to send the money.

A year is made up of 12 months.

We are in the 21st century.

Everybody suffered from the millennium fever in 2000.


1. Give the interrogative and the negative form of the sentences below:

a) Mary has a good job. __________ ______ ____ ______________

b) Sally goes to work every day. __________ ______ ____ ___________

c) Larry always wants a coffee. __________ ______ ____ __________

d) The computer sometimes has a virus.__________ ______ ____ _____

e) We often drink Pepsi. __________ ______ ____ ______________

f)  These cars often break down. __________ ______ ____ _________

g) The whole family is at the seaside. __________ ______ ____ _____

h) Jim never wakes up before 9 o’clock. _____ _______ ______ _______________

i)  She is never late for work. _____ _______ ______ _______________

j)  We rarely go fishing here. _____ _______ ______ _______________

k) Grandfather walks the dog twice a day. __________ ______ ____

l)  Sue cooks the best apple-pie. _____ _______ ______ _______________

2. Answer the following questions affirmatively or negatively:

Are you a lawyer? __________ ______ ____ _______________

Is she an accountant? __________ ______ ____ _______________

Do you have a family? __________ ______ ____ _______________

Does your boss have a car?  __________ ______ ____ __________

Is your house new? __________ ______ ____ ______________

Do you have a computer?__________ ______ ____ ______________

Do you have children? __________ ______ ____ _______________

Do you want some coffee? __________ ______ ____ __________

Is your job satisfying? __________ ______ ____ ______________

Are you a university graduate? __________ ______ ____ _______

Do you like to travel? __________ ______ ____ ___________

Do you smoke? __________ ______ ____ ________________

Do you drink coffee in the morning? __________ ______ ____ ____

Do you like your job? __________ ______ ____ ________________

Do you have much spare time? __________ ______ ____ __________

Don’t you like football? __________ ______ ____ ___________

Doesn’t your car break down? __________ ______ ____ ___________

Do they give you a good salary? __________ ______ ____ ________

Do you like English? __________ ______ ____ ___________

Do you need a 5 minute-break? __________ ______ ____ _______

Are there many mistakes? __________ ______ ____ ____________

3. Translate this text into Romanian:


Because words can break silence, and thus remove tension, we often draw on them for this reason and not mainly for what they mean. When two people are introduced, one says, 'How do you do?' Now this is not really a question, despite its apparent meaning, and the other person will not reply 'Very well thank you’, but 'How do you do?' This is the conversational formula. The purpose of the phrase 'How do you do?' is not to communicate meaning but to break the tension which would result from silence when meeting someone unknown for the first time.

More words:

thus: therefore, so __________________

to remove: to take out __________________

to draw on: to use, to resort to __________________

tension: worry, anxiety __________________

apparent: obvious, clear __________________

to result from: to be caused by __________________

Curs 8

Modal VERBS (Verbele modale)

o Nu au toate timpurile si modurile;

o Au forme flexionare unice pentru toate persoanele si numerele;

o Formeaza negativul cu adverbul de negatie NOT;

o Au forme contrase: can’t¸ mustn’t¸ shouldn’t, wouldn’t,


Expresii echivalente (pentru viitor sau trecut)





be able to

- capacitate fizica¸ intelectuala;

- permisiune¸ posibilitate


Can you speak English?

Can they come in?

It cannot rain tonight.



be allowed to

be permitted to

- permisiune, posibilitate¸ presupunere

- posibilitate in locul lui can

May I open the windows?

They may have shipped the goods.

The mail may have arrived.


have to

be compelled to

- obligatie¸datorie

- interzicere

- presupunere

He must pay the fees.

She must not use false papers.

He must have sent the message.

Ought to

obligatie morala¸ datorie

We ought to send him a letter of thanks.



obligatie¸ constrangere¸ promisiune, propunere

They should send the documents.

You shall bring the money now.

You shall get your share.

Shall we have lunch?



Vointa¸ intentie

Will you take some more food?

I wouldn’t do that.


Necesitate, obligatie

La aspectul negativ perfect: o actiune inutila deja f acuta

The windows need washing.

Need she get up early? Yes, she must.

He needn’t have waited for her, she knows the town.

Practise: read and translate this text:


Men usually want to have their own way. They want to think and act as they like. No one, however, can have his own way all the time. A man cannot live in society without taking into account the interest of others as well as his own interests.

'Society' means a group of people with the same laws and the same way of life. People in society may make their own decisions, but these decisions ought not to be unjust or detrimental to others.


to have one's own way to do what one wants

to take into account – to consider

interest: Advantage, benefit

unjust: unfair, incorrect

detrimental: harmful

Practise: Insert can¸ could¸ may¸ might¸ must¸ ought to¸ should¸ shall¸ will¸ would:

a) I (pot) _________ speak Spanish.

b) You (ai permisiunea)_________ take my pen.

c) (Imi dai voie sa) _________ borrow your keyboard?

d) You (ai permisiunea) ________ take it for an hour.

e) It (s-ar putea) __________ rain tonight.

f)  The ship (s-ar putea sa)_________ have sailed.

g) They (nu pot) ___________ travel with false passport.

h) You (nu ai voie sa) _____________ write with a green pen.

i)  We (ar trebui sa) ___________ to send a greeting card to Mother.

j)  He (trebuie) ___________ come here at once.

k) (ai putea/vrea sa) ________ take this downstairs for me?

l)  (poti) ____________ you lift this heavy bag?

m)    (este necesar/trebuie)___________ you always talk when I want silence?

n) You (este obligatoriu) _________ fill in the form with personal data.

o) The goods (s-ar putea sa) ________ arrive on Sunday¸ but I am not sure.

p) We (vom)__________ send a bunch of flowers to that lady.

Read this paragraph and underline the modals in it:

You can recognise many different kinds of insects. Some of them you may like, but others may frighten you because they are liable to bite. Sometimes this can be serious because a biting insect may carry disease. If it happens to bite and suck the blood of a person suffering from disease and later on bites a healthy person, it injects some of the disease germs into his/her blood and so infects him/her with the disease. in this way disease spreads rapidly in some parts of the world.

Replace the equivalents with the modals:

I am not able to lift up this heavy box. _____ _______ ______ _____________

You are still not able to speak English. _____ _______ ______ _____________

He is not permitted to do just anything in this office. _________________

The ship is not allowed to anchor in that port. _____ _______ ______ _______

You are compelled to do what they say. _____ _______ ______ ____________

They have to redo the whole work. __________ ______ ____

Are you allowed to shout here? __________ ______ ____ ___

Am I allowed to smoke here? __________ ______ ____ ___

Translate into English using Modals whenever possible:

Imi dai voie sa pornesc radioul? __________ ______ ____ ______

Aceasta prezentare nu poate fi a mea. __________ ______ ____ _____

Putem face o pauza de cafea? __________ ______ ____ ________

Ei pot face proiectul impreuna cu noi. __________ ______ ____ _____

Nu puteti schimba ora sedintei. __________ ______ ____ ________

Lucreaza mult la documentar si vor castiga premiul concursului. __________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ _______

Haideti sa luam pranzul impreuna azi. __________ ______ ____ __

Profitul din fiecare luna al acelei companii poate fi de peste € 320,000. __________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ __

Doar el poate castiga aceasta cursa. __________ ______ ____ _______

Apartamentul meu e vizavi de al lui Brian. __________ ______ ____ _

Este bine sa iti amintesti evenimentele importante. _____ _______ ______ ___________

Pisicile pot vedea foarte bine noaptea. __________ ______ ____ _

Am putea lua cina mai devreme? __________ ______ ____ _____

Nu poate sa se casatoreasca cu cine vrea. __________ ______ ____ _

Nu pot ajunge la timp din cauza traficului aglomerat. __________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ _

Anei ii plac merele, strugurii si caisele, iar lui Tim ii imi plac anansul, perele si piersicile. __________ ______ ____ _____ _______ ______ _______________

Nu poti invita mai mult de zece persoane. _____ _______ ______ _______________

Acest local poate gazdui 385 de persoane. _____ _______ ______ _______________

Trebuie sa vezi acest film impreuna cu noi. _____ _______ ______ _______________

Ei ar trebui sa reconsidere decizia aceasta. _____ _______ ______ ______________

More words: FOOD

Breakfast ___________

Lunch __________

Dinner __________



Salad __________

Appetizers __________



First course __________

Second course__________




French fries__________

Mashed potatoes__________





Birthday cake__________

Frozen food__________

Take-away food__________

Raw __________

Rare __________


Well cooked __________













Lay the table__________

Have a party__________

Wash the dishes__________

Do the washing up_______





Mineral water: sparkling /still _________________



Refreshing drink__________


Energy drink__________




Ice tea __________

Speak about your favourite dish. Describe it briefly.


1. Fill in: MAY, MIGHT, COULD, MUST or CAN’T:

You __________ be serious about leaving home! There __________ be some problems with your family, but there _____________ be another solution. You __________ try talking to a friend or a relative. You ____________ have some aunts or cousins who can help. You ____________ find that discussing the problem all together is better. Your parents ____________ really be as angry as you think; they ___________ be upset but they _________ realize why you’re so unhappy. I suggest you to try talking to them again – you _________ be surprised.

2. Build sentences of your own with these verbs:

SHOULD - __________ ______ ____ ____

CAN’T - __________ ______ ____ __

MAY - __________ ______ ____ ___

COULD - __________ ______ ____ __

OUGHT TO - _____ _______ ______ _______________

HAVE GOT TO - _____ _______ ______ ______________

MIGHT - _____ _______ ______ ______________

WOULD - _____ _______ ______ _______________

MUST - _____ _______ ______ ___________

CAN - _____ _______ ______ ____________

WILL - _____ _______ ______ _______________

MUSTN’T - _____ _______ ______ ______________

NEEDN’T - __________ ______ ____

3. Fill in MUSTN’T, NEEDN’T or CAN’T:

John, I want you to look after your brother this evening. He __________ go out and he ___________ forget to do all his homework. You ___________ let him watch TV until he’s finished it. He ____________ watch the film either – it starts very late. He ____________ have a bath, he had one in the morning. There’s a cake in the cupboard but you __________ eat it all – leave some for your sister. You __________ do the washing-up; I’m going to do it tomorrow. You __________ make too much noise. We might be quite late home because we __________ leave the party tonight until most of the guests have left. And you __________ go to bed without having a wash and brushing your teeth. But you _________ wait up for us.

4. Rewrite the sentences using the given modals:

It isn’t necessary to buy a ticket. NEED __________ ______ ____

I advise him to be more careful. OUGHT __________ ______ ____

I think that’s John’s car. MUST __________ ______ ____ _

I don’t think he is her brother. CAN’T __________ ______ ____ _

He couldn’t swim when he was five. ABLE __________ ______ ____ _

It’s possible that he will win the race. MIGHT _____ _______ ______ _______________

You are not allowed to play in their garden. MUSTN’T _____ _______ ______ ________

Shall I pour you another drink?  WOULD _____ _______ ______ _______________

It’s not possible for you to eat so much. CAN’T _____ _______ ______ ______________

We don’t have to go shopping with Mum. NEEDN’T _____ _______ ______ ___________

5. Read the letter and underline the modals in it:

Dear Tom,

Thank you for offering to chair tomorrow’s meeting for me. Apart from Sally and Dave the Sales staff needn’t attend, but the Personnel people mustn’t miss it as several matters concern them. You needn’t mention the new offices – we can deal with that later and you mustn’t discuss the changes in the computer course timetables since they are not urgent. Don’t forget that you must mention the visit by the Inspectors – we don’t want people panicking. You shouldn’t forget to bring up the matter of the Smithsoin contract, and you also shouldn’t leave out the Manager’s appointment. You needn’t go into details unless people have questions. But remember, you mustn’t give anyone the idea that their job is at risk because of this. Make it clear that employees shouldn’t speak unless they want to. Last but not least, you don’t have to mention the staff party – Mr. Jones wants to announce that himself. By the way, you mustn’t take notes as my secretary will be there to do that.

Thank you,



meeting – assembly

staff – people who are employed by a company

to attend – to go to or be present at an event

personnel – workers, huma resources

several – some, numerous

matters – something that is being considered or needs to be dealt with

to concern – to have a direct effect on, or be a matter of significance to,

to deal – the particular treatment given to somebody or received from somebody

timetable – schedule, programme, agenda

to mention – talk about, refer to

to bring up – introduce, discuss

to leave out – to omit, exclude

appointment – meeting, scheduled time

unless – if not, but for

to take notes – to write down

Curs 9

Prepozitia si conjunctia (Prepositions and Conjunctions)

Prepozitii care indica relatii SPATIALE

Give the Romanian equivalent for:

across - ___________

about - ______________


against _____________

all over- _____________

along - _______________

among - ___________

at - __________________

around - _____________

at the back of - ________

away from - ___________

beside - __________

behind - _____________

between – ___________

beyond- ____________

by - _______________

down - _______________

from ______________

in front - _____________

in – _________________

into– _________________

inside - _______________

near - ________________

next to-____________

on – ________________

off – ________________

out of - _______________

onto – ______________


to – _______________

toward(s) - ___________

up - _______________

past- ______________

through- ___________


with- _____________

without- _____________

Destinatie  Pozitie

The car goes to the garage.

We are driving away from the town.

Put this book onto the table.

She walked into the room.

Get out of the water when you are tired.

It stops at the garage

We are away from the town

It is on the table

She is in the room

Stay out of the water


Get on the bus – I am getting on the bus right now. _____ _______ ______ ______________

Get in the car – Get in the car¸ I said get in the car!_____ _______ ______ _______________

Put the money in the bank – They put the money in the bank._____ _______ ______ ______

Run into difficulties – They ran into difficulties. __________ ______ ____ ___

Get into trouble – She got into serious trouble. __________ ______ ____ ____

Fall into bad habits – He fell into bad habits¸ drugs. __________ ______ ____

She always goes to work by taxi. __________ ______ ____ _

He often runs out of fuel. _____ _______ ______ ______________

The plane takes off at 10:22 pm. __________ ______ ____ _

Practice: Read and underline the prepositions in this text:


Sheer proximity is perhaps the most decisive in determining who will become friends. Our friends are likely to live nearby. Although it is said that absence makes the heart grow fonder, it also causes friendships to fade. While relationships may be maintained in absentia by correspondence, they usually have to be reinforced by periodic visits, or they dissolve.

Several researchers decided to investigate the effects of proximity on friendships. They chose an apartment complex made up of two-storey buildings with five apartments to a floor. People moved into the project at random, so previous social attachments did not influence the results of the study. In interviewing the residents of the apartment complex, the researchers found that 44 per cent said they were most friendly with their next-door neighbours, 22 per cent saw the people who lived two doors away the most often on social occasions, and only 10 percent said that their best friends lived as far away as down the hall. People were even less likely to be friendly with those who lived upstairs or downstairs from them.


sheer: pure, absolute

decisive: critical/important

absence: not being present

to fade: to die away,

attachment: connection

to reinforce: to strengthen

to dissolve: to weaken

proximity: closeness, nearness

storey a floor or level in a building

at random: without purpose

fond: loving, affectionate

to maintain: to continue

correspondence: mail, letters

resident: inhabitant

previous: earlier, before

to investigate: to examine

to determine: to decide, to find out

absentia: not being together

Fill in each blank with TO¸ INTO or FROM:

1. She learnt English________ books.

2. Then she taught it _____you.

3. A prisoner escaped_________ prison.

4. He escaped__________ the woods.

5. They saved him _________drowning. He retired _____________the army.

Practise: Write the prepositions in the blanks after the sentences:

I passed you by yesterday. _____ _______ ______ ______________

We drove past the city. _____ _______ ______ _______________

I don’t like tea with milk. _____ _______ ______ ___________

They divided food among them. _____ _______ ______ ___________

Stand beside me. ___________________

I can look through this piece of glass. _____ _______ ______ ____________

Don’t go there without me. _____ _______ ______ ___________

The fight against a whole army. _____ _______ ______ _____________

We walked across the bridge. _____ _______ ______ ___________

You have to pass beyond the fence. _____ _______ ______ ______________

It is between you and me. __________ ______ ____ _

There is a big tree right behind you. _____ _______ ______ _____________

A car parked in front of the house. _____ _______ ______ _____________

At the back of the building¸ there are garbage cans._____ _______ ______ ______________

My book is under those files. _____ _______ ______ _____________

Get over it! Don’t let trouble overcome you. _____ _______ ______ ______________

Our office is next to the supermarket. _____ _______ ______ _________

Put this bag near the luggage. _____ _______ ______ ____________

Look up! _____ _______ ______ __________

The sky is far above you. _____ _______ ______ _____________

Prepozitii care indica relatii TEMPORALE:

about - ___________ We will arrive there about noon.

after - She comes after 10 o’clock.

ahead of - Romanian time is ahead of Russian time.

at - I’ll meet you at 7:30.

before- Have we met before?

between - __________ She was at the office between 9 and 10.

by-______________ Dinner was ready by the time I got home.

during- They met during the summer vacation.

for - She has worked here for three years now.

in- It’s always cold in winter here.

on-___________ She announced it on Christmas day.

since- We haven’t spoken since last spring.

throughout Jody has been successful throughout her career.

till Romania had a communist regime till 1989.

within-___________ The deadline is within two weeks.

to We meet at a quarter to 12.

towards - ________ Tom left the country towards the end of March.

up to She hasn’t interviewed anyone famous up to this moment.

until- They want the project finished until the end of this week.

within - _________ We change the sold products within 24 hours.

Translate into Romanian:

We will come back at another date. __________ ______ ____ ___________

In that year¸ there was much flooding. __________ ______ ____ _________

Until we see again¸ I wish you all the best. __________ ______ ____ _____

The store opens on August 10. __________ ______ ____ _______________

She hasn’t been here for a long time. __________ ______ ____ __________

The goods will reach before week end. __________ ______ ____ ________

We were talking during the meeting. __________ ______ ____ __________

I haven’t seen them since 1990.__________ ______ ____ _______________

After the War Europe was divided. __________ ______ ____ ___________

By ten o’clock this work will be finished. __________ ______ ____ ______

The situation improved within a few days. __________ ______ ____ ______

Fill in the right preposition:

I am going (de la) _________ London (spre)______ Plymouth on a train. I’m sitting (langa)____________ my friend John. Two old ladies are sitting (vizavi) _____________ us. My travel bag is (in) ________ the rack (deasupra)__________ my head. John has his suitcase (sub)___________ his seat. There’s a table (intre) _________ our seats and the old ladies’ seats. There’s a puppy (sub) __________ the table. A ticket-inspector is coming down the train. Oh, where is my ticket? It should be (in) _________ my pocket.


and - _________ The manager and I will the delegation at the airport.

as well as - _________ The old as well as the young like walking in the park.

as/ because - _________ As/because you didn’t inform us¸ the goods are still in the port.

because - ___________ They didn’t come because they had something to do.

but - _________ He’s intelligent, but doesn’t have enough patience.

both and . - ________ Both Mary and Jill are out of town.

either or . - __________ You can either turn on the TV or the radio.

if - ___________ If she calls¸ tell her I’m out

neither . nor . -_________ Neither the doctor, nor the nurse were there.

not only . but also . __________ Not only the girls, but the boys also like cartoons. .

since - _________ Since he hasn’t announced his presence we didn’t expect him tonight.

though/although - __________  You didn’t bring the papers though I asked you.

when - ___________ When the car arrives¸ I’ll be here.

while - ___________ While we were waiting¸ the rain started pouring

Identificati conjunctiile in propozitiile de mai jos. :

He plays football and rugby. __________ ______ ____ __________________

I make payments and keep the accounts. __________ ______ ____ _________

He works quickly but accurately. __________ ______ ____ _______________

She is intelligent but lazy. __________ ______ ____ _________________

Both men and women were called into the army. __________ ______ ____ __

He can’t either read or write.__________ ______ ____ ________________

You can either walk or drive up there. __________ ______ ____ ___________

He can neither read nor write. __________ ______ ____ _________________

Not only girls but also boys were admitted. __________ ______ ____ _______

Translate into Romanian paying attention to prepositions and conjunctions:

Desi te rog¸ nu-mi cumperi nimic. __________ ______ ____ __________

Daca ne invita¸ vom merge la receptie. __________ ______ ____ ________

In timp ce vorbim¸ arata-mi si pliantele. __________ ______ ____ _________

Cand m-ai sunat? Ieri? __________ ______ ____ _________________

Ei s-au mutat langa supermarket. __________ ______ ____ _____________

In fata casei avem un mar urias. __________ ______ ____ _______________

Raportul tau este sub aceste dosare. __________ ______ ____ ____________

Sunt la birou. __________ ______ ____ _________________

Ei au intrat in depozit. __________ ______ ____ ________________

Delegatia a iesit din sediu. __________ ______ ____ _______________

Nu mergem la Bucuresti cu trenul. __________ ______ ____ ___________

Intotdeauna mergem cu masina. __________ ______ ____ ____________

In cursul zilelor urmatoare¸ se va hotari asupra acestor probleme. __________________


1. Read the text, translate it into Romanian and then underline the prepositions and conjunctions in it:


One of the greatest frustrations in complaining is talking to a clerk or receptionist who can't solve your problem and whose only purpose seems to be to drive you crazy. Getting mad doesn't help, for the person you're mad at probably had nothing to do with your actual problem.

When complaining in person, ask for the manager or supervisor. When complaining by letter, get the name of the store manager or company president. (A librarian can help you find this information).

If you are complaining over the phone, ask for the customer-relations department. If there is none, then ask for the manager or appropriate supervisor. Or talk to the head telephone operator, who will probably know who is responsible for solving problems. Be persistent. One complaint may not get results. In that case, it may work to simply keep on complaining. This will 'wear down' resistance on the other side. If you have a problem with a store, call the store two or three times every day. Chances are someone there will become fed up with you and take care of your complaint in order to be rid of you.


complaint: complaining, objection

to lodge a complaint: to make a complaint

to drive crazy: to make crazy

appropriate: suitable, proper

to rid: to do away with. to clear

to take care of: to deal with

to complain: to say that one is not satisfied

frustration: disappointment, dissatisfaction

supervisor: person who watches or directs

persistent: insistent, not giving up

to keep on: to continue, to carry on

to wear down: to make gradually weak

resistance: power of opposing (using force against)

2. Fill in with the appropriate preposition choosing from AT; ON; IN:

Nobody is _____ home, let’s go.

His apartment is _____ the third floor.

Angela lives ____ 62 Berkeley Street.

Jimmy has less than two dollars _____ his pocket.

Stratford lies _____ the river Avon.

Mother is not ____ the kitchen, she‘s ____ the market.

There are a lot of printing mistakes ____ this page.

We could see a tall tree ____ the middle of the island.

She will spend about ten days ____ the seaside.

You will have to meet the manager ___ the airport.

They are reading an interesting article ____ that magazine.

A bird ____ the hand is worth two ____ the bush.

There are some verz old books _____ the top shelf.

This afternoon there are a lot of people _____ the cinema.

They walk _____ the beach for a long time.

3. Fill in the blanks choosing from these prepositions: AT, BY, FROM . TO, PAST, INSIDE, OUT OF, TOWARDS, ACROSS, AGAINST, UNDER or THROUGH:

This is Newton High Street. An old lady is walking (dincolo de) _______ Post office. Her dog is looking at a cat which is hiding (sub) ______ a car. A woman is getting (afara din) _______ the car. A policeman is walking (vizavi) ______ the street (spre) _______ the bank. A boy’s bicycle is leaning (de) _______ the lamp post. The boy is walking (de pe/afara din) ______ the door of the sweet shop which is (langa) ______ the bank. There’s a bus ( in) ____ the bus stop. It’s going (de la) ______ Newton (la/spre) ______ Busworth.

Curs 10

Prezentul (aspectul) Continuu (Present Continuous Tense)

verbele la prezentul continuu arata ca actiunea se petrece in momentul vorbirii¸ chiar atunci cand este mentionata de vorbitor.

se formeaza: verbul TO BE + Verb (care preia) terminatia -ING.

Exemplu: go + ing – going¸ I am going We are going

You are going You are going

She/he/it is going They are going

walk+ing – walking¸

drink+ing– drinking,

adverbele de frecventacu care se foloseste sunt: NOW, AT THE MOMENT.

poate exprima o actiune planificata in viitorul apropiat:

Exemplu: I’m flying to Rome next Monday.

cand se foloseste in aceeasi afirmatie in care un verb este la prezentul simplu iar celalalt este la prezentul continuu, verbul la aspectul continuu arata o exceptie, o stare temporara, o situatie exceptionala sau o situatie/actiune recurenta, repetata care irita/deranjeaza vorbitorul:

Exemple: She usually walks to school, but this week she is going by bus.

‘Have a cookie’. ‘No, thank you, I am slimming’.

My child is constantly losing his gloves.



Aspectul Afirmativ

Aspectul Negativ

Aspectul Interogativ


I am running

I am not running/I’m not

Am I running?


You are running

You are not running/ you aren’t running

Are you running?


He is running

He is not running/ he isn’t running

Is he running?

She is running

She is not running/ she isn’t running

Is she running?

It is running

It is not running/ it isn’t running

Is it running?


We are running

We are not running/ we aren’t running

Are we running?


You are running

You are not running/ you aren’t running

Are you running?


They are running

They are not running/ they aren’t running

Are they running?

Verbs seldom used in the Continuous aspect Cand sunt folosite la aspectul continuu au sens total diferit fata de cel de baza):

BE _______, HAVE________, SEE________, SMELL_________, HEAR________, TASTE_________, FEEL________, RECOGNISE____________, NOTICE_________, LIKE________, DISLIKE_________, LOVE________, HATE________, ADORE________, CARE_________, PREFER____________, FORGIVE__________, WANT________, WISH________, DESIRE__________, REFUSE_________, DETEST__________, DESPISE_________, KNOW________, UNDERSTAND_____________, MEAN___________, REMEMBER___________, FORGET_________, BELIEVE_________, HOPE_________, DOUBT_________, SUPPOSE__________, IMAGINE__________, THINK (that)_________, recall__________, expect__________, call_________, poSsess________, own_________, fit/ SUIT_________, belong to___________, concern______________.

Exista diferenta de sens la verbele din urmatoarele propozitii?

She sings well. She is singing well.

We don’t talk. We are not talking.

He calls you. He is calling you.

You lose business. You are losing business.

The cake tastes sweet.  She is tasting the soup.

He thinks Mary is nice. I am thinking about work.

They like winter.  How are you liking the new job?

Imagine you’re rich.  Surely you are imagining things.

I see a plane in the sky. I am seeing the doctor next week.

More Words

FIXED PHRASES WITH DO AND MAKE (Expresii cu verbele Do si Make)

DO (a face – cu sensul de a se angaja/ implica intr-o activitate)

do business (a face afaceri) They always do business with this company.

do good (a face bine) Always do good, never hurt the others.

do one’s best (a face tot posibilul) She’s going her best to win the competition.

do a good job (a face treaba buna) You are doing a good job, congratulations!

do the shopping (a face cumparaturile) We do the shopping on Saturday.

do a favour (a face o favoare) Please do me a favour and call her.

do repairs (a face reparatii) We are doing major repairs on the house this month.

do one’s duty (a-si face datoria) The captain is doing his duty well.

do someone a good turn (a intoarce o favoare cuiva) If you want to do me a good turn, tell the lawyer.

do an exercise (a face un exercitiu) She is doing an exercise now.

do justice (a face dreptate) The police will do them justice.

do research (a cerceta) She is doing research for her final exam.

do something for a living (a face ceva pentru a-si castiga existenta) What do you do for a living? I am a writer.

do odd jobs ( a face munci necalificate) I have done odd jobs until I got this job.

do overtime (a face ore suplimentare) We are all doing overtime this month.

MAKE (a face – cu sensul de a crea)

make a journey (a face o calatorie) They are making a journey to Australia in July

make a speech (a tine un discurs) The President is making a speech now.

make a mistake (a face o greseala) She never makes mistakes.

make a complaint (a face o plangere) They want to make a complaint regarding the accommodation conditions and the prices.

make arrangements (a face planuri) We will make arrangements to be there on time.

make an effort (a face un effort) Please make an effort and finish this task.

make progress (a face progrese) She has made progress since she started studying.

make profit (a face profit) They make big profit, they have experience in business.

make a fortune (a face avere) He made a fortune selling cars.

make an impression (a face impresie) She made good impression at the job interview.

make an accusation (a face acuzatii) Stop making accusations until you have evidence.

make an appointment (a face o programare) To see the Mayor you have to make an appointment.

make a proposal (a face o propunere) They made a proposal he couldn’t refuse.

Make six sentences of yzour own with expressions from above:

Translate into English:

Noi bem ceai zilnic la ora 5. (daily) __________ ______ ____ ____________

Mergem la mare in fiecare an. (to the seaside/every year). _____ _______ ______ __________

Ea intotdeauna lucreaza foarte repede. __________ ______ ____ __________

El niciodata nu scrie. (never) __________ ______ ____ _________________

Ea nu vine aici deseori. (often) __________ ______ ____ ______________

De obicei el doarme dupa-masa. (usually/ sleeps)__________ ______ ____ _

Calculatorul meu nu are virusi! __________ ______ ____ _______________

Mereu avem pana de curent! (power failure) __________ ______ ____ _____

Pamantul este rotund. (Earth¸ round) __________ ______ ____ ___________

Xena este o planeta noua. (new¸ planet) __________ ______ ____ _________

Uraganele sunt frecvente in America. (hurricane¸ frequent)_____ _______ ______ __________

Practise: Read and translate these job announcements:

Applying for a Job

1. Needed: Full time secretary position available. Applicants should have at least 2 years experience and be able to type 60 words a minute. No computer skills required. Apply in person at United Business Ltd., 17 Browning Street

2. Are you looking for a part time job? We require 3 part time shop assistants to work during the evening. No experience required, applicants should between 18 and 26. Call 366 - 76564 for more information.

3. Computer trained secretaries: Do you have experience working with computers? Would you like a full time position working in an exciting new company? If your answer is yes, give us a call at 0040/700 555666

4. Teacher Needed: Tommy's Kindergarten needs 2 teacher/trainers to help with classes from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Applicants should have appropriate licenses. For more information visit Tommy's Kindergarten in Leicester Square No. 56.

5. Part Time work available: We are looking for retired adults who would like to work part time at the weekend. Responsibilities include answering the telephone and giving customer's information. For more information contact us by calling 001/234 333999

6. University positions open: The University of Cumberland is looking for 4 teaching assistants to help with homework correction. Applicants should have a degree in one of the following: Political Science, Religion, Economics or History. Please contact the University of Cumberland for more information.

Practise the negative form:

They are not working in the office/They aren’t working.

I am not talking to you/I’m not talking .

He is not calling you/He isn’t calling .

She is not having lunch/ She isn’t having.

It is not raining/It isn’t raining

It is not snowing/it isn’t snowing.

They are not walking/aren’t walking .

Practice: Write questions to the following statements:

Rita is coming to see us on Sunday. Who _____ _______ ______ _______________

Ralph is bringing some wine and crackers. What _____ _______ ______ _________

I think the London orchestra is playing Mozart now. What _____ _______ ______ _________

I’m meeting my lawyer at 10.30 in the court. Where_____ _______ ______ ___________

The players are moving slowly today because of the heat. Why_____ _______ ______ ______

Your cousin is waiting by the gate. Where _____ _______ ______ _______________

The Prime Minister is talking about a new economic plan. What _____ _______ ______ ______ Who _____ _______ ______ ____________

The Australian yacht is sailing north. Which__________ ______ ____ Which way_____ _______ ______ __________

The children are laughing at the clown. Who _____ _______ ______ _____________ Who _____ _______ ______ _______

I’m trying to find out her address. What ____________________

Those people are queuing up for meat. What _____ _______ ______ _________

Mrs. O’Neill is drinking her fifth cocktail now. Which _____ _______ ______ _________

We are looking for a semi-detached house. What _____ _______ ______ _____________

I’m going out with Lucy tonight. Who_____ _______ ______ _______

Jeff is using the company’s car this morning. Whose _____ _______ ______ ___________


1. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present Continuous tense:

a) The cooks (roast) _______________ the meat.

b) The waiters (pour) ________________ the drnks.

c) The orchestra (play) _______________ pop music.

d) The Sandersons (dance) _________________.

e) Sir George (kiss) ______________ the host.

f) She (wear) _______________ a blue dress.

g) The children (play) __________________ at cowboys and Indians.

h) Jim (entertain) ________________ his guests in the living-room.

i) Lady Morley (talk) _________________ to her nephews.

j) A newspaper reporter (climb) __________________ the gate to take pictures.

k) Max (jump) ____________________ over the grill on his racing horse.

l) Seven guests (sleep) ________________ on the sofa.

m) The three young men (celebrate) ___________________ with champagne.

n) Yes, the neighbours (call) ____________________ the police.

2. Translate into English:

1. Nu intelegi ca glumesc? __________ ______ ____ _____

2. Tatal tau tocmai vorbeste cu Presedintele. __________ ______ ____ __

3. Acum e citeste Financial Times. __________ ______ ____ ____

4. Auzi zgomotul acela* vecinul iar exerseaza la vioara. __________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ ___

5. Asteptam avionul de la Atlanta. __________ ______ ____ _

3. Write a few sentences about what you usually do and what you are doing at the moment/temporarily:

4. Read this text and speak about its idea/theme:


All the distance, which men create round himself or herself are dictated by fear of the touch of the unknown. They shut themselves in houses, which no one may enter, and only there they feel some measure of security.

The fear of burglars is not only the fear of being robbed, but also the fear of a sudden and unexpected clutch out of the darkness. The dislike to being touched remains with us when we go about among people; the way we move in a busy street, in restaurants, trains or busses, is governed by it.

Even when we are standing next to them and are able to watch and examine them closely, we avoid actual contact if we can. The promptness with which apology is offered for an unintentional contact, the tension with which it is awaited, our violent and sometimes even physical reaction when it is not forthcoming, the antipathy and hatred we feel for the offender proves that we are dealing with a deep seated human propensity.


clutch: grasp, hold

to remain: to remain

to govern: to rule

to avoid: to stay away from

promptness: speed, pace

unintentional: accidental, unplanned

to be awaited: to be accepted, to be looked for

forthcoming: about to come out

offender: person who does wrong

deep-seated: innate, deep-rooted, subconscious

propensity: tendency



in limba engleza cuvintele isi pot modifica sensul prin derivare cu sufixe sau prefixe (in unele cazuri derivarea se poate face atat cu suffix cat si cu prefix). Sensul pe care il preiau cuvintele nou formate este determinat de sensul prefixului/al sufixului.

Exemple: important – unimportant

logical – illogical

reason – reasonable

fruit – fruitful

rely - unreliable

prin prefixare sau sufixare se pot obtine cuvinte cu alta valoare gramaticala decat cea initiala (se pot forma substantive din adjective, substantive din verbe etc)

Exemple: leak – leakage

submit – submission

permit – permission

Take a look at the following table:


There are certain prefixes (sylables put at the begining of words) and suffixes (sylables put at the end of words) which are used to form new words. However, there are no certain rules to follow to form one word from another.



anti- = against eg. antinuclear

pre- = before eg. prejudge

bi- = two eg. bilingual

pro- = in favour of eg. pro-American

co- = with eg. cooperation

re- = again eg. rearrange

de- = acting against eg. decomposition

semi- = half eg. semicircle

ex- = before, former eg. ex-general

sub- = under eg. subconscious

inter- = between eg. intermediate

super- = above eg. supernatural

mono- = one eg. monolingual

trans- = across eg. transatlantic

non- = not eg. non-stop

tri- = three eg. tricycle

over- = too much eg. overeat

under- = not enough eg. underestimate

post- = after eg. postgraduate

uni- = one  eg. unicycle

There are certain prefixes which mean not or show an opposite state or process. These are:

un- eg. unbelievable

im-  eg. impossible

mal-  eg. malfunction

ir- (before r) eg. irreesistible

il- (before l) eg. illegal

in-  eg. incompetent

dis-  eg. disagree


-ee (with passive meaning)

eg. employee

-less = without eg. careless

-er (with active meaning)

eg. employer

-proof = safe against eg. waterproof

-ful a) = with eg. careful

b) indicates quantity eg. spoonful

-ish a) with the quality of eg. childish

b) rather eg. smallish

To describe people we add

-ar, -er, -or to the end of verbs or –ist, -ian to the end of nouns or verbs making any necessary spelling changes

-ar eg. lie – liar

-er eg. rob – robber

-or eg. create – creator

-ist eg. type – typist

-ian eg. music - musician





-age eg. break – breakage

-ment eg. amuse – ausement

-al eg. propose – proposal

-sion eg. suspend – suspension

-ance eg. annoy – annoyance

-sis eg. analyse – analysis

-ation eg. organise – organisation

-tion eg. direct – direction

-ence eg. prefer – preference

-y eg. perjure - perjury

-ion eg. confuse - confusion

Nouns formed from adjectives

-ance eg. tolerant – tolerance

-ity eg. popular – popularity

-cy eg. fluent – fluency

-ment eg. contentn – contentment

-ence eg. obedient – obedience

-ty eg. royal – royalty

-ion eg. desperate – desperation

-y eg. honest - honesty

-iness eg. happy - happiness

Adjectives formed from verbs

-able eg. bear - bearable

-ive eg. decide – decisive

Verbs formed from adjectives/nouns

-en eg. dark – darken; fright – frighten; light –lighten.

1. Practice: Make nouns from these words using prefixes and suffixes from the box above:

employ - ____________

post - ____________

except - _____________

expand - _____________

accept - _____________

publish - ____________

develop - ___________

combine - ____________

drive - ___________

inspire - ___________

instruct - ____________

portray - ________________

translate - ______________

injure - ________________

refer - ________________

apologise - _________________

examine - _________________

pollute - ________________

judge - _________________

use - ______________

lonely - _______________

reluctant - _______________

excellent - _________________

intelligent - _________________

accurate - ________________

excited - _________________

fragile - _________________

regular - ________________

stupid - _______________

isolate - _______________

2. Change the form of the words in brackets:

The (long) __________ of the journey was beginning to cause a lot of (frustrate) ___________ for everyone involved. Unfortunately, father got the blame as he was responsible for the (organise) _________________ of the trip. (impatient) ________________ began to set in when we realised we had been given the wrong (direct) ________________ by a well-meaning pedestrian.

What is more, father’s (popular) _______________ was not (increase) ______________ by his (insist) ______________ that we stop every hour or so to observe the scenery. the trip to France, he said, would (broad) _________________ our horizons and provide us with both (amuse) ______________ and (educate) ________________. However, in (real) ______________ , it turned out to be an (bear) _______________ waste of time and effort. It was then that we made the (decide) ______________ never to listen to one of father’s (propose) ______________ again.

3. Underline the prefixes and suffixes in every word:























































































































































Read the following text, underline the derived words and comment on its idea/theme:


The institutional care we provide to our older people is a good reflection of the overall attitude of our society toward the aged. In the past few years, nursing homes have received wide attention as boring, meaningless places where people often have little else to do but wait for the end of their lives. Senile wards in mental hospitals are even worse. One of the appalling things about nursing homes has been the unwillingness of people on the outside to show real concern for what happens in these institutions. Even people who are entrusting a parent to the care of a home rarely ask about the nurse-patient ratio, about the kind of creative facilities or physical therapy equipment available, or even about the frequency of doctor's visits.


institutional: related to the (building of) organization for social welfare

reflection: thought

attitude: feeling, manner

nursing homes: Attention, treatment places for old people

senile ward: division for the old people in a hospital

appalling: shocking

to entrust: to trust somebody to safeguard somebody or something

ratio: proportion, percentage

available: obtainable

Complete the following sentences with words formed from the ones in brackets:

We had a lovely weekend; it was thoroughly (enjoy) _____________.

He never remembers my birthday; I don’t know why he is so (forget) _____________.

The problem is that there’s nothing we can do about it; we are completely (power) ________________.

I believe what he says because he’s always been (true) ______________ in the past.

She never seems to run out of energy; she is completely (tire) _________________.

She’s a very (describe) _________________ writer; she gives you a very good feel for the places and characters in her stories.

Don’t worry. If he’s said he’ll be there, then I’m sure he will. He’s very (rely) ____________.

His problem is that he always does exactly what people tell him to do; he’s just so (submit) _________________.

You’re so (care) ________________: you’re always dropping things.

I love to watch good ballet dancers: they are so (grace) _________________.

Thay cat stayed (motion) _______________ as it waited to pounce on the bird.

It’;s a very (change) _________________ climate; the weather can be completely different from one day to the next.

It’s important to keep (act) ______________ after you retire.

The seats in the first class were really 9comfort) _______________. I could easily have fallen asleep in them.

The situation out there is (dread) _________________. More and more people are dying every day.


1. Put each prefix in its correct space in the sentences below: arch-(chief, main, highest-ranking) ; out-(more, better . than); mal –(badly, wrongly); pseudo-(false, pretended).

a)    In my opinion this book is just _______ intellectual rubbish.

b)    Although he was older than his wife, he ______ lived her by ten years.

c)     Priests are not often ambitious men, but he had set his heart on becoming ____bishop.

d)    The launch of the space rocket was delayed by a ____function in the fuel system.

e)     At the beginning of the 19th century Britain’s _____ enemy was France.

f)     He completelty _____boxed his opponent and knocked him out in the seventh round.

g)    Children who grow up in time of war are more likely to be ____adjusted than other children.

h)    He uses _____scientific language to persuade his readers.

i)      These squalid, dark, cramped ____ odorous rooms are homes to whole families of people.

j)      She was the finest dancer in the country. She ____shone all the others.

2. Put each suffix in its correct space in the sentences below: - phobia (feat or hatered of); -cide (killer, killing); -gamy (marriage); -worthy (deserving, fit for); -like (similar to); -most (furthest):

a)    Those rose bushes need protection. Spray them with insecti________.

b)    He gets very tense and nervous in enclosed spaces like lifts and the underground. He suffers from claustro________.

c)     The custom of having more than one wife or husband is known as poli________.

d)    Some people and some animals are terrified of water. This aversion is known as aqua________.

e)     His problems overwhelmed him and he finally commited sui_______.

f)     When he was arrested and charged with bi_______, both his wives stood by him.

g)    His Anglo_________ comes from some bad experiences he had in England.

h)    Following the man’s death, his wife was charged with homi_________.

i)      To me, at 14 the film-stars I saw at my local cinema were god________.

j)      John O’Groats is the northern__________ toewn in mainland Britain.

k)    We are pleased to present you with this award for your praise__________ work amoing the poor of this city.

l)      In the old days it was not considered lady________ for a woman to smoke in public if at all.

m)   Architecture during that period was very boring. Almost every building was a box-_________ structure with no variation or decoration to please the eye.

n)    We are looking for an honest, relable, trust_________ person to handle our legal affairs.

o)    He betrayed the inner___________ secrets of his country’s government to the enemy.

p)    A small accident like that won’t appear in the papers. It isn’t news__________ enough.

3. Exlain the meanings of the following words and phrases:

a pseudonym _____ _______ ______ ________

arch-rivals _____ _______ ______ ________

maladministration _____ _______ ______ ________

outsize clothes _____ _______ ______ ________

malnutrition _____ _______ ______ ________

pseudo-religious _____ _______ ______ ________

an archvillain _____ _______ ______ ________

to outstay your welcome _____ _______ ______ ________

neo-imperialism _____ _______ ______ ________

an atheist _____ _______ ______ ________

a foretaste _____ _______ ______ ________

a hypermarket _____ _______ ______ ________

hypertension _____ _______ ______ ________

a foregone conclusion _____ _______ ______ ________

an asymmetrical shape _____ _______ ______ ________

a neo-Fascist _____ _______ ______ ________

bicentenary _____ _______ ______ ________

pentagon _____ _______ ______ ________

centenary _____ _______ ______ ________

tricolour _____ _______ ______ ________

monotonous _____ _______ ______ ________

decathlon _____ _______ ______ ________

sexagenarian _____ _______ ______ ________

quintuplets _____ _______ ______ ________

bisect _____ _______ ______ ________

cent _____ _______ ______ ________

biplane _____ _______ ______ ________

bicameral _____ _______ ______ ________

unicycle _____ _______ ______ ________

quadruplets _____ _______ ______ ________

unicorn _____ _______ ______ ________

germicide _____ _______ ______ ________

xenophobia _____ _______ ______ ________

patricide _____ _______ ______ ________

a monogamous society _____ _______ ______ ________

fratricide _____ _______ ______ ________

agoraphobia _____ _______ ______ ________

pyromaniac _____ _______ ______ ________

Francophilia _____ _______ ______ ________

an Anglophile _____ _______ ______ ________

a mania _____ _______ ______ ________

a fishmonger _____ _______ ______ ________

a film maniac _____ _______ ______ ________

a microscopic insect _____ _______ ______ ________

a marvellous cloudshape _____ _______ ______ ________

Practice: Make new words adding suffixes and/or prefixes to the wordas in bracktes:

Albert Einstein’s work has enormous _____________ (BROAD) our understanding of the universe and has had a _____________ (CONSIDER) impact on all our lives. Thanks to his equation E = mc2 , we now know that energy and mass (or matter) are directly related to each other. To a very great _____________ (EXTEND), it is Einstein who is responsible for our now knowing that space and time are actually one thing: space-time. _____________ (ADD), without E = mc2, we would not have nuclear power – and nuclear weapons – today.

Einstein did not become famous because of E = mc2, which was first published in 1905. At the time, his paper was _____________ (LARGE) ignored, even by most scientists. Indeed, it was 14 years later that Einstein first made headlines, round the world, when scientific evidence began to show that his Thory of General Relativity, which was an _____________ (EXTEND) on his 1905 paper, was correct.

The idea that only a tiny_____________ (MINOR) of scientists can understand Einstein’s theories comes from this media reporting. The New York Times asked its golfing correspondent to cover the story. As he was clearly out of his _____________ (DEEP), he presumed that everyone else was too. A myth was born.

Space, time, energy and mass are _____________ (WEIGH) subjects – no pun intended – to get to grips with, but Einstein’s ideas are not impossible to understand by any means. The implications of Einstein’s work for our lives, however, may well be _____________(FINITE).


Timpul viitor (The FUTURE TENSE).

Metode de exprimare a timpului viitor


Metoda de formare


In limba romana

WILL+ infinitive (cu acceasi forma pentru toate persoanele)

I will go home.

You will call tomorrow.

He’ll read the letters tonight.

Voi merge acasa.

Vei suna maine.

El va citi scrisorile diseara.

Be going to + verb

Arata intentia vorbitorului

I am going to leave you.

She is going to phone him.

Te voi parasi.

Ea il va suna.

Prezentul simplu

– pentru actiuni cu un caracter oficial (mersul trenurilor¸ al avioanelor) actiuni care au loc in afara vointei¸ intentiei vorbitorului

The store opens next week.

The President visits that University tomorrow.

The train leaves tomorrow at 6 pm.

The plane lands at 5 in the afternoon.

Magazinul se va deschide ..

Presedintele va vizita

Trenul va pleca maine la 6.

Avionul aterizeaza la 5 dupa-masa.

Prezentul continuu

– pentru actiuni care au un caracter neoficial¸ in care vorbitorul este cel care intentioneaza¸ hotaraste

The children are leaving for the seaside tomorrow.

We are buying new plants next week.

They are driving to Nisa tomorrow.

Copiii vor pleca la mare .

Vom cumpara plante noi saptamana viitoare.

Merg cu masina la Nisa maine.


– cand nu este implicata intentia vorbitorului; nu mai este utilizat frecvent¸ locul sau a fost luat de WILL

I shall be 20 tomorrow.

The police shall start the investigation next week.

Voi avea 20 de ani maine.

Politia va incepe investigatia saptamana viitoare.

Practise: Give the future forms of the verbs in brackets:

The money (not change) ___________________next year.

The children (leave for) __________school next week.

We (redecorate) _____________the house next week.

(buy) ___________________this for me¸ please? _______________

The President (have) __________________ a press conference tomorrow.

The plane for Singapore (leave) ___________________at 5 p.m. tomorrow evening. ______

You (not leave) __________________the office until late in the evening.

I (not read) _____ _______ ______ ______ this book.

He (to marry) that girl.

The company (buy) an entire network of computers.

She (not bring) you a new cup of coffee.

We (not buy) this old house¸ I’m sorry.

It (not rain) until next week.

You (sell) that old car? Who (buy) it?

It (not be) very hot tomorrow morning.

The Future Continuous Tense (Timpul viitor - aspectul continuu)

- arata o actiune care este in desfasurare la un moment dat in viitor¸ moment specificat de obicei de catre vorbitor

- se formeaza din : will+ be + forma in - ing a verbului

Exemplu: will be driving¸ will be watching; I/we will/shall be working – la toate persoanele

Aspectul afirmativ: She will be skating this time next week.

Aspectul negative: She will not/won’t be singing next year.

Aspectul interogativ: Will you be seeing him tomorrow?

Practise: Read these examples:

I will be seeing Tom tomorrow.

The children will be watching television around 11 o’clock.

They will be working on the dam the whole night.

She won’t be typing that report the whole night!

He will be writing his exam paper tomorrow¸ before noon.

We will be driving to Acapulco tomorrow¸ by this time.

Our plane will be flying over the Sahara¸ tomorrow afternoon.

She will be talking on your behalf next week¸ on Monday.

The tourists will be visiting the island on Saturday¸ next week.

Read the following text: Identify the verbs used in the future tense.Words and phrases

The company moves to another location next week. We will be helping to move our papers¸ computers¸ furniture. The other location is not far from here. There the offices are larger and there is more space.

We will take every object from here and move it there. We will call our remotest partners and customers to let them know. We are going to arrange the offices. The company president opens the new location next week. He is going to have a reception and will invite people to see the new offices. We will help with everything we can.

Practice: Read this text and discuss on its theme/idea:


A lot of people believe that television has a harmful effect on children. A few years ago, the same criticisms were made of the cinema. But although child psychologists have spent a great deal of studying this problem, there is not much evidence that television brings about juvenile delinquency.

Few people in the modern world share the views of parents a hundred years ago. In those days, writers for children carefully shunned any reference to sex in their books but had no inhibitions about including scenes of violence.

These days, children are often brought up to think freely about sex but violence is discouraged. Nevertheless, television companies receive a large number of letters, every week complaining about programs with adult themes being shown at times when a few young children may be awake.

Strangely enough, the parents who complain about these programs see no harm in cartoon films for children in which the villain, usually either an animal or a monster, suffers one brutal punishment after another.


to bring about: to cause

juvenile delinquency: the young's criminal behaviour

to shun: to avoid

reference: mention, suggestion

inhibition: embarrassment, shyness

violence: hostility, aggression

theme: topic, subject

villain: bad character

monster: giant

brutal: evil, cruel, wicked

Practice: Turn the verbs in brackets into future forms usingWILL; BE GOING TO; Present Simple and Present Continuous:

1. I (come) ____________ into the office on Saturday morning if you ask me to Pete.

2. Carol, you (show) ______________ Harry how to use the photocopier, please?

3. From the look of thigs, it (snow) ____________ later today.

4. Hurry up! We (miss) ______________ the ferry boat.

5. They (announce) ____________ the winner on 14th January.

6. I can’t come to work this morning because I (go) ____________ to the doctor’s.

7. Don’t worry! They (fire) _____________ everyone for at least six months.

8. Jenny (find) ______________ a job easily when she graduates?

9. No, I’m afraid I (be) ____________ at the meeting tomorrow.

10. What time the train (leave) ______________ on Saturday?

Choose the correct answer.

Why don’t you have a doctor . . . . . .. at your arm if it’s hurting you?

a) to look b) looking c) look d) for looking

I wonder if you could let me know what the . . . . . .. fare to Berlin is?

a) round b) double c) two-way d) return

Mr Parris said he’d like . . . . . . by Monday, if that’s possible.

a) finished the report b) the report will be finished c) the report finished d) have the report finished

Ben crept . . . . . . . On Lisa and put his hands over her eyes.

a) out b) round c) off d) up

The company is extended . . . . . . a healthy profit this year.

a) make b) to make c) making d) for making

Maria was just walking along the road when someone on a motorbike . . . . . . . her handbag.

a) clutched b) clenched c) grabbed d) fumbled

Fred Astaire is one of my favourite dancers and I love the way he seems to . . . . . .. across the floor.

a) glide b) march c) skid d) dash

The new Arts Center seems to have been . . . . .. construction for quite some time.

a) in b) under c) on d) below

further practice worksheet

1. Give the Romanian equivalent for these words and use them in sentences of your own:

Vocabulary: Work and Employment

General a regular job; commuter; employee; employer; He took a job as a waiter.; job; occupation; profession; to earn one's living; to run a firm; What do you do for a living?; trade; worker.

Application application; application form; apprentice, trainee; apprenticeship; CV (curriculum vitae); job interview; skilled worker; to apply for a job; training; training course; vacancy.

Unemployment period of notice; to be unemployed; to be out of work/to be on the dole (BE); to fire somebody/ to sack somebody (BE); to give somebody notice; to dismiss somebody; to hand in one's notice; to resign; to quit; unemployment; unemployment benefit/dole money.

Working hours, pay: a full-time job; a part-time job; continued payment of wages; flexitime; pay slip; salary; to get a rise; to get a raise; to work in shifts; to work overtime; wage cut; wage demand/claim; wage group; wages.

Read and translate this text, then comment on its theme/idea.


A status is a position an individual occupies in a social structure. In a sense, a status is a social address. It tells people where the individual 'fits' in a society - as a mother, college professor, senior citizen, or prison inmate.

Knowing a person's status — knowing that you are going to meet a judge or a janitor, a ten-year-old or a fifty-year-old – tells you something about how that person will behave toward you and how you are expected to behave toward him or her. Misjudging status is a frequent cause of embarrassment – as when a woman invites a man she assumes is a bachelor to an intimate dinner and discovers he is married.

Curs 13

Timpul trecut al verbelor (THE Past Tense)

Verbele terminate in –ed la timpul trecut si la participiul trecut se numesc verbe regulate :

Exemple: to ask – asked - asked (a intreba) They asked about the meeting.

to love-loved-loved (a iubi) He loved to watch this film.

to answer – answered - answered (a raspunde) She answered the phone promptly.

Verbele care au alte terminatii la timpul trecut si la participiu trecut se numesc verbe neregulate :

Exemple: to go – went - gone (a merge)  I went to the shop an hour ago.

to bring – brought - brought (a aduce) She brought us cookies.

to sing – sang - sung ( a canta) They sang her favourite song.

Aspectul interogativ se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar TO DO (la timpul trecut), respectiv forma DID (fara modificari de forma in functie de persoana sau numar):

Exemple: Did I work much?

Did she come on time?

Did you leave early?

Aspectul negativ se formeaza adaugand auxiliarului si negatia NOT (DID NOT sau forma scurta DIDN’T):

Exemple: I didn’t work much.

She didn’t come on time.

You didn’t leave early.

Adverbele de frecventa care insotesc de regula verbele la Trecut sunt:

YESTERDAY ____________________

A DAY AGO __________________

AN HOUR /TWO YEARS AGO ____________________

LAST YEAR/ NIGHT/ WEEK/ MONDAY ____________________

A LONG TIME AGO _____ _______ ______ ________

IN 1986/ 2007 _____ _______ ______ ________

ON OCTOBER 26th, 1992 _____ _______ ______ ________

ONCE ____________________

ONCE UPON A TIME _____ _______ ______ _______

THE OTHER DAY _____ _______ ______ _______

DURING THE WAR _____ _______ ______ _______

Practise: Treceti la timpul trecut verbele din paranteza¸ tinand cont de faptul ca acestea sunt verbe regulate¸ terminate in - ED la timpul trecut.

to ask-asked-asked:  1. She (ask) ___________ about you.

to call-called-called:  2. The secretary (call) me.

to answer-answered-answered 3. I (answer) her question.

to like – liked-liked 4. They (like) ________ the movie.

to work –worked-worked 5. They (work) ________ much on the project.

Trecutul verbelor TO BE¸ TO HAVE¸ TO DO (aspectul afirmativ)



To be

To have

To do

SG:  I

I was

I had

I did


You were

You had

You did


He was

He had

He did

She was

She had

She did

It was

It had

It did

PL:  I

We were

We had

We did


You were

You had

You did


They were

They had

They did


I was at home yesterday. I was at the office in the morning and at home in the evening. You were at home. You were on holiday. He was at home. She was at the office. They were at the company. It was hot. It is hot in August. You were out.

Give the past form of the verbs in the brackets:

I (be) ________at home in the evening. You (be) ________out. She (have) _______a good car. He (have) ________ money at the bank. It (be) _______very cold. He (do) _______better. It (be) _______warm in July. She (have) _______a good job. Sally (be) _______better in accounting than Mary. We (be) _________ students long time ago. Our office (be) __________small. My computer (have) __________a killer virus.

Forma interogativa si negativa a verbelor la timpul Trecut (Past Simple)

TO VISIT (a vizita)



Aspectul Afirmativ

Aspectul Negativ

Aspectul Interogativ

SG:  I

I visited

I didn’t visit

Did I visit?


You visited

You didn’t visit

Did you visit?


He visited

He didn’t visit

Did he visit?

She visited

She didn’t visit

Did she visit?

It visited

It didn’t visit

Did it visit?

PL:  I

We visited

We didn’t visit

Did we visit?


You visited

You didn’t visit

Did you visit?


They visited

They didn’t visit

Did they visit?

Examples: Read them out loud and give their Romanian variant:

I was at home in the evening. – Was I at home in the evening? Yes¸ I was.

You were at the office. – Were you at the office? Yes¸ you were.

She was at the supermarket. – Was she at the supermarket? Yes¸ she was.

I was at home in the evening. – Was I at home in the evening? No¸ I was not at home in the evening. No¸ I wasn’t.

You were at the office. Were you at the office? No¸ you were not at the office. No¸ you weren’t.

She was at the supermarket. Was she at the supermarket? No¸ she was not at the supermarket. No¸ she wasn’t.

You had a good time. Did you have a good time? No¸ I did not have a good time. No¸ I didn’t.

She had good grades. Did she have good grades? No¸ she did not have good grades. No¸ she didn’t.

They had a profitable business. Did they have a profitable business? No¸ they did not have a profitable business. No¸ they didn’t.

She went to school in England. – Did she go to school in England? Yes¸ she did. Yes¸ she went to school in England.

They called from Egypt yesterday. Did they call from Egypt yesterday? Yes¸ they did. Yes¸ they called from Egypt yesterday. No¸ they did not call from Egypt yesterday. No¸ they didn’t.

He wrote a long letter. Did he write a long letter Yes¸ he did. Yes¸ he wrote a long letter. No¸ he did not write a long letter. No¸ he didn’t.

Practise: Read the text and identify the verbs in the Past tense:


I awoke at two o'clock in the morning and heard weird noises coming from the animal room, scrunching sounds, interspersed with hissings and indignant sounds from Cuthbert. My first thought was that one of the larger anacondas had escaped and was making a meal off some of the other specimens. I shot out of my hammock and hastily lighted the tiny hurricane lamp, which I always kept by me at night for just emergencies. It gave little more light than an anemic glowworm, but it was better than nothing. Arming myself with a stick, I went into the animal room, I glanced round in the dim light and saw Cuthbert sitting on a tier of cages managing to look mentally defective and indignant at the same time.


Weird: strange, odd

To scrunch: to crush, to crunch

To intersperse: to scatter, to spread

To hiss: to make the sound /s/

Indignant: angry

Anaconda: large snake of tropical South America

Hastily: quickly, hurriedly

Hurricane: storm

Anemic: suffering from anemia (lack of enough blood)

Glowworm: a type of insect, the female of which produces a greenish light

To arm: to give arms (weapons) to

To glance: to take a quick look at

Dim: not bright

Tier: row, shelf

Mentally defective: mentally subnormal

Ask questions on the following sentences and give negative answers (use the verbs: to write –wrote-written; to leave –left-left; to take –took-taken; to be-was-been closed)

You were not polite. __________ ______ ____ ___________

She had a headache. __________ ______ ____ ___________

They wrote you. __________ ______ ____ ______________

The train left. __________ ______ ____ _________________

The plane took off. __________ ______ ____ _____________

The airport was closed. __________ ______ ____ __________

Give the past tense of the verbs in brackets¸ using the forms of the verbs on the list:

become – became – become – a deveni

begin – began- begun – a incepe

break – broke- broken – a sparge

bring – brought – brought – a aduce

build – built – built – a construi

burn – burned/burnt – burned/burnt

buy – bought – bought – a cumpara

catch – caught- caught – a prinde

cost- cost- cost- a costa

cut – cut – cut – a taia

like-liked-liked – a placea

I (become) ________an economist¸ as I (like) ________the field of economics. I (begin) _________by attending the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest. She (broke) ___________ the glasses and I (bring) ___________other glasses. Those glasses (cost) __________ a lot of money. Jerry (build) _________a network of stores in the city. One store (burn) _________down last year. He (buy) ____________ another place and (build) ___________another store. I (not catch) __________ the train to Bucharest. The train (leave) __________me on the platform¸ in the railway station. Sally (cut) ___________down some of the prices to sell her dresses¸ but the dresses are still in the store.

Past Continuous Tense (Timpul trecut – aspectul continuu)

Arata o actiune in desfasurare la un moment specificat de vorbitor in trecut;

Se formeaza cu auxiliarul TO BE la trecut - WAS/WERE + VERB + ING;

Exemplu : to bring – was/were bringing I was bringing./ You were bringing. to eat – was/were eating She was eating a sandwich./ We were eating pizza.

Trecutul Continuu arata o actiune in desfasurare in trecut¸ intrerupta de o alta actiune¸ tot in trecut (exprimata prin Trecutul Simplu):

I was drinking (Past Continuous) my coffee when the telephone rang (Past Simple).

You were sleeping when the film started.

She was talking when I interrupted her.

We were writing when the rain started.

Trecutul Continuu arata doua actiuni simultane in desfasurare in trecut.

I was drinking my coffee while you were dressing.

He was driving while he was talking on the telephone.

Sally was typing while I was arranging the papers.

He was walking while he was reading the newspaper.

Alte adverbe folosite cu Trecutul: WHILE – in timp ce (pentru actiuni simultane)

WHEN cand (un moment singularizat)

Formulati intrebari la urmatoarele propozitii:

Exemplu: He was reading a book. Was he reading a book?

She was writing a report. __________ ______ ____ _________________

He was sending an e-mail message. __________ ______ ____ ________

It was raining. __________ ______ ____ _____ _______ ______ ____________

We were dancing. __________ ______ ____ _____ _______ ______ _________

Sally was typing a letter. __________ ______ ____ __________________

I was driving home yesterday¸ around 5 o’clock.__________ ______ ____ __

She was calling me an hour ago. __________ ______ ____ ________________

I was sleeping around midnight.__________ ______ ____ ________________

Treceti verbele din paranteze la timpul trecut, apsectul continuu:

I (bring) ________________ the coffee when you came.

They (talk) _____ _______ ______ ______when you called.

Mary (dress) _____ _______ ______ ______ while I (watch) _________________the news on TV.

He (arrange ) __________________the papers when I saw him.

The workers (build) _____ _______ ______ ______a new store last spring.

The children (make) _____________ noise while I (listen) ______________to the news.

She (try) ________________ to read that book while we (talk) __________________.

Sally (call) __________________ her company yesterday¸ around 8.

The people (sell) ______________vegetables in the market last week.

The car (make) ________________ a strange noise while I (drive) __________ on Monday afternoon.

Larry (dream) _____________ of spending his holiday in Hawaii when I woke him up.

I (feel) __________________cold last night¸ when the rain started.

We (eat) _______________ when they brought more wine and beer.

Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:

Do you work here? Yes, I __________ ______ ____ ____________

Does she work here too? No, she __________ ______ ____ ___________

Do they want the contract?  Yes, they __________ ______ ____ __________

Does Harry have a good job? No, he __________ ______ ____ ____________

Do the children go to school? Yes, the children __________ ______ ____ ____

Do you like this? No, I __________ ______ ____ __________________

Are you coming home? Yes, I __________ ______ ____ _____________

Does your computer work well? Yes, it __________ ______ ____ __________

Is she calling now? No, she__________ ______ ____ _________________

Is it raining? Yes, it__________ ______ ____ __________________

Is she losing business? Yes, she__________ ______ ____ ________________

Were you at home yesterday? No, I __________ ______ ____ ____________

Was he working as a driver? Yes, he __________ ______ ____ ___________

Did you answer my questions? No, I__________ ______ ____ ____________

Was she at work last week? Yes, she__________ ______ ____ ____________

Did you have good grades? No, I __________ ______ ____ _______________

Are you good at Maths? Yes, I __________ ______ ____ ________________

Did he have an accident? No, he __________ ______ ____ _______________

Did the hurricane destroy the city? Yes, it __________ ______ ____ ________

Did he write to you? No, he __________ ______ ____ ___________________

Did she agree? No, she__________ ______ ____ _____ _______ ______ ________

further practice worksheet

Ask questions on the following sentences and give affirmative answers:

He had an accident. __________ ______ ____ __________.

They had a big farm. __________ ______ ____ _________.

My answers were better than yours. _____ _______ ______ _____________.

His car was better than my car. __________ ______ ____ _.

Your mother came here. __________ ______ ____ _______.

The children went to school. __________ ______ ____ ____

The hurricane destroyed the city.__________ ______ ____ _

Puneti verbele din paranteza la timpul corespunzator¸ prezent¸ prezent continuu¸ trecut¸ trecut continuu¸ identificand adverbele de frecventa care indica utilizarea timpului ales.

I (give up ) __________smoking long ago.

You (go) _______there tomorrow.

She (not let)_____________you drive her car next week.

We (not have)_______________ sufficient data for this report.

Yesterday¸ around 8 a.m.¸ I (watch)­­­­­­­­_____ _______ ______ ______ the news.

You (cut) ________________the grass two weeks ago.

I (talk) ___________________on the telephone now¸ keep quiet!

Johnny (not come) _________________for holiday this year.

The President (travel) ____________________to Denmark next week.

Two years ago¸ I (throw) __________________all those old papers.

We usually (spend) ____________ our summers working .

The sun (be) ___________ too hot for us to walk!

There (be) _____________no water around here!

My house (be) ____________ bigger than yours.

She (not finish) ______________ her work yesterday.

I (not tolerate) _____________such behaviour.

Last week¸ I (come) ____________ here and nobody (be) _______________ here.

You (call) ____________ me ten times yesterday.

Last night¸ the rain (be) ____________very heavy.

They (not come) ____________here tomorrow.

Two days ago¸ I (pay)____________ all my bills.

You (eat) __________now¸ you (talk) ____________to me later.

It (be) ____________very cold here in November.

You (do)___________ more for me than I (expect)____________ yesterday.

Mary (not let) ___________ you leave tomorrow.

The company (not start) ______________ business next month.

The computer programs (change) ______________ next year.

My mother-in-law (come)____________ surely next week.

The ships (be) ____________ ready by next month.

The goods (not be) ___________ shipped until October.

(Send) ____________ my best wishes to her.

We (not spend) ______________ Christmas in town.

They (not want) _____________ to come to Romania now.

I (buy)____________ some champagne from Pommery directly when I was there.

Who (want) ___________ to visit the old city centre?

She (sing) _____________like a bird.

We (not leave) _________________ for France next week.

It usually (not snow) ____________ in September in this region.

Anna (spend)________________ most of her time reading women’s magazines.

2. Speak about an important event in your past that marked your memory :

3. How do you see yourself in ten years’ time? Speak about your future personal and professional plans:

4. Write the verb in the brackets in the correct form, past simple or past continuous, in each gap. You may have to use the passive form.

When the explosion happened, hudreds of people_______________(pass) through the airport.

When I herard the phone ring, I ______________ (stop) writing to answer it.

Amy _______________(read), so she didn’t see me walking past.

I _______________ (have) piano lessons every week from the age of six onwards.

We decided to leave the beach because it _____________ (get) dark and we wanted to get home while there was still some light.

_____________ Jessica already _____________ (think) of leaving university before she failed her first exams?

Since the hotel had a pool, _____________ you _____________ (swim) every day?

The Industrial Revolution _____________ attract) many people from the country to the city.

The Hubble Space Telescope _____________ (put) into orbit around the Earth in 1990.

Sorry I couldn’t come on Friday, but I _____________ (work) on my project.

By the time we _____________ (arrive), the party was almost over.

The national park _____________ (create) to protect local wildlife.

Curs 14

Modul conditional (The Conditional Mood)



In Romanian

Present indefinite


I /we should write

You/He¸ she¸ it, we¸ you¸ they would write

Eu as scrie/noi am scrie

Tu ai scrie¸ el/ea ar scrie¸

Noi/voi/ei ar scrie

Present Continuous


I/We should be writing

You/He¸ she¸ it, we¸ you¸ they would be writing

Eu as scrie, tu ai scrie, voi ati scrie, ei ar scrie, .

Past Indefinite


I¸ we should have written

You/He¸ she¸ it, we¸ you¸ they would have written

Eu as fi scris¸ tu ai fi scris, ea ar fi scris, noi am fi scris, .

Past Continuous


I/ we should have been writing

You/He¸ she¸ it, we¸ you¸ they should have been writing

Eu as fi scris, tu ai fi scris, ea ar fi scris, noi am fi scris, .

Practise on these examples:

I should tell you about it. You would write this report if they asked you. She would call you but she doesn’t have the time. I should be lecturing at this hour. We should be talking to our partners now. They should have written to me. I should have been writing but I was so busy.

Translate into English.

As scrie foarte mult. __________ ______ ____ ___________________

Daca as fi in locul tau¸ as pleca de aici. __________ ______ ____ ____

El ar fi scris dar nu a avut timp. __________ ______ ____ __________

Noi am fi trimis mesajul¸ dar nu mergea internetul. _____ _______ ______ __________

Ti-as duce mancarea la birou. __________ ______ ____ ____________

Propozitiile conditionale – If-Clauses

Propozitia principala / Main Sentence

Propozitia conditionala/ Conditional Sentence

In limba romana

Tipul I

I will call you if you give me the phone number. (Viitor) (Prezent)

Te voi suna daca imi dai/imi vei da numarul de telefon.

Tipul II

I would call you if you gave me the phone number. 

(Conditional prezent/ Present Conditional) (Trecut/ Past Tense)

Te-as suna daca mi-ai da numarul de telefon.

Tipul III

INVERSION/ Inversiune

I would have called you if you had given me the number.

(Conditional perfect/ Perfect Conditional) (Mai-mult-ca-perfectul/ Past Perfect)

Te-as fi sunat daca mi-ai fi dat numarul de telefon.

Had you given me the phone number, I would have called you.

(Propozitia conditionala, Propozitia principala)

Daca mi-ai fi dat numarul de telefon, te-as fi sunat.

Will/Would dupa IF

I will call you if you will /would give me the number.

Te-as suna daca ai avea amabilitatea sa-mi dai numarul de telefon.


I don’t have the time to work on these papers! I will take a look at them if you give them to me. She can’t speak Italian. She would speak if she went to Italy for some time. We didn’t send the right documents! We would have sent the right documents if we had been more attentive. He never tells a lie! He will tell a lie if he has to. She had only good grades. She wouldn’t have had good grades if she hadn’t learned a lot.

Translate the sentences into English:

Voi veni daca ma vei invita. __________ ______ ____ __________________

El ar cumpara masina daca ar fi noua. __________ ______ ____ ___________

As fi raspuns daca as fi primit scrisoarea. __________ ______ ____ ________

Harry ar lucra aici daca ar avea salariu bun. __________ ______ ____ ______

Va trimitem documentele daca veti avea amabilitatea de a raspunde la scrisoare. __________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ ___________

Practise: Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate form:

Dear Angela,

Thanks for your letter, it was nice to hear from you. And yes, I would like to come and see you in Spain. If I (save) ____________ up enough money when the summer holidays start, I (try) ____________ and come then – if that (be) ____________ OK. Otherwise I’ll come over in the autumn because I’m sure I (save) ______________ up enough by October – if I (not lose) _______________ my job by then! Unfortunately lots f people in our company are being made redundant and it could be me next. If I (have) _____________ any sense, I (leave) _____________ this job ages ago. Still it could be worse I suppose.

I was delighted to hear about your promotion – it’s great news. If you (keep) ____________ on getting promoted you (run) _____________ the whole school soon.

And it sounds like the weather’s been really good over there. It’s been terrible here. I don’t think it’s been dry once this month. If it (be) ____________ dry, I (not notice) _______________. Oh well we’re hoping it will get better soon. if it still (rain) _____________ at the weekend, we (decide) _______________ we’ll try and emigrate. Have you heard from Chrlotte, by the way? She said she was going to phone you to tell ypu that she’s pregnant. If she (not phone) _______________ you up yet, (not tell) ______________ her that I’ve already told you her news, will you?

All the best,


Modul imperativ




In limba romana


Let me write!

Let us write! Let’s write!

Sa scriu! Sa scriem!




Scrie! Scrieti!


Let him/her write!

Let them write!

Sa scrie (el¸ea)! Sa scrie (ei)!

La modul imperativ verbele au forma scurta de infinitiv (fara particula to)

Exemple: to write – Write! (Scrie!)

to eat – Eat! (Mananca!)

to work – Work! (Lucreaza!)

to listen – Listen to me! (Asculta-ma!)

Practise on these examples:

She doesn’t want to stay. Let her go!

They want to read. Let them read!

I want to finish this report. Let me write!

We are ready with this work. Let us/Let’s go.

You are alone here. Go home!

I don’t want to wait here¸ let’s go!

You haven’t read. Tom, you read!

You take that piece and I’ll take this.

You mark my words! It’s a certainty.

Don’t you dare say I am lying!

Translate into English:

Sa plecam! __________ ______ ____ __

Sa plece acasa! _____ _______ ______ _______________

Sa-mi termin lucrarea. _____ _______ ______ _________

Ei sa termine! _____ _______ ______ _______________

Ea sa sune! __________ ______ ____ __

Translate into Romanian:

Let me tell you what I want. _____ _______ ______ _______

Let her go! __________ ______ ____ _____

Let them call! __________ ______ ____ ___

Get lost! __________ ______ ____ _______

Eat!__________ ______ ____ ___________

Go ! __________ ______ ____ ___________

Let us explain! __________ ______ ____ ___

Let’s run away from here. _____ _______ ______ __________

Let’s have dinner! __________ ______ ____

All-Tense Revision: Use the perfect tenses of the verbs in brackets!

Yesterday I (go) _________home at 4 o’clock. I (do )___________ some shopping on the way. When I (arrive) __________I (can not) ___________find my keys. I (look) ___________in my bag, pockets, but the keys (be)____________ not there. I (take) ____________a taxi and (return)____________ to the office. I (not leave) ____________the keys there. I (go) ____________back to the store where I (do) _____________my shopping. The lady (not see) _____________my keys. I (be) ____________very sad. I (return)____________ home. My keys (hang) _____________in the gate lock!

I (not plan) ____________anything for summer. They (call) ____________me back to work. If I make plans now, they (send) ___________ for me and I (spend)_____________ summer in the office as usual. I want to go to the mountains, to spend a week in peace and silence. I (make) _____________ reservations at a chalet and (take)____________ my family with me. We (have) ________________a wonderful week in the mountains.

I (study) ______________English for some time now and I feel the freedom of moving in this language. I (use) ______________the materials and the dictionary also. I understand that from now on I will manage to work alone. With the knowledge I (gain) _____________I will manage to understand the language, speak, read and write. By the end of this year, I (cover) ______________more materials. Before I (read) ___________-books and magazines, but I did not manage to speak or write properly. I (look) _____________-in the children’s books too, but I did not have the time to really study English. I (work) ______________for years now and the job (not give)______________ me much time to concentrate on the study of a foreign language. I hope that from now on, I’ll be able to handle English with more confidence and understanding.

Translate the following sentences into Romanian:

Let’s go out!

We can’t afford a trip to Spain.

You may take this.

Give me the password.

Show her the way out.

Stop talking! I must finish my work.

She would accept another proposal.

Call her and tell her what I said.

It is cold in the morning.

Will you have dinner with me?

Don’t do that!

There is a hot debate outside.

Some cities are very polluted.

You are getting on my nerves.

How old is this man?

You are my only fascination.

How much money do you have?

The car is at home.

I would like to have a company.

The accountant is furious.

Don’t talk too much.

The boss is out of town.

I was coming home when I saw her.

If you tell me a secret, I will not tell anybody.

I can’t speak French.

You owe me a large sum of money.

What is she like? How is she?


1. Talk about your job using the following words and phrases (add words of your own. Imagine you are:

an accountant.

to calculate; to write reports; to check figures; to keep accounts; to know all about money

a secretary.

to receive calls; to type documents; to make appointments; to receive people; to protect the boss, receive and send mails, announce, see to official documents, mediates connection between the manager and other departments.

a teacher.

to study; to write; to teach students; to teach (subject); to like the job; to find satisfaction; to be interested in books, improve, good attitude, promptness, constant attention, receptive to new things/situations, manage (possible) conflicts, encourage competition.

a manager.

to manage company affairs; to make things work; to supervise employees; to make profit; to make money, make good decisions, be up to date, stay in contact with providers/suppliers, draft business plans, prospect the market, close good deals.

a bodyguard

to protect, be alert all the time, sacrifice, money, be and keep fit, athletic figure, lose weight, not put on weight, gun, self-protection measures, accompany.

a clerk

desk, office, speak to people, fixed programme, different tasks, colleagues, public, overtime, office outfit.

2.1. Talk about your house using these words:

to have a house/an apartment; central area of town; out of town; quiet and peaceful; large house/apartment; utilities cost a lot; pay tax on property; cosy, kitchen; bedroom; living room; garage; swimming pool; comfortable, feel good at home.

2.2. Talk about your pet:

a dog, a cat, a parrot, iguana, rabbit, canary, snake, fish, guinea pig; special food; to like/to dislike pets; take pet to veterinarian; medication if sick; have puppies, kittens; special place in the house; children like pets; to clean a lot after them.

2.3.Talk about your professional evolution:

studies, education, skills, talent, start, first job, promotion, personal development, improvement, experience, qualifications, change jobs, recommendation, course.

2.4.Talk about a vacation:

location, transportation, accommodation, make reservations, journey, far away, close to home, abroad, exchange office, map, route, foreign language, noisy/ quiet location, seaside, mountain, desert, island, train/airplane/ boat/ bike/hike.


Principalele verbe neregulate

Infinitive/ Infinitivul

Past Tense/ Trecut

Past Participle/ Participiul trecut

Echivalent in limba romana

To arise



A se ridica

To awake

awoke¸ awaked*

awaken, awaked*

A se trezi

To be

was¸ were


A fi

To bear




A cara, a naste, a tolera

A purta

To beat



A bate, a invinge

To become



A deveni

To begin



A incepe

To bend



A indoi

To bind



A lega, a lipi, a obliga

To bite



A musca

To bleed



A sangera

To blow



A sufla

To break



A sparge, a rupe

To bring



A aduce

To build



A construi

To burn

burnt¸ burned*

burnt¸ burned*

A arde

To burst



A izbucni, a navali

To buy



A cumpara

To catch



A prinde

To choose



A alege

To come



A veni

To cost



A costa

To cut



A taia

To dare



A indrazni

To deal



A da¸ a se ocupa de

To dig



A sapa

To do



A face

To draw



A atrage, a desena

To dream

dreamt¸ dreamed*

dreamt¸ dreamed*

A visa

To drink



A bea

To drive



A mana¸ a conduce

To eat



A manca

To fall



A cadea

To feed



A hrani

To feel



A simti

To fight



A lupta

To find



A gasi

To fly



A zbura

To forbid



A interzice

To forget



A uita

To forgive



A ierta

To freeze



A ingheta

To get


got¸ gotten*

A primi, a lua, a procura

To give



A da

To go



A merge, a umbla

To grow



A creste, a cultiva

To have



A avea

To hear



A auzi

To hide



A ascunde

To hit



A lovi, a nimeri

To hold



A tine (in maini/ brate)

To hurt



A rani

To keep



A tine, a pastra

To know



A sti¸ a cunoaste

To lay



A pune, a aseza

To lead



A conduce

To learn

learned¸ learnt*

learned¸ learnt*

A invata

To leave



A pleca¸ a parasi

To lend



A da imprumut

To let



A lasa, a permite

To lie



A se afla¸ a zacea

To lose



A pierde

To make



A face

To mean



A insemna

To meet



A intalni

To pay



A plati

To put



A pune

To read



A citi

To rid



A scapa

To ride



A calari

To ring



A suna

To rise



A rasari

To run



A fugi

To say



A spune

To see



A vedea

To seek



A cauta

To sell



A vinde

To send



A trimite

To set



A pune, a aranja

To sew



A coase

To shake



A scutura

To shine



A straluci

To shoot



A impusca

To shut



A inchide

To sing



A canta

To sink



A (se) scufunda

To sit



A sedea

To sleep



A dormi

To slide



A aluneca

To smell



A mirosi

To speak



A vorbi

To speed



A grabi¸ a accelera

To spell



A ortografia

To spend



A cheltui

To split



A despica, a scinda

To spread



A (se) intinde

To spring



A izvori

To stand



A sta (in picioare)

To steal



A fura

To stick



A lipi, a infige

To stride



A merge cu pasi mari

To strike



A lovi

To strive



A se stradui

To swear



A jura

To sweep



A matura

To swell



A se umfla

To swim



A inota

To take



A lua

To teach



A preda, a invata

To tear



A rupe

To tell



A spune

To think



A gandi

To throw



A arunca

To understand



A intelege

To wake

woke¸ waked*

woken¸ waked*

A trezi

To wear



A purta

To win



A castiga

To write



A scrie

To wind



A rasuci

* American English forms




Like most offices, my office is a place where I can concentrate on my work and feel comfortable at the same time. Of course, I have all the necessary equipment on my desk. I have the telephone next to the fax machine on the right side of my desk. My computer is in the center of my desk with the monitor directly in front of me.

I have a comfortable office chair to sit on and some pictures of my family between the computer and the telephone. In order to help me read, I also have a lamp near my computer which I use in the evening if I work late. There is plenty of paper in one of the cabinet drawers.

There are also staples and a stapler, paper clips, highlighters, pens and erasers in the other drawer. In the room, there is a comfortable armchair and a sofa to sit on. I also have a low table in front of the sofa on which there are some industry magazines.


In a primitive society family and tribe provide all the education that the young receive, and are the only transmitters of culture. But when language characters develop and an alphabet and number system have reached a certain stage, formal teaching becomes necessary and schools are established for few important people who will become rulers and priests to add to the education given by family and tribe.

When society becomes modern and complex, school does not lose its supplementary character; for however wide its scope and curriculum, it still remains true that the family is the first educator and a life-long influence.


The nineteenth century experienced a sudden growth of cities, with populations ranging from 100.000 to 8 million. An important reason for this urbanization lies with the Industrial Revolution and the Agricultural Revolution. Due to the introduction of steam power, the number of factories increased rapidly. Since the use of steam power required large amounts of coal and iron, there was a great need for a labor force. Consequently, more and more workers came both to the factories and to the local fields. Hence, towns and cities developed round the new industries.


The man made agent of climatic change is the carbon dioxide (CO2) that pouring out of the world's chimneys in ever- increasing quantities since the industrial revolution began. And in the past few years scientists have began to suspect that there is a second man-made source of CO2 which may be as important as the burning of fossil fuels, namely the steady destruction of the world's great forests.

Computer studies have suggested that if the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere were to be twice that of today's, there would be a rise of between 20 C and 30 C in average temperature. The danger is that the more the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, the less sunlight escapes back into space. That is, some of the sunlight is trapped by CO2, which acts like the glass in a greenhouse, allowing sunshine and heat to pass in but not out again. Consequently, the temperature rises.


Stress is a factor in all our lives. Learning to deal with stress in a positive, intelligent way is essential to good health. One way to combat stress is to get rid of it in physical activities. Anything from jogging around the neighbourhood to an exercise on the dance floor can relieve stress and, surprisingly, give you more energy to come with life. Stress can also be controlled by changing your mental attitude. Learn to accept things; fighting against the unavoidable or the inevitable is useless. Learn to take one thing at a time. Rather than trying to do everything at once, deal with more important problems first, and leave the rest to another day. Learn to take your mind off yourself. Since stress is self- centered, doing something for others helps reduce it.


In strictly practical terms, schooling yields three rewards, and the amount of each reward increases in proportion to the amount of schooling.

First the individual who is well schooled stands the best chance of getting any job, other things being equal. Thus, the chance of unemployment is reduced.

Second, the individual with a good background is the one chosen for advancement and promotion, thus enabling him or her to earn more over the long run.

Third, because of rewards one and two, the educated individual has more personal freedom. Such a person will have more job opportunities from which to choose, is less threatened with unemployment, and can be freer economically because of his or her higher earning power. The decision in favor of further schooling needs to be encouraged if only for the above listed pragmatic reasons.


Sixty-eight year-old Mary Cooper leads a very difficult life in a block of flats in Dover. There is no central-heating installed in the flats, so in the winter Mrs. Cooper sits in front of her small electric fire in the kitchen. She goes to bed with her clothes on because she is too cold to take them off. She has to put old newspapers between her blankets to keep warm. Sometimes she isn't well enough to get up, so she stays in bed all day.


to lead a life: to live

central heating: heating system for buildings

to install: to put in, to fit

electric fire: a device that works by means of electricity and warms a room

blanket: a piece of thick cloth put on bed to keep us warm


David: How do you like living in the big city?
Maria: There are many things that are better than living in the country!

David: Can you give me some examples?
Maria: Well, it certainly is more interesting than the country. There is so much more to do and see!

David: Yes, but the city is more dangerous than the country.
Maria: That's true. People in the city aren't as open and friendly as those in the countryside.

David: I'm sure that the country is more relaxed, too!
Maria: Yes, the city is busier than the country. However, the country is much slower than the city.

David: I think that's a good thing!
Maria: Oh, I don't. The country is so slow and boring! It's much more boring than the city.

David: How about the cost of living? Is the country cheaper than the city?
Maria: Oh, yes. The city is more expensive than the country.

David: Life in the country is also much healthier than in the city.
Maria: Yes, it's cleaner and less dangerous in the country. But, the city is so much more exciting. It's faster, crazier and more fun than the country.

David: I think YOU are crazy for moving to the city.
Maria: Well, I'm young now. Maybe when I'm married and have children I'll move back to the country.

Applying for a Job

Read the following job advertisements:

1. Needed: Full time secretary position available. Applicants should have at least 2 years experience and be able to type 60 words a minute. No computer skills required. Apply in person at United Business Ltd., 17 Browning Street

2. Are you looking for a part time job? We require 3 part time shop assistants to work during the evening. No experience required, applicants should between 18 and 26. Call 366 - 76564 for more information.

3. Computer trained secretaries: Do you have experience working with computers? Would you like a full time position working in an exciting new company? If your answer is yes, give us a call at

4. Teacher Needed: Tommy's Kindergarten needs 2 teacher/trainers to help with classes from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Applicants should have appropriate licenses. For more information visit Tommy's Kindergarten in Leicester Square No. 56

5. Part Time work available: We are looking for retired adults who would like to work part time at the weekend. Responsibilities include answering the telephone and giving customer's information. For more information contact us by calling

6. University positions open: The University of Cumberland is looking for 4 teaching assistants to help with homework correction. Applicants should have a degree in one of the following: Political Science, Religion, Economics or History. Please contact the University of Cumberland for more information.


There is only one passion which satisfies man's need to unite himself with the world, and to acquire at the same time a sense of integrity and individuality, and this is love.

Love is union with somebody, or something, outside oneself, under the condition of keeping the separateness and integrity of one's own self. It is an experience of sharing, of communion, which permits the full opening of one's own inner activity.

The experience of love does away with the necessity of illusion. There is no need to inflate the image of the other person, or of myself, since the reality of active sharing and loving permits me to go beyond my individualized existence, and at the same time to experience myself as the bearer of the active powers which constitute the act of loving. What matters is the particular quality of loving not the object.


Passion: enthusiasm, excitement

To satisfy: to please

To unite: to join, to bring together

To acquire: to get, to obtain

Integrity: honor, honesty, reliability

Separateness: being apart

Communion: unity, relationship.

To permit: to allow

Illusion: false idea or belief

To Inflate: to increase

Image: impression

Existence: survival

Bearer: owner, possessor'

Inner: Inside

To constitute: to form, to make up

To do away with: to get rid of, to dispose of

'John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address' - 1961 –

by John F. Kennedy

We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom . symbolizing an end as well as a beginning. . .signifying renewal as well as change for I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forbears prescribed nearly a century and three-quarters ago.

The world is very different now, for man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forbears fought are still at issue around the globe . the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of God. We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution.

Let the word go forth from this time and place . to friend and foe alike . that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans . born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage . and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today . at home and around the world.

Let every nation know . whether it wishes us well or ill . that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to assure the survival and the success of liberty. This much we pledge . and more

In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger; I do not shrink from this responsibility . I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it . and the glow from that fire can truly light the world

And so, my fellow Americans . ask not what your country can do for you . ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world . ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the Freedom of Man.

Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds; let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.


abolish: to eliminate

assure: to make sure of something

bear any burden: to make any sacrifice

conscience: a person's feeling of right and wrong

dare: to try something difficult

deeds: actions

devotion: commitment to something

disciplined by a hard and bitter peace: made strong by the cold war

endeavor: attempt to do something

exchange places: to trade positions with someone

faith: belief in something, often religion

fellow citizens: people from the same country

foe: enemy

forbears: ancestors

glow: shine of light

go forth: to enter the world

granted: given the opportunity

heirs: people who inherit something

observe: to watch

oppose any foe: confront any enemy

pledge: to promise

proud of our ancient heritage: proud of our past

sacrifice: to give up something

solemn oath: serious promise

sworn: promised

tempered by war: made strong by war

torch has been passed: responsibilities given to the younger generation

undoing: destruction of something made

wishes us well or ill: wants good or bad for us


When Gustave Eiffel was commissioned to build his tower in Paris, no one, least of all, he thought it would still be standing a century later. The tower had been intended as the crowning glory of the 1889 Paris Exhibition, but the Parisians became so attached to it that no one had the heart to take it down. So there it stayed and soon it became the city's most famous landmark.


to commission: to hire

crowning: greatest

to intend: to aim, to plan

glory: beauty

exhibition: display, show

to be attached to: to be fond of, to care about

to have the heart to do something: to dare

landmark: familiar sign, attraction


Several British papers are printed on recycled paper, and salvaged paper has long been used for making cardboard boxes. The technology involved in this is fairly simple, but some interesting new processes have been developed recently. Paper can be eaten; it is softened and sweetened in a special machine and than fed to cows. In fact, it has been found that cows fed on cardboard boxes give particularly creamy milk. Unfortunately the human stomach differs from a cow's> so it seems unlikely that we shall ever be able to read the Times at breakfast one day and eat it for breakfast the next day, but stranger things are possible.


Recycled: Second hand, used

Salvaged: Saved, recovered

To involve: To concern

Process: Methods, practice

To soften: To make softer

To sweeten: To make sweeter

To differ: To be different


On April 14, many of the sleeping passengers were awakened by a slight jolt. The ship had struck an iceberg, causing a 300- foot cut in her side, and five compartments were flooded. 'Unsinkable', however, meant the ship could float if two, not five compartments were flooded with water. Ten miles away from the Titanic was another ship, the Californian, which had stopped because of ice fields and which had wired six explicit warnings to nearby ships. Unfortunately, the Titanic's wireless, a new invention on shipboard, was being employed for insignificant messages to and from the passengers. The tired wireless operator had worked long hours and impatiently told the Californian's operator to shut up and stop annoying him.


Slight: Unimportant, trivial

Jolt: Bump, shake

To float: .To drift on water

To strike: To hit

To annoy: To upset, to irritate

To wire: To telegraph

Impatiently: Intolerantly

Explicit: Open, clear

Iceberg: -Mass of ice moving in the sea

Wireless: Radio To be awakened:

To wake up, to get up

To flood: To cover with water, to inundate Insignificant:

Not important, irrelevant, minor


Luckily I don't live in Bath but nearly ten miles away in a village called Limpley Stroke in the Avon Valley.

It seems to be normal in the countryside these days for professional people who work in the town to prefer to live in the villages; this makes the housing so expensive that the villagers and agricultural workers have to live in the cheaper accommodation in town, with the result that the farmers commute out to the farm and everyone else commutes in.

Certainly there is no one in the village who could be called an old style villager. The people nearest to me include a pilot, an accountant, a British Rail manager, a retired French teacher not a farm worker amongst them. But I don't think there is anything wrong with that - it is just that the nature of villages is changing and there is still quite a strong sense of community here.


Countryside: Rural area

Accommodation: Housing, lodging .

To commute: To travel

To retire: To give up work, to stop working

Nature; Characteristics

Community: Condition of sharing; all the people living in an aread


Lack of tolerance is an important problem of our age. People have been so intolerant of each other that even trivial matters may spark serious arguments.

Living conditions can be said to compel people to spend most of their time concentrating on their business or their personal affairs. This may deprive people of exchanging their ideas with others or trying to understand different people. However, it doesn't seem impossible to form a tolerant society. The thing we should do first is to take up social activities to require that we share more with other people.


Tolerance: Patience

Intolerant: Impatient

Trivial: Insignificant

Age: Era, epoch

To spark: To start, to kindle

To compel: To force

To share: To go halves, to portion

To exchange: To swap

To deprive: To take away, to deny

To take up: To begin

To require: To necessitate, to involve


The deterioration of the earth's environment is the result of the impact of each individual on the environment multiplied by the number of individuals.

Suppose you could choose any lifestyle you wished, you could, for example, choose to be a Buddhist monk or nun of certain sects. You would be forbidden to have money and you should be pious. You could own your begging bowl, a razor, a needle and thread, and that is all, your presence on earth would cause very little deterioration of the environment.

On the other hand, you could choose to be an American millionaire. You might own several polluting factories and have a half dozen children-all eventually with their own houses, cars, and polluting factories. It is obvious that then, they would contribute much more to environmental deterioration than the Buddhist monk or nun.

Deterioration: Worsening, decline

Monk: Priest

Impact: Effect, shock, blow

Nun: Holly woman

To forbid: To ban, to prohibit

Sect: Cult

To contribute : To add to

Pious: Religious

Eventually: Finally

To beg: To ask

To multiply: To increase, to reproduce


Letter of Intent (Scrisoare de intentie)

Dear Ms. Smith:

My name is Robin Shreeves and I'm a senior at Florida State Univeristy, majoring in physics. I've made the Dean's List every semester, and I'm writing to express my interest in your graduate physics program at the University of Texas

I learned about the University of Texas graduate physics program in Physics Today magazine. When I saw what you did to revolutionize our understanding of magnetism, I dug deeper to learn more about what the program offers. The cutting edge research behind your program, combined with some of the greatest minds in physics as professors, make the Univeristy of Texas physics program a phenomenal place to expand my knowledge.

I would like to discuss this program with you over the phone.My phone number is 555-5555, and my email address is student@letterofintent.com. 


Robin Shreeves

Recommendation Letter (Scrisoare de recomandare)

November 25, 2006

Mr. Roberto Villas
Manager, Marketing Services
Allied Industries Inc.
110 Riverbend Drive, Suite 1550
Stamford, CT 06907

Dear Mr. Villas:

This is in response to your recent request for a letter of recommendation for Maria Fuentas who worked for me up until two years ago.

Maria Fuentas worked under my direct supervision at Johnson Technologies for a period of six years ending in October 2003. During that period, I had the great pleasure of seeing her blossom from a junior marketing trainee at the beginning, into a fully functioning Marketing, Program Co-Ordinator, in her final two years with the company. That was the last position she held before moving on to a better career opportunity elsewhere.

Maria is a hard-working self-starter who invariably understands exactly what a project is all about from the outset, and how to get it done quickly and effectively. During her two years in the Marketing Co-Ordinator position, I cannot remember an instance in which she missed a major deadline. She often brought projects in below budget, and a few were even completed ahead of schedule.

Ms. Fuentas is a resourceful, creative, and solution-oriented person who was frequently able to come up with new and innovative approaches to her assigned projects. She functioned well as a team leader when required, and she also worked effectively as a team member under the direction of other team leaders.

On the interpersonal side, Maria has superior written and verbal communication skills. She gets along extremely well with staff under her supervision, as well as colleagues at her own level. She is highly respected, as both a person and a professional, by colleagues, employees, suppliers, and customers alike.

Two years ago, when Ms. Fuentas announced her resignation to take up a new position with a larger company, we were saddened to see her leave, although we wished her the greatest success in her new undertaking. Even now, two years after her departure, I can state that her presence, both as a person and as an exemplary employee, is still missed here.

In closing, as detailed above, based on my experience working with her, I can unreservedly recommend Maria Fuentas to you for any intermediate or senior marketing position. If you would like further elaboration, feel free to call me at (416) 765-4497.

Robert Christenson
Director, Marketing and Sales


To: Andy Andler, Benita Buchanan, Charles Chavez

CC: Darcy Danko

From: Heady the Head Honcho

Date: June 1, 2006

Re: Need for New Memo Format

I’ve noticed that we don’t seem to be able to communicate important changes, requirements and progress reports throughout the company as effectively as we should. I propose developing one consistent memo format, recognizable by all staff as the official means of communicating company directives.

While I know this seems like a simple solution, I believe it will cut down on needless e-mail, improve universal communication and allow the staff to save necessary information for later referral.

Please talk among yourselves to determine the proper points of memo writing and return the input to me by 12 noon. I will then send out a notice to the entire staff regarding the new memo format.

Thank you for your prompt attention to this.

Preparing Your CV (Curriculum Vitae)

Typical vita categories or headings may include some or all of the following:

  • Personal/Contact Information

--phone number(s)

  • Academic Background

--postgraduate work
--graduate work/degree(s), major/minors, thesis/dissertation titles, honors
--undergraduate degree(s), majors/minors, honors

  • Professional Licenses/Certifications
  • Academic/Teaching Experience

--courses taught, courses introduced
--innovation in teaching
--teaching evaluations

  • Technical and Specialized Skills
  • Related/Other Experience

--other work experience

  • Professional/Academic Honors and Awards
  • Professional Development

--conferences/workshops attended, other activities

  • Research/Scholarly Activities

--journal articles
--conference proceedings
--chapters in books
--magazine articles
--papers presented/workshops
--ezine articles
--work currently under submission
--work in progress

  • Grants
  • Service


  • Academic/Research Interests
  • Affiliations/Memberships
  • Foreign Language Abilities/Skills
  • Consulting
  • Volunteer Work
  • References


Bantas, Andrei – Don’t Worry, English is Friendly, Editura Teora, Bucuresti, 1993

Eckersley, C.E. – Essential English for Foreign Students, New Edition, Vol 1 -4, Editura Vox, Bucuresti, 1998

Evans, VirginiaRound-Up 6. English Grammar Book, Longman, 2004

Gruia, George – English Grammar and Lexical Exercises, Second Edition, Editura Grupus, f.l., f.a.

Mann, Malcolm; Taylore-Knowles, Steve – Destination B2.Grammar and Vocabulary, Macmillan, 2008

McCarthy, Michael; O’Dell, Felicity – English Vocabulary in Use, Cambridge University Press, 1999

Muphy, Raymond – Essential Grammar in Use, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, 2006

Paidos, Constantin – English Grammar. Theory and Practice, vol. 1, 2, Editura Polirom, Iasi, 2001

Rusu, Liliana; Stancu, Victorita – Efficiency in Business English, Editura Sylvi, Bcuresti, 1999

Pawlowska, Barbara; Kempinski, Zbigniew – Teste de limba engleza (English for Examinations), Traducere de Narcisa Grecu, Editura Teora, Bucuresti, 1999

Purland, Matt – Big Activity Book. Worksheets for English Lessons, Level 1, 2004 (for further practice log onto www.englishbanana.com)

Thomas, B.J. – Advanced Vocabulary & Idiom, New Edition, Longman, 2007

Walker, Elaine; Elsworth, Steve – Grammar Practice, New Edition, Longman, 2006

Wyatt, Rawdon – Test Your Vocabulary for FCE, Penguin English, Pearson Education Limited, 2007

Zdrenghea, Mihai M.; Greere, Anca – A Practical English Grammar, Editura Clusium, Cluj-Napoca, 1999

Online resources:
















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