Home - Rasfoiesc.com
Educatie Sanatate Inginerie Business Familie Hobby Legal
Doar rabdarea si perseverenta in invatare aduce rezultate bune.stiinta, numere naturale, teoreme, multimi, calcule, ecuatii, sisteme




Biologie Chimie Didactica Fizica Geografie Informatica
Istorie Literatura Matematica Psihologie

Psihologie


Index » educatie » Psihologie
» Conferinta Internationala de Psihoterapii de Familie 'Familia Intre Constrangere Si Alegere' - Volumul rezumatelor


Conferinta Internationala de Psihoterapii de Familie 'Familia Intre Constrangere Si Alegere' - Volumul rezumatelor




Conferinta Internationala de Psihoterapii de Familie

'Familia Intre Constrangere Si Alegere'

Volumul rezumatelor

I.        COMUNICARI IN PLEN




Terapia de familie si promovarea rezilientei la copii

prof.univ.dr. Nicolae Mitrofan

Universitatea din Bucuresti

Rezumat

Rezilienta este, de fapt, un construct nou, exprimat in limba engleza prin cuvantul resilience, care are mai multe intelesuri. Acest cuvant este intraductibil in mai multe limbi, inclusiv in limba romana. De aceea, noi propunem sa fie folosit conceptul de rezilienta, copilul putand fi rezilient sau non-rezilient. Edith Grotberg defineste astfel rezilienta: „capacitate universala care permite unei persoane, grup sau comunitate de a preveni, minimiza sau invinge efectele daunatoare ale adversitatii”.Conceptul nu este, desigur, complet nou insa definirea lui exacta ramane, in continuare, o problema. In toata lumea copiii trebuie sa faca fata unor situatii deosebite. Unii se confrunta cu stresul privind unele necazuri personale si familiale (exemplu, divortul, abuzul, boala etc.), altii cu stresul privind unele catastrofe (de exemplu: razboi, seceta, saracie, inundatii etc.). In ce masura aceste situatii „strivesc” sau, dimpotriva, intaresc copiii, depinde de rezilienta lor. Copilul rezilient depaseste si invinge trauma, in timp ce copilul non-rezilient este invins de trauma (adversitate). Desigur, un rol deosebit revine adultului (parinti sau cei ce-i au in grija). Acesta, prin conduita lui, poate promova rezilienta sau, dimpotriva, o poate inhiba si chiar distruge. Si, de aici, nevoia de formare a parintilor pentru a indeplini unele sarcini terapeutice ! Pentru a invinge adversitatile, copiii apeleaza la 3 surse principale, numite EU AM, EU SUNT, EU POT. Fiecare dintre ele poate fi detaliata. EU AM: - persoane in jurul meu in care am incredere si care ma iubesc; - persoane care imi arata cum sa fac bine anumite lucruri etc.; EU SUNT: - o persoana pe care oamenii pot sa o placa si sa o iubeasca; - respectuos fata de mine si fata de altii etc.; EU POT: - sa vorbesc altora despre lucruri care ma ingrozesc sau ma supara; - sa ma controlez cand simt ca nu fac ceva bine sau fac ceva periculos etc. Pentru ca un copil sa fie rezilient nu este necesar ca el sa aiba nevoie de toate aceste caracteristici dar numai una nu este suficienta. Un copil poate fi iubit (EU AM) dar daca el nu are nici o putere interna (EU SUNT) sau nu are deprinderi sociale, interpersonale (EU POT), atunci nu poate fi vorba de rezilienta. Rezilienta este o capacitate umana de baza care se poate forma la toti copiii. Parintii si alte persoane care au grija fata de copii pot promova rezilienta prin cuvinte, actiuni si prin situatii aparute sau create. Adultii, care in mod real promoveaza rezilienta au grija, in primul rand, sa faca suportul familial si institutional disponibil pentru copii. Ei ii incurajeaza sa devina din ce in ce mai autonomi, independenti, responsabili, empatici, altruisti si sa abordeze persoanele si situatiile cu speranta, credinta si incredere. Ei trebuie sa ii invete cum sa comunice cu altii, cum sa rezolve probleme si cum sa se descurce cu gandurile, sentimentele si conduitele negative.

Investigarea psihosociala a unui lot de familii din mediul urban: de la situatii dilematice actuale la conflicte de rol

prof.univ.dr. Ruxandra Rascanu

Lucrarea cuprinde in studiu100 familii din mediul urban. Subiectii au fost rugati sa-si evalueze retroactiv stilul de viata, 24% inregistrand un stil armonios bun, 24/ cu competitii inutile si controverse, 16% cu disfunctii, 14% consolidat in timp, 12% cu satisfactii materiale, 10% cu neimpliniri morale, materiale. Au evaluat de asemenea modul de apreciere al societatii fata de eforturile de perfectionare ale membrilor familiilor investigate. 25% promisiuni considerate nerealizabile, 20% subiectii considera ca efortul nu este apreciat, 20% apreciate concret, 15% apreciere insuficienta sau sporadica, 12% lipsa aprecierii – prezenta optimismului. Comparand familiile din Romania cu cele din occident in ceea ce priveste aspiratiile fata de performantele materiale si spirituale ale familiilor investigate, in romania observam ca: Prezenta aspiratiilor 20% - 25%; absenta aspiratiilor fata de realizari 25%-20%; posibile realizari materiale si spirituale 40%-40%.

Investigarea psihosociala a familiei a fost si va ramane o tentatie permanenta a specialistilor de oriunde, mai ales in conditiile actuale cand problematizarea statusurilor si rolurilor capata o coloratura speciala.

Lucrarea noastra face parte dintr-un set complex de investigare atat a adolescentilor cat si a cuplurilor din mediul urban romanesc pe care dorim sa o extindem aprofundand o serie de itemi.

Fenomene de etichetare, marginalizare, autoexcludere, excludere, deresponsabilizare, sunt atitudini prezente in societatea contemporana. Psihologii si sociologii vor discuta si decodifica fenomenologia din ce in ce mai complexa a microgrupului familial pentru beneficiul acestuia, al tinerilor si al societatii viitoare.

Raportul intre expectatii si performante in plan material si spiritual ca si balanta valoare/dorinta sunt indisolubil legate de sisteme bazale ale structurarii familiei precum: intelegere, armonie, iubire, concesii, compromisuri, aventuri, sperante etc.

Situatiile dilematice percepute si traite de cuplurile investigate se refera atat la problematica lor interna de cuplu, dar si de tentatiile de supravietuire, de toleranta necesara, de deschiderea spre oportunitati de schimbare si, mai ales , de aplanare a conflictelor de rol existente atat in familiile cu venituri scazute, cu venituri mari, cat si cu venituri medii.

Factori cognitivi in dinamica de cuplu

conf. univ.dr. Daniel David

Universitatea „Babes-Bolyai”

Rezumat

Lucrarea examineaza modelele cognitive presupuse a avea un rol fundamental in dinamica de cuplu. O analiza comprehensiva a literaturii de specialitate scoate in evidenta punctele tari si slabe ale fiecarui model examinat. In final se propune un model integrativ sustinut de datele existente in literatura de specialitate

Diviziunea rolurilor in familia contemporana

Prof. univ. dr. Floare Chipea, asist. univ. drd. Lavinia Onica –Chipea

Universitatea din Oradea

Rezumat

Tema trateaza influenta transformarilor sociale concretizate in progresul in tehnologie, atragerea femeii in activitati extrafamiliale si schimbarea normelor sociale in sensul promovarii individualismului asupra exercitarii rolurilor in familie. Diferentele intre comportamentele familiale inregistrate in societatea romaneasca (tendinte de scadere a ratelor nuptialitatii, a fertilitatii, de crestere a divortialitatii si infractionalitatii, dar mai temperate decat cele care caracterizeaza societatile dezvoltate) sunt explicate prin ritmurile mai scazute de dezvoltare economica, prin normele culturale care protejeaza sistemul familial si chiar prin politicile publice adoptate in domeniul familiei.

Influenta mediului familial asupra performantelor cognitive si expresive ale copiilor prescolari

prof. univ. dr. Elena Bonchis

Universitatea din Oradea - Profesor

Rezumat

Problema rolului ereditatii vs. mediului in determinarea cursul dezvoltarii umane nu este deloc noua, ci dimpotriva am putea spune ca este mai veche decat psihologia insasi. Aceasta controversa, care a generat discutii aprinse este astazi dupa cum spune A. Birch (1999) „mai vie ca niciodata”, ea nu se mai plaseaza insa, la nivelul „ori – ori” ci mai degraba la cel al ponderii unuia din factori, intrucat ereditatea si mediul nu actioneaza divergent ci dimpotriva reciproc si convergent. Prin urmare se ridica intrebarea „cat de mult influenteaza ereditatea vs. mediul dezvoltarea copiilor?”. Numeroasele studii intreprinse pe aceasta tema releva rolul deosebit al mediului, indeosebi cel familial, asupra intregii dezvoltari umane. Din aceasta perspectiva, abordeaza lucrarea noastra diferentele existente intre copiii prescolari, la nivelul performantelor cognitive, exprimate in rezolvarea probelor piagetiene de conservare si al celor expresive, evidentiate in „desenul vaporului”.

II. COPILUL SI ADOLESCENTUL IN TERAPIA DE FAMILIE

Copiii salvatori!

Psiholog drd. MD, Elena Anghel,    Psihoterapeut SPER

Rezumat

Copilul este un simptom al intregului context familial. De cele mai multe ori dezechilibrele lor emotionale sau tulburarile comportamentale semnaleaza faptul ca se intampla ceva cu parintii lor. Cand acestia din urma decid sa-si aduca copilul la terapeut, se aduc, de fapt, pe ei insisi. Fin observator al dinamicii relationale de cuplu, copilul le spune indirect, prin comportamentul sau, ca diada parentala nu mai functioneaza intr-un echilibru adaptativ. De aceea, el isi aduce parintii la consiliere sau psihoterapie. Valentele diagnosticului de tip experiential, eficacitatea tehnicilor de tip artterapeutic si psihodramatic integrate intr-o terapie de familie bine inchegata, faciliteaza atat imbunatatirea starii de bine a fiecarui membru al familiei cat si restabilirea unui nou echilibru functional al intregului sistem familial. Asadar, psihoterapia copilului, este, de cele mai multe ori, integrata in sfera psihoterapiei de familie.

De ce terapie de familie ? De ce o terapie in etape ?

Login Dorina

psiholog clinician dr. Spital Judetean Deva

Rezumat

Interesul pentru terapiile de familie a fost generat de observatiile realizate pe parcursul practicii profesionale in calitate de psiholog clinician. Cazurile tratate au generat si au confirmat o serie de ipoteze cu referire la contributia sistemului familial in declansarea, mentinerea, agravarea simptomelor, pe de o parte, si in ameliorarea, disparitia si preventia lor pe de alta parte.

Modificarile pozitive eficiente si durabile in plan comportamental-emotional sunt conditionate de participarea si colaborarea familiei. Interventia psihologica la nivelul familiei consolideaza achizitiile pozitive si diminueaza frecventa si intensitatea recaderilor. Ca urmare, in abordarea terapeutica a copilului si adolescentului, mai mult decat la adult, am considerat utila extinderea interventiei de la nivel individual la nivelul grupului familial.

Terapia de familie in etape (utilizata cu succes in tarile vest-europene dupa 1980, intr-o problematica larga) s-a dovedit a fi o modalitate eficienta de abordare a problemelor copilului si adolescentului. Este o abordare integrativa bazata pe un model multicauzal, focalizata pe grupul familial.. Caracterizata prin flexibilitate, utilizeaza intr-un mod creativ elemente si tehnici specifice diferitelor abordari terapeutice (comportamentale, sistemice, experentiale). Caracteristica principala, asa cum o arata si numele, este reprezentata de fixarea si atingerea unor scopuri succesive specifice fiecarei etape, fara a fi insa obligatorie parcurgerea tuturor etapelor. Familia aflata in terapie este cea care alege oprirea terapiei sau participarea in etapa urmatoare, alegerea fiind facuta la incheierea fiecarei etape. Continuarea terapiei la un alt nivel, dupa rezolvarea punctuala a simptomului sau a crizei care a constituit obiectul solicitarii interventiei, reduce considerabil riscul recaderilor, a preluarii de catre copil si a transmiterii intergenerationale a modelului familial disfunctional. Ideea de baza este a ceea ca terapia nu reprezinta doar o rezolvare punctuala a unor probleme ci reprezinta o oportunitate de crestere, de dezvoltare personala. Continuarea terapiei intr-o etapa ulterioara este benefica si economica pentru ca beneficiaza de relatia deja stabilita cu terapeutul si de”antrenamentul” familiei. Beneficiile inregistrate, imediate si pe termen lung, cresc starea de bine la nivelul familiei si al fiecarei membru al ei si au un efect preventiv.

Comunicarea, folosindu-se de analiza de caz si de datele oferite de un studiu longitudinal, subliniaza particularitatile si eficienta metodei.

Este bataia rupta din Rai?!

Asist. univ. Laura Elena NASTASA

Prep. univ. Laura Teodora DAVID

Universitatea Transilvania Brasov

Motto: „Copiii nostri ne ofera ocazia de a deveni parintii asa cum ne-am dorit mereu sa fim.”

(L. Hart)

Rezumat

Lucrarea de fata isi propune sa dezvaluie perceptia copiilor despre abuzul parintilor asupra lor.

Ipoteza generala: In procesul de sensibilizare a opiniei publice privind abuzul minorilor de catre parinti, copiii pot fi parteneri eficienti deoarece sunt capabili sa-si apere drepturile prin diverse mijloace: informare, solutionarea problemelor si adoptarea de atitudini empatice sau asertive in functie de necesitati.

Au fost implicate doua grupe de cate 15 elevi cu varsta cuprinsa intre 12 si 14 ani. Acestia au fost informati despre modul de desfasurare al consilierii de grup, precum si despre faptul ca parerea lor e importanta.

Metodele provocative folosite au determinat o atmosfera placuta si stimulativa care le-a permis elevilor o exprimare directa si spontana a propriilor idei si sentimentele. Activitatea a fost structurata pe trei etape:

  1. Evidentierea nivelului de cunostinte al elevilor privind abuzul parintilor asupra copiilor prin exercitii de intercunoastere, reflectii personale asupra unui spot publicitar privind abuzul si „Da drumul alunelor”.
  2. Completarea informatilor si generarea de solutii realizand un reportaj despre copiii abuzati si exercitiile „Balonul zburator” si „Bulele de dialog”.
  3. Participarea elevilor la apararea propriilor drepturi in cadrul unui joc de rol cu tema „Procesul unui abuz”.

Rezultatele indica faptul ca, in general, copiii au cunostinte despre violenta in familie pe care le obtin din mass-media dar si de la prieteni, parinti, rude, profesori, psihologi. Ei manifesta interes si depun efort atunci cand sunt stimulati de propria curiozitate, de alte persoane sau de realitate.

Ar putea realiza ei insisi spoturi publicitare folosind mesaje consistente, care ar avea impact: „Adulti, nu stiti ce-i durerea unui copil batut!” sau „Cand bati un copil este ca si cand ai rupe o floare pe cale de disparitie!”.

Copiii pot sa-si ofere un mediu sigur si deschis in care sa se manifeste, dar si unul competitiv care sa-i stimuleze. Manifesta tenacitate in atingerea scopurilor dorite, creativitate si spontaneitate in adaptarea la realitatile vietii.

Jocurile de rol au avut ca scop punerea elevilor, pe rand in locul copilului abuzat, apoi al prietenului acestuia. Primul rol ales a fost cel al copilului abuzat pentru ca ei sa descopere din interior sentimentele si emotiile incercate de el. Aceasta experienta i-a ajutat in rolul suportiv al unui bun prieten si la generarea celor mai adecvate solutii. Totul a culminat cu cele mai grele roluri, acelea din cadrul procesului in care au trecut prin diferite stari sufletesti, uneori chiar contradictorii, dar din care au iesit invingatori cu totii

Copilul victima a violentei in familie

drd. Zaharia Mirela Lacramioara

Universitatea Bucuresti

Rezumat

cadru intim si privat, acte de agresiune grave sau cronice, divergenta intre actiune si cuvinte, intre atitudine si conduita, functii parentale neindeplinite, impact psihosocial puternic, rezonanta in timp, traume

Ce este violenta? Ce impact are asupra minorilor? Putem vindeca?

O definitie larg raspandita a ”violentei domestice” este aceea formulata de Stark si Flitcraft: violenta domestica este o amenintare sau provocare petrecuta in prezent sau in trecut, a unei raniri fizice in cadrul relatiei dintre partenerii sociali, indiferent de statutul lor legal sau de domiciliu. Atacul fizic sau sexual poate fi insotit de intimidari sau abuzuri verbale, distrugerea bunurilor care apartin victimei; izolarea de prieteni, familie sau alte potentiale surse de sprijin, amenintari facute la adresa altor persoane semnificative pentru victima, inclusiv a copiilor; furturi; controlul asupra banilor, lucrurilor personale ale victimei, alimentelor, deplasarilor, telefonului si a altor surse de sprijin si protectie.

In ultima perioada s-a putut observa o transformare in ceea ce priveste valorile familiale, precum si a calitatii relatiilor interfamiliale, acestea fiind determinate de interactiunea unor varietati de factori pozitivi si negativi, care se manifesta la nivelul societatii, individului si familiei, fapt ce induce aparitia comportamentelor de violenta.

Varsta ridicata in momentul incheierii casatoriei, aparitia tarzie a primului nascut, participarea femeii la viata productiva, a numarului de copii din afara casatoriei, cresterea numarului de divorturi etc. au determinat numeroase mutatii, in ceea ce priveste „conceptul de familie”, schimbari ce au determinat si conflicte cu descarcari agresive si de violenta (Paunescu, 1994).

Familia este primul intermediar in relatiile sociale si constituie matricea care imprima cele mai importante trasaturi caracteriale si morale asupra minorului. In formarea si socializarea minorului, familia este cadrul fundamental in care sunt satisfacute nevoile sociale si psihologice si in care sunt parcurse etapele intregului sau ciclu de crestere si dezvoltare.

Specialistii preocupati de acest fenomen considera ca pentru formarea identitatii personale, un rol important il are influenta modelului cultural al societatii, care se suprapune modelelor exercitate de catre familie, realizandu-se astfel o imbinare intre dezvoltarea biopsihologica, sociala si culturala.

Intr-un cadru familial deficitar si nesecurizant, pe fondul saraciei si al consumului de bauturi alcoolice pot aparea comportamente agresive, care sunt tolerate de victima, aceasta din urma acceptand violenta ca mod de reglare a conflictelor interpersonale. Totusi, nesurprinse in faza incipienta, comportamentele agresive pot evolua spre fapte penale grave, cu consecinte nefaste.

Conflictele intrafamiliale care ating o cota ridicata de manifestare, devin un factor de producere si raspandire a agresivitatii, cu consecinte nocive asupra dezvoltarii psihice si fizice a copilului. Atunci cand copilul asista la acte agresive, la violenta fizica, la injurii, in structura sa afectiva se declanseaza, indirect, un comportament agresiv, cu efecte fie in perioada adolescentei, fie la varsta adulta. Cercetarile arata ca trauma copiilor care nu sunt victime directe ale violentei este mai intensa, cu consecinte mai profunde si mai de durata decat a celor care sunt victime directe ale abuzurilor si neglijarii din partea parintilor (Catheline, Mercelli, 1999)

O alta forma de manifestare a agresivitatii in mediul familial, este abandonul – agresivitate prin demisie.

Copilul abandonat sufera de insecuritate afectiva si este supus unei tulburari morale caracteristice, si anume dezorientarea moral-sociala.

Brutalitatea fizica sau verbala are efecte dezastruoase in formarea personalitatii minorului, prin inducerea sentimentului de inferioritate si devalorizare a eului (Paunescu, 1994). Analiza (Liiceanu, 2003) cazurilor de abuz si neglijare comportamentala a evidentiat faptul ca violenta este o cauza a relationarii deficitare dintre membrii familiei.

Stilul parental indiferent

si efectele sale asupra dezvoltarii copilului

Diana Saitis, psiholog, Liceul Teoretic ,,Lucian Blaga”

Delia Fodor, , psiholog, Liceul de Informatica ,,Tiberiu Popoviciu” Cluj-Napoca

Rezumat

Stilul parental indulgent se caracterizeaza prin faptul ca parintii nu comunica clar regulile, nu le impun, cedeaza constrangerilor (plansului) copilului, aplica o disciplina inconsistenta. O extrema a stilului indulgent o constituie indiferenta fata de copil si neglijarea acestuia, cu o frecventa mare a comportamentelor rejective, lipsind exprimarea afectiunii si interesului pentru dezvoltarea, educatia sau eventualele probleme ale copilului. O forma mascata, frecventa, de indiferenta poate fi considerata ingrijirea copilului de catre bunici, caz in care se creeaza distorsiuni in procesul de fixare a reprezentarii parentale.

Copiii crescuti de catre parinti indulgenti devin impulsivi, agresivi, opozanti, necomplianti, nu au scopuri si incredere in fortele proprii si prezinta un autocontrol redus. La aceste manifestari, in cazul neglijarii, se adauga ostilitatea in relatiile parinte-copil, atitudine care poate constitui un factor favorizant al comportamentelor deviante ale copilului (absenteism scolar, minciuna, furt, agresivitatea fizica, verbala fata de anturaj, consum de toxice etc.). Daca copilul este crescut de bunici, apar neintelegeri -in momentul in care parintii isi ,,revendica” dreptul de parinte- care au la baza modificarea figurii constante de atasament, ce induce copilului un comportament de negare si opozitie la aparitia unor figuri ,,neimprimate” ca atare in timp.

Factorii care influenteaza calitatea vietii de familie sunt:

Familiile dezorganizate

Situatia economica

Locul de munca al parintilor – absenta frecventa de acasa (munca in strainatate, uneori a ambilor parinti si cresterea copilui de catre bunici sau alte persoane) etc.;

Tehnologia (televizorul, Internetul, calculatorul etc.) - ,,suplineste” nedorit de mult interactiunile familiale, fiind frecvent utilizata ca ,,baby-sitter”;

Cultura si valorile familiei – nivelul de educatie si cultural al parintilor, valorile lor etc.

In lucrare este prezentat cazul unui copil de 11 ani cu tulburare opozitionala sfidatoare. Astfel, H. este irascibil, se cearta cu mama, refuza sa se supuna cererilor sau regulilor impuse de aceasta. Atitudinea fiului fata de mama este ambivalenta, reactionand violent atunci cand aceasta ii pretinde un anumit comportament, dar isi exprima verbal afectiunea si resimte anxietate atunci cand mama il ignora sau cand se pune problema separarii temporare. Rezultatele scolare ale elevului sunt foarte slabe, stima de sine este scazuta, in ciuda unui intelect mediu bun. In planul functionarii sociale, copilul este integrat in colectivul clasei, dar nu are prieteni in afara scolii si nu manifesta interes pentru relatii cu covarstnicii.

Aceste manifestari sunt consecinte ale neglijarii copilului de catre parinti (de tata prin absenta indelungata, prin totala lipsa de implicare si prin abuz fizic si violenta verbala pe fondul consumului de alcool, iar de catre mama prin timpul limitat acordat, prin inconsistenta, inconsecventa si neimplicare emotionala).

La sedintele de consiliere au participat copilul si mama, principalele obiective fiind refacerea legaturii emotionale mama-fiu, stabilirea si respectarea unor reguli de comportament acasa si cresterea stimei de sine a copilului.

Rezultatele consilierii au constat in reducerea manifestarilor violente ale copilului si un mai bun autocontrol al impulsurilor, invatarea de catre mama a unui mod adecvat de exprimare a afectiunii fata de copil si motivarea pentru invatare a elevului ca urmare a cresterii stimei de sine.

“Fetita cu ochii in lacrimi” - studiu de caz

asist.univ. Autor Eelena Vladislav

S.P.E.R.

Rezumat

Acest caz arunca o lumina asupra modului in care mecanismele de aparare disfunctionale ale mamei se transfera si genereaza depresia copilului. O fetita de 7 ani a fost adusa la psihoterapie pentru ca plingea zilnic la scoala. Studiul ofera intelegerea semnificatiei plansului copilului in cadrul sistemului familial si modul de realizare a planului psihoterapeutic.

Ipoteza cazului a fost ca plansul este exprimarea suferintei copilului in urma pierderilor repetate din ultimul an de viata. Era totodata reflectarea in oglinda a depresiei neexprimate a mamei, in urma pierderii propiilor parinti, in perioada in care a fost insarcinata. Mama nu si-a trait doliul si in consecinta copilul nu a invatat mecanisme sanatoase de a face fata pierderilor. Intre ele a existat o relatie de tip fuzional, fetita fiind un ecran pentru proiectia depresiei mamei.

Consultatiile psihoterapeutice de orientare experientiala s-au centrat pe relatia mama-copil, avand ca scop diferentierea limitelor de relatie si consolidarea fiecarui rol in cadrul sistemului familial.

Protectia copilului si consultarea familiei

Fazakas Ida

pedagog social, asistent social

Colegiul Eszterházy Károly Eger (Ungaria)

Fundatia Albin Oradea

Consultarea familiei, terapia de familie este utilizata din ce in ce in mai multe domenii, astfel si in protectia copilului. Bine-nteles sistemul pentru protectia copilului este in transformare si in Ungaria, dovezile acestei transformari pot fi urmarite atat la nivelul legislatiei, cat si in munca practica. In acest studiu nu ne ocupam cu analiza intregului sistem de protectie a copilului din Ungaria, ci ne oprim asupra posibilitatilor utilizarii consultatiei de familie in protectia copilului. Cuprindem acele aspecte, care separa munca autoritatilor de abordarea orientata pe sistemul familiei, si incercam sa evidentiem eficienta acestei abordari. Ne oprim in special asupra factorilor motivationali, care sunt elemente importante in consultatia de familie pentru a elimina contradictia (des intampinata in munca practica) a „colaborarii obligatorii”.

Abordarea sistemica multidimesionala si terapia familiala la un copil cu simptome psihotice

L. Nussbaum

medic primar neuropsihiatru, Clinica NPCA, Timisoara

A.Jurma

medic specialist psihiatrie pediatrica, Centrul de Educatie Speciala „Speranta”, Timisoara

Rezumat

Notiunea de baza in jurul careia se constituie terapia familiala e cea de sistem. In sistemul familial, membrii familiei au stranse legaturi unii cu altii, iar o perturbare a echilibrului acestui sistem poate duce la identificarea pacientului, care e prezentat ca o disfunctie, sau dezechilibru al familiei.

Abordarea sistemica multidimensionala este o modalitate de a analiza influenta unor contexte si situatii (familia, scoala, grupul de prieteni, comunitatea) asupra atitudinilor si comportamentelor copiilor. Terapia multidimensionala presupune interventia asupra copilului, parintilor, cuplului parental, familiei extinse, scolii si a retelei de specialisti care lucreaza cu copilul.

Lucrarea isi propune prezentarea unei abordari multidimensionale a unui copil cu simptome psihotice.

O abordare sistemica

a caselor de tip familial din Romania

Oana Simona Tuduce

Scoala Speciala Nr .1 Oradea,

Psiholog

Rezumat

Lucrand cu copii abandonati si institutionalizati in diferite tipuri de centre de plasament, am dorit sa identific prin intermediul acestei lucrari modul de functionare al caselor de tip familial, acestea fiind o forma de institutionalizare relativ noua in tara noastra.

Dupa ce am incercat sa fac un tablou general cat mai amplu al fenomenului institutionalizarii in Romania post-decembrista, oferind date despre strategia de protectie a copilului la nivel national si despre etapele parcurse din 1990 pana in prezent in ceea ce priveste procesul de institutionalizare a copiilor abandonati, m-am oprit la descrierea unui centru de plasament de tip familial, cunoscut si sub denumirea de „ casa de tip familial”. Am trecut in revista personalul unei case de tip familial cu indatoririle fiecaruia si m-am oprit in mod special la functionarea unei astfel de institutii din punctul de vedere al teoriei sistemelor. Am identificat sistemele si sub-sistemele care se formeaza, regulile lor de functionare, frontierele dintre ele, aliantele care se construiesc si rolurile fiecarui membru in sistemul mare si in subsisteme.

La aspectele problematice de functionare identificate am facut, la finalul lucrarii, cateva propuneri care poate vor contribui la gasirea unei maniere de lucru mai eficiente cu aceste institutii si in aceste institutii.

Efectul stilului parental educational si de rezolvare a conflictelor asupra personalitatii copiilor intre 10-12 ani

Drd. Ferenczi Réka Rozália

psiholog, asistent social

Universitatea Maghiara din Transilvania – Sapientia

Catedra de Studii Umane

Targu – Mures

Rezumat

Ranschburg (1977) afirma: „Nu are sens – dar nici nu se poate timp indelungat – sa ne prefacem copiilor, elevilor nostri, si pe noi insine trebuie sa formam in asa fel – aproximativ in asa fel – cum dorim sa educam copii, elevi nostri.”

Citatul de sus confirma faptul, ca relatia dintre educatia din familie si a educatia scolara, se bazeaza pe oferirea unui model si pe imitarea unui model.

In lucrarea mea prezint o cercetare care masoara stilul educational parental si rezolvarea de conflicte a parintilor din punctul de vedere al copilului, identificand care dintre stilurile parentale este considerat demn de urmat de copil. Pe langa aceasta latura relatez efectul diferitelor stiluri educationale si de rezolvare a conflictelor asupra a dimensiunilor de personalitate stabilite de Eysenck (asupra psihoticism, extraversiunii – introversiunii, neuroticism, conformitatii sociale, impulsivitatii, asupra tendintelor intreprinzatoare, empatiei, asupra nivelului de anxietate, scalei tensiunii psihice, asupra imaginii de sine adecvate, pozitive, asupra scalei controlului extrinsec) in cazul copiilor.

Efecte ale absentei modelelor parentale asupra sistemului convingerilor despre gen ale adolescentilor institutionalizati

Monica-Liana SECUI

Universitatea din Oradea, Catedra de Psihologie

Rezumat

Interesul manifestat pentru studiile asupra identitatii si rolurilor de gen continua sa fie ridicat, fiind recunoscut faptul ca apartenenta la o anumita categorie de sex are profunde implicatii in plan psihic si socio-cultural. Perspectiva oferita de abordarile teoretice asupra dezvoltarii sistemului de convingeri cu privire la gen - identitatea de gen, stereotipurile fata de persoanele de sex masculin si feminin si atitudinile fata de rolurile de gen - accentueaza impactul pe care il au parintii ca agenti principali ai socializarii genului. Numeroase cercetari atesta tratarea diferentiata a fetelor si baietilor, la care se adauga si procesul invatarii observationale prin expunerea la modelele parentale de rol. In aceste conditii investigarea modului in care se structureaza convingerile despre gen in cazul adolescentilor abandonati de parinti si plasati in institutii de ocrotire de tip rezidential este o problema de interes atat din punct de vedere teoretic, cat si aplicativ, data fiind importanta identitatii de gen pentru relatiile interpersonale, in special in cadrului cuplului erotic si conjugal. Studiul nostru a urmarit acest aspect pe baza datelor culese in cazul a 177 de adolescenti intre 13 si 18 ani, grupati in doua loturi echivalente din punct de vedere al sexului si varstei: 60 de subiecti din centrele de plasament (29 baieti si 31 fete) si 117 crescuti de catre proprii parinti (55 baieti si 62 fete). Instrumentele utilizate pentru operationalizarea convingerilor cu privire la gen sunt Inventarul atributelor personale (Personal Attributes Questionnaire - Spence, Helmreich si Stapp, 1975, 1978) pentru nivelul masculinitatii si feminitatii, Scala sexismului ambivalent (Ambivalent Sexism Inventory - Glick si Fiske, 1996) pentru nivelul sexismului ostil si binevoitor si o lista de trasaturi pentru a pune in evidenta continutul stereotipurilor de gen, bazata pe atributele din Inventarul Bem (Bem Sex Role Inventory - Bem, 1974). Rezultatele indica o serie de particularitati ale cristalizarii convingerilor despre gen la adolescentii din institutii, comparativ cu cei din familii. Baietii din centrul de plasament prezinta un nivel mai scazut al masculinitatii si o viziune mai putin stereotipa asupra barbatului pentru aceasta dimensiune. Fetele din institutii manifesta un nivel apropiat al feminitatii, insa au o atitudine sexist ostila mai pronuntata decat adolescentele din familii si o viziune mai putin conforma cu stereotipurile sociale despre persoanele de sex feminin. In concluzie rezultatele noastre sustin ipoteza conform careia lipsa modelelor parentale si plasarea in institutii de tip rezidential se reflecta asupra interiorizarii rolurilor de gen, pe fondul ofertei mult mai scazute a experientelor necesare acumularii cunostintelor si convingerilor specifice acestui domeniu.

Perceptia parintilor despre severitatea astmului bronsic si despre impactul psihologic al acestuia in viata copilului

prep. univ. Laura David, asist. univ. Laura Nastasa,

Universitatea Transilvania Brasov

Rezumat

Pentru diagnosticarea si tratarea pacientilor din domeniul pediatric, o buna parte din informatii provin de la parinti, tot ei fiind cei care evalueaza eficacitatea tratamentului.

Studiul de fata isi propune:

sa identifice concordanta dintre perceptia parintilor despre severitatea bolii copilului si masuratorile obiective realizate de catre medici,

impactul psihologic al bolii in viata copilului asa cum este el perceput de catre parinti.

S-au luat in studiu 54 de pacienti cu varsta intre 5-14 ani, diagnosticati cu astm bronsic persistent.

Parintilor li s-a cerut sa faca o evaluare a gravitatii bolii in trei trepte: usor/moderat/sever. Pentru metoda obiectiva criteriile au fost: valoarea FEV1 (un parametru spirometric), valoarea fluxului expirator de varf dupa efort, utilizarea de b2 mimetice (medicatie bronhodilatatoare de criza), numarul de exacerbari din ultimul an. Pentru evaluarea impactului psihologic al bolii parintii au completat un chestionar ce vizeaza: copingul fata de boala, adaptarea la situatii noi, independenta.

Pe ansamblul lotului s-a obtinut o corelatie de r 0,31 p<0,01 intre estimarea parintilor si cea obtinuta prin metode obiective. Valoarea concordantei intre cele 2 metode este de 52%, o valoare destul de mica datorata tendintei parintilor de a exagera severitatea afectiunii.

In privinta impactului psihologic al bolii in viata copiilor, rezultatele au aratat urmatoarele: copiii ai caror parinti i-au inclus in categoria celor cu astm usor sau sever au obtinut scoruri la chestionar care arata un impact mai semnificativ al bolii t 2,54 respectiv t 2,68 (p<0,02) fata de cei care au intrat in categoria moderat.

Dupa criteriul obiectiv nu s-a constatat o relatie semnificativa intre severitatea bolii si impactul ei psihologic. Analizand separat doar criteriul exacerbarilor se obtine un scor mai mare la chestionar insemnand impact mai important pe masura ce numarul de exacerbari este tot mai mare (p<

Concluzii: studiul atentioneaza asupra tendintei parintilor de a percepe boala copiilor ca fiind mai grava decat in realitate si a problemelor de adaptare pezente si in cazul formelor usoare de boala. Chiar daca din punct de vedere medical aceste forme sunt usor de controlat, pentru copii si familia acestora prezenta bolii cronice, chiar si in forma usoara bulverseaza viata de zi cu zi. Forma moderata este asumata intrucatva diferit si nu mai produce acelasi impact. Cea severa, prin restrictiile pe care le impune, are un impact mai important care nu trece nesesizat de catre parinti.

Provocari si limite in familia afectata de infectia

HIV/SIDA

Geta Manea, psiholog

Fundatia Romanian Angel Appeal

Bianca Nedelcu

asistent social, Fundatia Romanian Angel Appeal

Motto:

,, Nu ceea ce ti se intampla este important, ci modul in care reactionezi ” H. Selye

Rezumat

Lucrarea de fata este rezultatul observatiilor longitudinale efectuate de-a lungul celor opt ani de experienta in lucrul cu familiile afectate de HIV/SIDA.

Punctul de plecare al lucrarii de fata il reprezinta faptul ca aparitia infectiei HIV la copil are un impact asupra intregului sistem familial, evolutia bolii fiind influentata de modul in care membrii familiei se mobilizeaza si se adapteaza stresului provocat de boala si nevoilor celui in suferinta. Aflarea diagnosticului copilului influenteaza intreaga dinamica a familiei generand modificari psihologice si comportamentale la nivelul acesteia amplificand reactiile ulterioare ale copilului atat in sens pozitiv, cat si negativ, in functie de ceea ce familia ii transmite.

Impactul psihologic asupra membrilor familiei este declansat din momentul in care medicul transmite/comunica statusul de seropozitivitate al copilului. Stresul legat de gravitatea bolii, de probabilitatile de evolutie, de prognosticul rezervat, de dependenta/infirmitatea pe care le poate genera boala, duc la ruperea echilibrului familial, la adevarate crize. Adesea, acest impact al bolii asupra membrilor familiei se rasfrang asupra copilului infectat cu HIV, generand false proiectii cu privire la gravitatea si evolutia bolii.

In aceasta lucrare, dorim, pe de o parte, sa analizim reactiile pe care copilul seropozitiv le manifesta ca si consecinta a felului in care membrii familiei percep afectiunea (limite), iar pe de alta parte care sunt mecanismele si resorturile care duc la accesarea si descoperirea resurselor copilului si familiei lui de a face fata stresului determinat de boala. ( provocari )

Infectia HIV este perceputa initial de copil si familie ca factor stresor negativ ce actioneaza constant asupra lor, determinand stari, cum ar fi: suferinta, incordare, disperare, solicitare, constrangere, frica, tensiune, tristete, ura, deznadejde, furie, ca mai apoi, aceasta perceptie sa fie privita dintr-o alta perspectiva, pozitiva, care reuseste sa mobilizeze resursele organismului pentru recapatarea sperantei si dorintei de a lupta cu boala.

De-a lungul experientei noastre cu familiile afectate de infectia HIV/SIDA am observat faptul ca exista o stransa legatura intre reactiile negative ale familiei si starea emotionala a copilului. Cu alte cuvinte, opinam ca familia este busola care ghideaza copilul spre perceptia pozitiva/negativa fata de boala cu conditia ca insasi familia sa resimta aceasta stare.

Initial, toate familiile afectate de HIV reactioneaza asemanator trecand printr-o varietate de stari negative, cum ar fi: socul si negarea (familia considera infectia ca o lovitura nedereapta a soartei: ,,De ce chiar el ?”, ,,Imposibil!!!Pana ieri nu avea nimic!“), apoi neincrederea in precizia diagnosticului si speranta intr-un rezultat negativ (,,Poate e o greseala!”, ,,Poate ar trebui sa repetam testul! “), ca mai apoi, sa apara sentimente ca furia si revolta prin care membrii familiei protesteaza si descarca tensiuni emotionale.

Dar ce se intampla cu copilul in toata aceasta perioada de framantari?

Starea copilului apare ca un feed-back la reactiile parintilor si este independenta de cunoasterea sau necunoasterea diagnosticului real de catre acesta. Ca si parintii lui, copilul traieste toate aceste etape mai intens, manifestandu-se prin tristete, inapetenta, apatie, imbolnaviri frecvente, spitalizari multiple, autoizolare, non-complianta la tratament, nervozitate, refuza orice tip de activitate.

Boala cu caracterul ei distinctiv poate sa faca familia sa nu se adapteze la stres, la schimbarile de structura, sa rupa coeziunea familiei si sa castige teren in plan psihosomatic pentru ceilalti membrii de familie. Se instaleaza tristetea, anxietatea sau chiar depresia care pun stapanire pe intreaga familie, iar suferinta copilului impovarat de boala este dublata de suferinta generala a familiei sale.

Exista si situatii in care familia copilului bolnav reuseste sa accepte situatia, se mobilizeaza, se adapteaza compensator pentru a face fata nevoilor celui in suferinta, dar si pentru dezvoltarea pe mai departe a familiei si a implinirii scopurilor si telurilor propuse. Astfel, se observa o modificare si in comportamentul copilului, acesta incepe sa-si faca planuri pentru viitor, isi doreste sa mearga la scoala, are pofta de mancare, tolereaza foarte bine medicatia, este vesel, dornic de a-si face prieteni, nu are nevoie de internari in spital. Adaptarea familiei la un asemenea stres implica un grad de perceptie ridicat al situatiei, o comunicare eficienta interumana si o coeziune deosebita.

Pentru a sustine aceste observatii am aplicat unui numar de 35 de copii si unui numar de 55 de parinti, un chestionar de burnout (Lageron, 2003) prin care s-au conturat profile individuale de reactie si coping la stresul provocat de boala si scala COPE (Carver si altii, 1989) prin care am incercat sa obtinem profilul de coping al copilului comparativ cu al parintilor lui, gasind astfel raspunsurile la cele doua intrebari

  • cum reusesc aceste familii, care se confrunta cu aceeasi grava problema, sa depaseasca stresul determinat de aceasta boala?
  • care sunt mecanismele si resorturile de descoperire a resurselor membrilor familiei, atat la nivelul parintilor, cat si la nivelul copilului, de a lupta si de a da un sens vietii?

Influenta grupurilor de suport in ameliorarea simptomelor de depresie, anxietate si iritabilitate in randul mamelor cu adolescenti seropozitivi din judetul Constanta

Ana-Maria SCHWEITZER

psiholog, M.A

Fundatia Baylor- Marea Neagra Constanta

Rezumat

Obiective: evidentierea utilitatii grupurilor de suport in ameliorarea simptomelor de depresie, anxietate si iritabilitate in randul mamelor cu adolescenti seropozitivi din judetul Constanta. Metode: psihometrica, chestionare individuale de autoevaluare (Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, Irritability Scale). Grupuri tinta: 3 grupuri a cate 17 persoane: un grup de mame cu adolescenti seropozitivi care au participat aprox. 30 de luni la sedinte de grup suport (grup 1); un grup mame cu adolescenti seropozitivi care nu au participat la sedinte de grup de suport (grup 2);un grup mame din comunitate cu adolescenti nediagnosticati HIV si fara boli cronice,considerati sanatosi (grup 3). Rezultate: exista o reducere semnificativa clinic si statistic doar a nivelurilor de depresie si anxietate la grupul 1. La finalul interventiilor de grup nu exista diferente intre scorurile grupului 1 si cele din comunitate. Grupul 2 are niveluri de iritabilitate semnificativ mai crescute (statistic si posibil clinic) decat grupul 1 si 3, indicatorii de depresie si anxietate fiind de asemnea mai inalti. Concluzii: includerea mamelor cu adolescenti seropozitivi in grupuri de suport de lunga durata este benefica, simptomele de depresie si anxietate reducand-se dramatic, pana la nivelul prezent in comunitatea largita (acceptare, coping pozitiv). Mamele adolescentilor seropozitivi neparticipante la grupuri prezinta niveluri mai inalte de iritabilitate, potential relevante clinic, comparativ cu mamele din comunitate sau cu cele participante la grupuri (neintegrare psihica a bolii, coping inadecvat). Cercetari viitoare ar putea investiga stabilitatea in timp a acestor rezultate si stilul optim de lucru in sustinerea acceptarii psihologice a bolii.

III. ABORDAREA CUPLULUI SI A ADULTULUI DIN PRISMA TERAPIEI DE FAMILIE

Diviziunea rolurilor conjugal-parentale, factor al stabilitatii familiei

conf.univ.dr.    Maria Constantinescu



conf.univ.dr. Cornel Constantinescu

Universitatea din Pitesti

Rezumat

Reusita, fericirea si stabilitatea unei casnicii sunt dependente in mare masura de capacitatea partenerilor de a-si asuma rolurile conjugale, de a raspunde asteptarilor celuilalt, de a armoniza relatiile dintre membrii grupului familial. Rolurile pe care cei doi soti le indeplinesc in propria familie poarta denumirea de roluri conjugale. Acestea sunt “marcate de relatiile natural-biologice ale cuplului, de complexitatea si profunzimea celor spiritual -psihologice , morale, juridice, economice”. Rolurile conjugale sunt foarte complexe si antreneaza sentimente, gesturi, actiuni, mobiluri, dintre cele mai diverse, conferind familiei, particularitati care o individualizeaza intre celelalte grupuri sociale.

Odata cu aparitia copiilor microuniversul conjugal se imbogateste iar sistemul relational din interiorul sau se complica. Pe langa rolul conjugal , cei doi soti isi asuma roluri parentale specifice, definite in raport cu proprii copii. Modul divers in care sotii isi asuma responsabilitatile parentale au conotatii afective si psihologice ce marcheaza socializarea copiilor. Adoptarea unui rol conjugal si parental armonios si eficient este in egala masura o stiinta si o arta a dezvoltarii complete si mature a personalitatii. Capacitatea individului de a reactiona pozitiv din punct de vedere afectiv cu membrii societatii in general constituie premiza esentiala a formarii unui viitor rol conjugal si parental satisfacator.

In cuplu apare un anumit proces de reglare si de complementalizare a rolurilor. In acest sens este semnificativa evolutia pe care o cunoaste,,aspiratia de rol conjugal”. Iolanda si Nicolae Mitrofan (1991, p.49), definesc acest concept ca fiind ,,imagine sau sunet de imagini realizat pe baza dorintelor proiectate constient si inconstient de catre un partener cu privire la comportamentul marital al celuilalt in cadrul relatiilor conjugale”.

Aceasta aspiratie se modifica in urma procesului de cunoastere, intercomunicare ce are loc intre cei doi parteneri. Cantonarea in modelele initiale reprezinta un impediment in buna desfasurare a vietii familiale. Daca aspiratia de rol conjugal este concordanta cu disponibilitatile de rol ale partenerului, relatiile familiale se caracterizeaza printr-un grad mare de satisfactie iar cuplul evolueaza functional. Psihosociologia americana a incercat sa explice armonia/dizarmonia cuplului prin marimea diferentei dintre “ceea ce s-au asteptat” si “ceea ce au gasit” cei doi parteneri de familie, diferenta dintre rolurile anticipate si rolurile efective.

Fiecare partener al cuplului conjugal isi asuma si exercita rolul marital intr-un stil personal. Acest demers depinde de o serie de factori, cel mai important fiind modul in care individul este pregatit, educat, format pentru rol-statusul de sot si parinte, in acest lucru se realizeaza preponderenta in familia de origine, in special dupa modelul propriilor parinti. Alti autori sunt de parere ca familia de origine ocupa intr-adevar un loc insemnat in viata fiecarui individ. Modelele comportamentale insusite in cadrul ei influenteaza relatia unei persoane cu partenerul in familia proprie, dar pesonalitatea psihosociala a individului nu este produsul unilateral al unui singur factor, ci o rezultanta a interactiunii complexe dintre o serie de factori sociali. Rolul conjugal, desi se preia initial prin imitatia modelelor de rol familal cunoscute in familia de apartenenta, se invata a fi adoptat si se perfecteaza prin exersarea in propriul nucleu conjugal.

Tehnici experientiale in terapia de familie

asist. univ. Mindu Sandrina

Universitatea “Dunarea de Jos” Galati

Rezumat

Conditiile socio-economice actuale, disfunctionalitatile din toate subsistemele societatii romanesti, lipsa sistemului de valori care conduce la pierderea reperului educational cresc tensiunea psihica la nivel intrafamilial si adancesc conflictele dintre generatii. Neasumarea rolurilor parentale sau inversiunile de sex-rol conduc la perturbarea patternurilor tranzanctionale in sistemul familial. Parintii se simt “depasiti “ si inadecvati in relatia parental-filiala, ajungand de cele mai multe ori datorita anxietatii si frustrarii pe care le resimt sa ramana in scheme educationale rigide in care isi exercita autoritarea prin reguli impuse, scheme care, evident, nu mai corespund accelerarii ritmului de dezvoltare psihica a copiilor si noilor conditii de viata cotidiana.

Lucrarea reprezinta o cercetare calitativa asupra rolului tehnicilor experientiale in terapia de familie, utilizand ca metoda studiul de caz. Obiectivul principal al acesteia il constituie construirea unui demers terapeutic de tip experiential care sa urmareasca intensificarea interactiunilor autentice si benefice dintre membrii familiei in contextul real de viata.

In prima parte a lucrarii sunt analizate diferite modele de abordare terapeutica a sistemului familial cu accent pe necesitatea si rolul utilizarii tehnicilor de tip non-directiv, experiential. Astfel, in contextul crizei comunicationale existente in sistemul familial, exprimarea emotionala, constientizarea motivelor comportamentului celorlalti membrii ai familiei, dezvoltarea capacitatii empatice, deschiderea catre nevoile si interesele celuilalt, “cresterea” emotionala a familiei constituie obiective importante in terapia experientiala. Non-directivitatea ofera posibilitatea atingerii acestora in cadrul demersului terapeutic. Desprinderea de schemele habituale neprofitabile, identificarea si dezvoltarea alternativelor functionale, cresterea flexibilitatii si rezonantei sistemului familial sunt de asemenea aspecte importante in terapie. Focalizarea fiecarui membru al familiei pe viata lui interioara si pe felul in care isi interpreteaza propria existenta si relatiile cu ceilalti conduce la identificarea si mobilizarea tuturor resurselor interne emotionale, rationale si spirituale, reprezentand o modalitate autentica de rezolvare a problemelor. Ajungand sa aiba incredere in el insusi, sa-si valorizeze unicitatea sa, viata si nevoile personale, sa-si dezvolte capacitatea de a proiecta alternative multiple devine capabil sa aiba incredere si in ceilalti si sa le faciliteze dezvoltarea.

A doua parte a lucrarii cuprinde studii de caz in vederea exemplificarii structurii demersului terapeutic, fiind punctate obiectivele, relatia terapeutica, desfasurarea, tehnicile utilizate si concluziile.

Dragostea si relatia de cuplu

lect. dr. Lucian Cochinescu

Universitatea Pitesti

Rezumat

Dragostea este cea mai puternica legatura dintre doi oameni+ poetii ar spune chiar ca pune lumea in miscare si nu-i de mirare ca si psihologii au fost interesati de subiect si chiar au conceput o scala pentru a masura acest ceva infasurat in mister numit dragoste.

Cu totii ne credem experti in dragoste, dar nu suntem. Cati oameni stiu, de pilda, ca barbatii sunt cei care se indragostesc primii si ca se agata de o relatie moarta mai mult decat o fac femeile, sau ca cel mai adesea ne casatorim cu vecinii nostri, nu cu straini veniti din locuri indepartate?

Se pune problema cum putem defini dragostea. Conform lui Beverly Fehr, printre caracteristicile iubirii se numara: a vrea sa fii cu cealalta persoana, a-ti pasa, a o accepta, a imparti, a avea incredere, a respecta, a ierta, a ajuta, a-i simti lipsa, empatie, prietenie, fericire, sinceritate etc.

Toate aceste trasaturi pot fi reduse la trei: pasiunea, intimitatea si angajamentul. Intimitatea are aici rolul principal, implicand suportul emotional si faptul de a trai prin si pentru cealalta persoana. Aceste componente se combina in proportii variate pentru a forma diferite tipuri de iubire: prietenia, iubirea sexuala, iubirea romantica, iubirea parentala sau iubirea dintre frati.

Iubirea parentala este prototipul relatiei de dragoste bazata in primul rand pe tandrete, respect si loialitate. Din contra, in cazul pasiunii avem o mixtura ciudata de sentimente opuse: durere si extaz, anxietate si relaxare, dragoste si gelozie. Pasiunea de regula nu dureaza mult.

Dragostea adulta este bazata pe un mecanism primar- atasamentul, legatura dintre mama si copilul ei- ne face deci sa ne simtim bine, in siguranta. Doi oameni formeaza un cuplu pentru a-si satisface cateva nevoi de baza: obtinerea satisfactiei sexuale, formarea unei familii, accesul la resurse materiale.

Gratificarea sexuala este importanta mai ales pentru barbati. Dorintele sexuale sunt puse in relatie cu nivelul testosteronului din sange, dar depind mult si de atractivitatea perceputa a partenerului- cum zicea Shakespeare, “frumusetea este in ochii celui ce priveste”.

Astazi conceptia oamenilor privitoare la viata sexuala s-a schimbat, si automat s-a schimbat si comportamentul lor sexual. In lumea noastra sexul nerestrictionat (sex fara dragoste) este mai des intalnit decat sexul restrictionat (sex doar cu persoana iubita) si de asemenea sunt mai des intalnite cuplurile liberale si moderate decat cele traditionale.

Iubirea pasionala este un foc alimentat de obstacole. Shakespeare, in “Romeo si Julieta”, avea dreptate: obstacolele intalnite in calea dragostei (ex. daca parintii dezaproba relatia) produc activare fiziologica si asta creste pasiunea. Mecanismul ce sta la baza fenomenului este unul cognitiv: etichetam activarea interna, pe care n-o intelegem deplin, drept “dragoste”. Cercetatorii au sustinut empiric aceasta teorie.

O parte importanta a pasiunii o reprezinta gelozia. Cu totii vrem fidelitate absoluta, dar cand vine vorba de noi optam pentru libertate. Barbatii sunt iritati de gandul ca femeia lor s-ar putea culca cu un alt barbat, pe cand femeile sunt iritate de gandul ca barbatul lor ar putea iubi o alta femeie.

Un alt motiv de a forma un cuplu este de a forma o familie. Casatoria pare a fi buna pentru sanatate si satisface nevoia de apartenenta sau de afiliere. Barbatii cauta o femeie buna la suflet, femeile vor un barbat in acelasi timp dominant si afectuos. Fireste, preferintele variaza de la o cultura la alta si nu numai. Sunt femei care prefera barbatii in varsta, bogati si faimosi.

Dar toata dragostea poate disparea intr-o buna zi - si asa vine divortul si suferinta. Sunt numeroase cauze ce duc la divort: lipsa comunicarii, infidelitatea, stingerea focului pasiunii etc. Cuplurile bazate pe similaritate rezista mai mult decat cele bazate pe dependenta si erori de atribuire. Acestea sunt sortite pieirii. Este bine sa-ti analizezi indeaproape partenerul inainte de casatorie, pentru ca dupa s-ar putea sa-l vezi intr-o alta lumina si sa vrei sa-l schimbi - si oamenii nu pot fi schimbati cu forta.

Sa-ti pierzi partenerul de cuplu este un eveniment traumatizant, este dureros. Studiile au aratat ca decizia de a divorta este rareori mutuala. Cel ce ia decizia este mai fericit dupa divort, celalalt se simte neajutorat, respins, deprimat. La sfarsit, fostii iubiti trebuie sa-si continue separat vietile. Ajuta daca au pe cineva sa-i sustina (rude, prieteni), si de multe ori in cele din urma se dovedeste ca divortul a fost un pas inainte. Si totusi, divortul este urmat de o crestere a consumului de alcool, a violentei si a ratei tulburarilor psihice.

Psihologii au incercat sa surprinda dinamica tuturor acestor fenomene. Eich Rubin (1970) a conceput o “scala a iubirii” care prezice modul in care relatia de cuplu va evolua in urmatoarele sase luni. Dintre itemi, citam: “Simt ca ma pot increde deplin in partenerul meu” sau “As face orice pentru partenerul meu”.

Avand in vedere cat de departe sunt dispusi sa mearga oamenii doar pentru a fi cu persoana iubita, subiectul prezentat este de interes major.

Implicatii ale tipului psihologic in dinamica vietii de cuplu

asist. univ. Neagoe Ileana Loredana

asist. univ. Raban-Motounu Nicoleta

Universitatea din Pitesti

Rezumat

In societatea moderna, formarea si mentinerea cuplului presupun un sistem dinamic si evolutiv de interactiuni si interconexiuni de o inalta complexitate.

Dimensiunea psihologica a acestui sistem (privita atat in aspectul ei individual cat si in cel interpersonal) implica elemente ce se refera la intercunoasterea si intercomunicarea in cadrul cuplului, la rolul maturitatii si competentei partenerilor de cuplu in pastrarea echilibrului si stabilitatii relatiei.

Ca aspecte ale dimensiunii psihologice, in cadrul studiului nostru ne vom opri asupra implicatiilor tipului psihologic (asa cum este descris de Jung) in reusita, stabilitatea si satisfactia maritala.

O serie de studii realizate de autorii Indicatorului Tipologic Myers-Briggs si de cercetatorii din cadrul Centrului pentru Aplicarea Tipului Psihologic (CAPT) au demonstrat frecventa ridicata a casatoriilor intre persoane care au in comun cel putin doua, daca nu mai multe caracteristici ale tipului psihologic. Aceste studii au evidentiat faptul ca, in cuplu, cunoasterea caracteristicilor tipului psihologic al partenerului ajuta la intelegerea si aprecierea acestuia. Nu exista combinatii ,,bune” sau ,,rele” ale tipurilor in relatiile apropiate. Fiecare combinatie particulara, toate preferintele comune sau opuse, in orice combinatie ar fi, are structura sa unica de bucurii si probleme. Oamenii cu toate preferintele asemanatoare pot comunica usor si impart valori comune dar ei impart si aceleasi ,,pete oarbe”. Un cuplu cu toate preferintele opuse poate munci mult la a se intelege unul pe celalalt dar de asemenea poate experimenta bucuria si vitalitatea acestor diferente.

Ca obiective ale acestei cercetari ne propunem sa evidentiem legatura care exista intre combinarea caracteristicilor tipurilor psihologice ale celor doi parteneri si maniera in care sunt percepute si traite anumite aspecte din viata cuplului.

Complementaritatea, similaritatea sau conflictul dintre tipurile psihologice in dezvoltarea cuplului influenteaza maniera in care sunt apreciate anumite aspecte ale vietii de cuplu avand un impact direct in planul compatibilitatii sau incompatibilitatii in cuplu.

Ca aspecte ale vietii de cuplu am luat in considerare: gradul de intimitate, capacitatea de rezolvare a problemelor practice, gradul de conflictualitate, violenta fizica, violenta verbala, pasiunea, implinirea afectiva, sprijinul reciproc, realizarea profesionala, gradul de multumire, sentimentul comuniunii, sentimentul individualitatii, implinirea spirituala, gradul de comunicare.

Cercetarea noastra studiaza toate aceste aspecte folosind atat instrumente calitative cat si cantitative integrate intr-un studiu corelational. Am folosit metode psihometrice si statistice. Pentru a identifica aspectele tipurilor psihologice am folosit Indicatorul Tipologic Myers-Briggs. Aspectele definitorii ale vietii de cuplu au fost examinate prin Lista de autoevaluare, construita de noi.

Stiluri de gandire, irationalitate si satisfactie maritala

psiholog Carmen Bora,

asist. univ.drd. Delia Birle

asist. univ.drd. Rosana Stan

Universitatea din Oradea

Rezumat

Casniciile fericite nu sunt o intamplare. Ele sunt construite pe principii solide, esentiale pentru cultivarea unei relatii pline de iubire si caldura sufleteasca. Inainte de intocmirea unei familii, ne confruntam cu aspectele legate de formare cuplului, de alegere a partenerului. Acesta este primul pas catre viata de familie, de cele mai multe ori fericirea sau satisfactia maritala depinzand de aceasta prima decizie.

Conform teoriei similaritatii doi indivizi alcatuiesc un cuplu datorita compatibilitatilor dintre componentele de ordin psihologic, au aceleasi atitudini, convingeri, valori, aspiratii si interese, se apropie mai repede si mai usor de un punct de vedere comun. Alegerile in viata, si mai ales in privinta casatoriei, trebuie sa iina seama si de potrivirea dintre stilurile de gandire oamenilor. Un stil este un mod de a gandi. Nu este o abilitate, ci mai degraba este felul in care ne folosim abilitatile de care dispunem. Daca stilurile nu se potrivesc cu alegerile, persoanele vor suporta consecintele propriilor alegeri.

Modelul ABC din terapia rational - emotiv- comportamentala a familiei sustine ca principalele cauze ale consecintelor emotionale disturbante (C) din viata de familie nu se regasesc in experientele activatoare din familie (A) ci in cognitiile irationale ale sotilor cu privire la acele evenimente activatoare. Satisfactia maritala depinde in mare masura de transformarea acestor cognitii irationale, in cognitii rationale.

Cu toate ca, teoretic, indivizii pot avea un numar mare de cognitii irationale, acestea pot fi reduse la trei mari categorii ale absolutistului 'trebuie', care la randul lor includ mai multe subcategorii importante: a) Trebuie sa am performante bune si/sau trebuie sa fiu aprobat de partener! Este groaznic (oribil chiar) daca nu realizez acest lucru! Nu as putea rezista acestui esec! Sunt aproape un 'nimeni' daca esuez in obtinerea acestui respect! b) Trebuie sa fiu tratat de catre partener cu consideratie si in mod cinstit! Este oribil cand nu se intampla acest lucru! Cel care greseste in aceasta privinta este un individ rau si nu pot sa il suport datorita comportamentului sau 'mizerabil'! c) Conditiile trebuie sa fie asa cum le doresc eu sa fie si este teribil daca acestea nu sunt asa cum le doresc! Nu pot sa suport sa mai traiesc intr-o lume asa de groaznica! Este un loc respingator!

Conlict in cuplu si personalitate

prep. univ. Tempea Ioana Cristina

Universitatea Ecologica din Bucuresti

Rezumat

Aceasta lucrare vrea sa scoata in evidenta aspecte ale jocului inconstient care are loc in momentul alegerii partenerului si al declansarii conflictului in cuplu. Conceptul de “coniventa” « Kollusion », propus de germanul Jürg Willi a jucat un rol esential in construirea subiectului. El se refera la jocul comun inconstient si nevrotic din cadrul unui cuplu, joc bazat pe acordul tacit al partenerilor, pe o asa zisa « intelegere secreta».

In contextul lucrarii de fata conceptul de coniventa este aplicat situatiei in care ambii parteneri prezinta acelasi tip de conflict bazal nerezolvat. Simplificand vom vorbi de patru teme de baza, pe care fiecare cuplu trebuie sa le analizeze in momentul construirii unei relatii: tema narcisica a relatiei, tema orala, anala si falica Conflictul este distribuit de cei doi in diverse roluri. In lucrare ma voi referi la cazul in care partenerii asuma variante polare ale aceleasi teme; unul mai mult varianta comportamentelor regresive (nevoia de ocrotire, tandrete, dragoste, protectie etc) in timp ce celalalt pe cea a comportamentelor progresive (de exemplu dorinta de putere, competenta, capacitatea de a face, etc) a aceluiasi tip de conflict.

Aceasta « distibutie a rolurilor » creeaza atractie intre viitorii parteneri. Fiecare spera ca prin intermediul celuilalt sa fie eliberat de conflictul sau. Dupa o perioada mai lunga de convietuire aceasta incercare complice de autovindecare esueaza din cauza intoarcerii refulatului la ambii parteneri. La inceput parea ca a fost facuta alegerea perfecta. Adesea insa partenerii evolueaza pe pozitii din ce in ce mai extreme astfel incat cu timpul ajunge sa fie insuportabil pentru fiecare deopotriva, ca celalalt sa traiasca din plin tocmai acele tendinte, pe care el insusi/ea insasi si le-a reprimat. « Progresistul » nu poate suporta mult timp sa-i ofere partenerului acea satisfactie regresiva, pe care si-a refuzat-o siesi – iar « regresivul », ajunge sa-l urasca pe partener dat fiind ca dependenta de ajutorul acestuia il raneste. Astfel jocul partenerilor de la inceput ia o alta intorsatura si anume in directia unei complicitati destructive (conflict in cuplu). Ceea ce la inceputul relatiei a produs atractie, va fi ulterior cauza conflictului.

Rezolvarea acestui conflict in terapie inseamna stabilirea in cuplu a unui echilibru dinamic, flexibil si liber. Astfel temele de coniventa se pot transforma intr-o imbogatire reciproca. In cazul temei narcisice acest fapt se poate realiza prin recunoasterea partenerului ca o personalitate individuala delimitata; tema orala se imbogateste prin oferirea si primirea reciproca; cea anala prin realizarea unei solidaritati fara constrangere, iar cea falica prin completare reciproca in identitatea de sex.

Dimensiuni si aspecte fundamentale ale comunicarii la nivelul cuplului conjugal

lect. drd. Alina-Maria Paraschiva

Universitatea „Valahia” din Targoviste

Rezumat

Comunicarea reprezinta principalul mijloc prin intermediul caruia indivizii interactioneaza, stabilind relatii de atragere sau respingere, iar de cele mai multe ori esecul unei relatii conjugale este dat de o slaba interactiune comunicationala intre cei doi parteneri. In interiorul cuplului conjugal, comunicarea ia diferite aspecte, de la schimburile verbale, pana la transmiterea mesajelor prin intermediul limbajului nonverbal sau paraverbal.

Datorita faptului ca diferentele de gusturi, de nevoi, de prioritati si idei ale partenerilor duc la conflicte de interes, adesea dificil de rezolvat, ne-am propus sa analizam diferentele de comunicare intre cele doua sexe pentru a incerca sa gasim o serie de modalitati de imbunatatire a comunicarii la nivelul cuplului conjugal.

Am incercat sa determinam categoriile de mesaje transmise in cuplul conjugal si am identificat 5 astfel de categorii:

  • Mesaje care se refera la conversatia „de toata ziua” asupra temelor obisnuite sau mai putin importante;
  • Mesaje referitoare la proiecte care vizeaza viata de cuplu sau viata intregii familii;
  • Mesaje care vizeaza sustinerea afectiva si transmiterea sentimentelor de dragoste si iubire;
  • Mesaje care includ modalitatile prin care se gestioneaza insatisfactia si conflictele care apar in cuplu;
  • Mesajele incluse intr-o „comunicare conjugala veritabila”, mesaje necesare pentru analiza functionarii relatiei, mesajele folosite pentru analiza bilanturilor si cele folosite pentru eventualele schimbari care sunt necesare pentru o buna relationare in cuplu.

Plecand de la categoriile de mesaje determinate am incercat sa analizam diferentele care apar la nivelul comunicarii intre cele doua sexe, luand in considerare urmatorii parametri:

  • comunicarea verbala (claritatea mesajului transmis, dificultati ale comunicarii verbale)
  • comunicarea nonverbala (spatiul in comunicarea nonverbala, gesturi de curtenire)
  • comunicarea paraverbala
  • factori care influenteaza conflictul (incompatibilitatea partenerilor, personalitatea partenerilor, abilitati de rezolvare a conflictelor, circumstantele stressante)
  • trasaturi masculine/ trasaturi feminine
  • stiluri de comunicare
  • patternuri de comunicare.

De asemenea, am incercat sa trasam cateva caracteristici pe care trebuie sa le aiba relatia de cuplu in ansamblu si fiecare partener in mod individual pentru imbunatatirea procesului comunicational:

  • gradul de „maturitate” al partenerilor
  • modul de percepere a mesajului partenerului si modul de atribuire a intelesului acestui mesaj
  • exprimarea clara a dorintelor
  • modul de transmitere a mesajului
  • modalitati de obtinere a unei relatii de cuplu „deschise”
  • existenta unei comunicari congruente
  • clarificarea mesajului transmis
  • folosirea ascultarii active
  • acordarea de timp necesar comunicarii.

Pentru ca o relatie de cuplu sa fie viabila pe tot parcursul ei este necesar ca partenerii sa invete sa relationeze corect, lucrul acesta putandu-se realiza printr-o comunicare eficienta.

Implicatiile cognitiilor disfunctionale in satisfactia maritala, depresie si alcoolism

asist.univ.drd. Dindelegan Camelia

prof.univ.dr. Oros Gheorghe

preot Dindelegan Vasile,

Universitatea din Oradea

Rezumat

Obiectivul principal al acestei cercetari este sa raspunda la urmatoarele intrebari: „ Cum influenteaza cognitiile disfunctionale satisfactia maritala ? ” si „ Care sunt distorsiunile cognitive specifice in depresie si alcoolism ?”

(Noi) am pornit de la ipotezele conform carora cognitiile disfunctionale influenteaza satisfactia maritala conducand la emotii disfunctionale , iar distorsiunile cognitive genereaza depresia si dependenta de alcool.

Subiectii cuprinsi in studiu sunt in numar de 90 de persoane casatorite dintre care 30 fiind diagnosticati cu toxidependenta etilica, 30 fiind diagnosticati cu tulburare depresiva, iar 30 au alcatuit lotul de control (subiectii nonclinici).Subiectii care au alcatuit loturile cu patologiile mentionate au fost internati in momentul realizarii cercetarii la Spitalul Clinic de Neurologie si Psihiatrie din Oradea pentru tratament de specialitate.

Pentru cercetare s-a realizat o testare pe baza de chestionar. Pacientii depresivi si alcoolici precum si lotul de control au completat cele patru chestionare utilizate:

Chestionarul Stilului Cognitiv ( Blackburn, 1986) care consta in 30 de descrieri scurte ale unor evenimente uzuale. Evenimentele sunt clasificate in trei teme legate de triada cognitiva a lui A. Beck referitoare la : sine, lume si viitor.

Scala Atitudinilor Disfunctionale (Weissman si Beck, 1978), cuprinde 40 de itemi care scot in evidenta cognitiile disfunctionale specifice, in depresie, respectiv convingerea ca valoarea unui individ ar depinde de opinia celorlalti despre el.

Chestionarul de Depresie Beck ( Beck, 1961) care este un chestionar de autoevaluare, iar nota globala a acestui chestionar indica profunzimea subiectiva a depresiei, care da o estimare cantitativa a intensitatii simptomatologiei subiective a depresiei.

Scala de Ajustare Diadica ( Graham B.Spanier) , masoara calitatea casniciei sau a cuplurilor. Are 32 de itemi si este construita pentru a evalua calitatea relatiei asa cum este perceputa ea de cuplul marital sau consensual. Acest instrument poate fi folosit ca o masura generala a satisfactiei in cuplul intim prin utilizarea scorurilor totale. Analiza factoriala indica faptul ca acest instrument masoara patru aspecte ale relatiei: satisfactia diadica, coeziunea diadica, consensul diadic si expresia afectiva.

Analiza cantitativa si calitativa a datelor a fost realizata pentru fiecare scala a chestionarului stilului cognitiv, astfel ca dintr-un total de 6 tipuri de stiluri cognitive evaluate am obtinut rezultate puternic semnificative la 5 dintre acestea in ceea ce priveste satisfactia maritala: sine pozitiv / sine negativ, lume negativ si viitor pozitiv / viitor negativ si semnificativ la lume pozitiv. Astfel sotul sau sotia care are convingerea ca relatiile lor apropriate vor fi compromise, ca nu pot fi placuti si apreciati de cei din jur atat in situatii pozitive de viata cat si in situatii negative, dar si ca vor fi parasiti si neglijati; ca este necesar sa iti ascunzi trairile emotionale chiar si in situatii de viata pozitive, vor manifesta satisfactie maritala scazuta.

Rezultatele cercetarii ne demonstreaza astfel ca persoanele care manifesta distorsiuni cognitive, respectiv un stil cognitiv negativ si atitudini disfunctionale, vor manifesta comportamente dezadaptative in casnicie, recurgand la cearta si violenta in situatii problematice ce apar in viaa de cuplu exprimand emotii disfunctionale. In acelasi timp apare un risc semnificativ crescut pentru tulburarile depresive. La femei si dependenta la alcool la barbati.

Caracterul si importanta pragmatica a acestei cercetari este de a aduce in atentia psihologilor, rolul cognitiilor disfunctionale. In consilierea si terapia de familie se recomanda astfel depistarea stilului cognitiv negativ si a atitudinilor disfunctionale pentru a putea interveni in modificare lor, care sa-l determine pe individ (sau cel in cauza) sa-si mentina satisfactia maritala la un nivel cat mai ridicat, iar riscul de a dezvolta (manifesta) tulburari emotionale sau dependenta de alcool sa fie cat mai scazut.

Perceptia suportului social si deznadejdea:

implicatii psihopatologice

Asist.univ.drd. Marian Mihai Ion

Prep.univ. Drugas Marius

Universitatea din Oradea

Rezumat

Acest studiu este o examinare empirica a modelului diateza-stres, modelul de baza al teoriei neajutorarii invatate. Pornind de a unele dispute teoretice, vom incerca sa clarificam unele dintre acestea in cazul barbatilor. In acest scop, am utilizat un esantion de 150 de barbati cu varsta cuprinsa intre 18 si 60 de ani. Ipoteza noastra este ca autoetichetarea are o influenta semnificativa asupra gradului de neajutorare resimtit. Mai mult, vom incerca sa descriem modul in care stilul atributional actioneaza ca indicator al disperarii si izolarii. Concluzionam ca orientarea barbatilor spre disperare sau speranta este mediata de urmatorii factori: increderea (cu dimensiunile sale), stilul atributional si suportul social perceput.

Atitudini si raspunsuri cu privire la infidelitate

prep. universitar Radu Alina Ramona, ,

prof. univ. dr Bonchis Elena,

lector univ. drd. Trip Simona

Universitatea din Oradea

Rezumat

Psihologia evolutionista constituie cadrul principal in interiorul caruia au fost studiate diferentele dintre sexe in manifestarea geloziei. In concordanta cu teoria evolutiei, psihologii evolutionisti au prezis diferente in manifestarea geloziei la barbatii si femei, in sensul ca barbatii se simt mai amenintati de infidelitatea sexuala a partenerelor, pe cand femeile se simt mai amenintate de infidelitatea emotionala (Buss, Western si Semmelroth, 1992). Pe de alta parte, Widerman si Allgeier (1993), Harris si Christenfeld (1996), Nannini si Meyers (2000) au contrazis teoria afirmand ca nu exista diferente specifice intre sexe in ceea ce priveste tipul de infidelitate al partenerului.

Ipoteze- Studiul de fata a urmarit sa clarifice aceste rezultate contradictorii dorind sa verifice ipoteza conform careia exista diferente semnificative intre sexe. O a doua ipoteza urmarea sa evidentieze in ce masura partenerii isi asuma responsabilitatea pentru infidelitatea partenerului functie de specificul acesteia.

Metoda- Un design de tipul 3 x 2 x 2 pentru esantioane independente a fost folosit pentru a verifica ipotezele.

Participanti- Subiectii in numar de 150, in proportie cvasiegala, cu varstele cuprinse intre 19- 60 ani au participat la cercetare pe baza de voluntariat.

Materiale si procedura- Participantii au completat o brosura de teste. Prima sectiune continea date demografice si intrebari scurte despre relatia curenta si infidelitatile experientiate. A doua sectiune prezenta 3 scenarii de infidelitate (propuse de Nannini si Meyers, 2000) : unul in care partenerul actual sau trecut s-a implicat intr-o alta relatie sexual dar nu si emotional, unul in care s-a implicat emotional dar nu si sexual si un al treilea scenariu in care partenerul era de-o potriva implicat sexual si emotional. Dupa citirea scenariului ei trebuia sa completeze o scala de la 1 (foarte putin) la 7 (foarte mult) in care trebuiau sa arate cat sunt de deranjati de cele intamplate. Trebuia apoi sa raspunda fortat daca ar ramane sau nu in interiorul relatiei si daca sunt sau nu responsabili pentru infidelitatea partenerului.

Rezultate- Rezultatele preliminare indica faptul ca exista diferente intre sexe in ceea ce priveste raspunsurile la infidelitate.

O abordare psiho-religioasa a suferintei cuplurilor care se despart

psiholog Diana Nicolau

Rezumat

Lucrarea incearca sa surprinda fatete ale suferintei cuplurilor care se despart incercand sa valorizeze si sa gaseasca acestei suferinte un sens.

Vom aborda ideea de suferinta prin prisma substratului formarii cuplului si anume nevoia ontologica de celalalt. Se va face o paralela intre arhetipurile jungiene al 'animei' (femeii interioare din fiecare barbat) si al 'animusului' (imaginea barbatului din fiecare femeie) si intre nostalgia dragostei paradisiace a lui Adam si Eva (in sensul ca fiecare barbat poarta in inima o Eva si fiecare femeie un Adam).

'Ca pecete pe sanul tau mapoarta poarta-ma pe mana ta ca pe-o bratara,

Ca iubirea ca moartea e de tare si ca iadul de grozava e gelozia'

Cantarea Cantarilor 8.6

In continuare se va analiza legatura dintre formarea relatiilor interpersonale in contextul actual in stransa conexiune cu castigarea autonomiei -masura a cunoasterii de sine si a profunzimii angajarii in relatii.  Acestea vor fi analizate din perspectiva psihologiei sociale si in special a psihologiei umaniste care promoveaza nu sentimentul impotriva ratiunii ci o sinteza a lor.

Kahen Hamman afirma:' suntem invatati sa folosim mintile noastre pentru a suprima sentimentele noastre, suntem tentati sa raspundem la permisiunea de a simti, incercand sa suprimam intelectul nostru sau al altora'

Astfel ca in societatea contemporana angajarea in relatii personale profunde ce ar duce la o cunoastere de sine si la autonomie este adesea suprimata printr-un rationalism excesiv.

In concluzie, asumarea suferintei ar putea fi o poarta nu numai catre o cunoastere de sine ci si catre arhetipurile inconstientului fiecaruia dintre noi si la legatura noastra cu un tot universal.

Alcoolismul in familie

psiholog Veronica Mihai

Rezumat

Termenul de alcoolism este folosit de Magnus Huss, in 1859, pentru a desemna abuzul de bauturi alcoolice.
Factorii predispozanti ai alcoolismului pot fi grupati in: factori ocazionali, factori legati de personalitatea alcoolicului, ereditatea si factorii socio-culturali.

Fazele de evolutie ale dependentei de alcool sunt: faza prealcoolica, faza prodromala, faza critica si faza cronica.

Alcoolismul este catalogat ca fiind a patra problema de sanatate publica pe plan mondial, care are consecinte nefaste nu numai asupra consumatorului propiu-zis ci si asupra membrilor familiei acestuia.

Descendentii alcoolicilor sunt afectati fie prin sindromul feto-embrionar care apare la copiii mamelor alcoolice, fie prin aparitia tulburarilor de comportament. Este un truism faptul ca alcoolicul se manifesta ca o tara familiala.

Familia alcoolica nu face fata decat partial si deficitar functiilor ei de baza. Hemeostaza sub triplul aspect de comunicatie verbala, necesitati afective si rol in familia alcoolica este grav afectata (Bogdan Fl., Platon M., Somogy D., Weber C.).
Este frapanta influenta negativa pe care o are consumul de alcool asupra mediului familial, prin afectarea calitatii si semnificatiilor starilor psihoafective ale membrilor familiei. Mediul social si familial joaca un rol important in determinarea alcoolismului, fapt scos in evidenta si de un studiu efectuat de Sarbu A., Ban V., Glodan L.Bratucu S., Neamtu T. (1980). Hinkin C. si Kahn M.W. de la Departamentul de Psihiatrie si Stiinte Comportamentale, Facultatea de Medicina din Los Angeles, au avansat in 1995 conceptul de CODEPENDENTA pentru a explica unele trasaturi psihologice sugerate ca fiind caracteristice la sotiile/sotii si copii adulti ai alcoolicilor. Co-alcoolicii sunt parteneri care contribuie la mentinerea dependentei si devin fara voie complici. Martin Hambrecht prezinta patru ,,complicitati la boala'':


1.Co-alcoolicul patern
2.Co-alcoolicul matern
3.Co-alcoolicul camaraderesc
4.Co-alcoolicul profesional.

Concluzionand la tot ceea ce am descris este ca alcoolicul si familia sa au mare nevoie de ajutor terapeutic, consecintele acestei boli fiind foarte grave. Reusita tratamentului consta in participarea fiecarui membru al familiei la sedinte de psihoterapie individuala si/ de grup cu terapetti specializati in terapia familiei. Dependenta de alcool reprezinta o problema a familiei, chiar o boala familiala. Membrii familei si alcoolicul nu pot singuri constientiza ceea ce se intampla in relatiile dintre ei, fiecare neputand aprecia obiectiv situatia.

La noi in tara functioneaza grupurile Alcoolicilor Anonimi, dar si grupuri pentru codependenti. O alta institutie pentru tratarea alcoolismului este Asociatia pentru Ajutorarea Persoanelor Dependente de Alcool si Alte Droguri, membra a Crucii Albastre Internationale.

Disfunctia erectila-o abordare

interdisciplinara

psiholog Aurora Frunza

Spitalul Judetean Slatina Olt- LSM

studenta Anca Frunza

UMF Carol Davila Bucuresti

Rezumat

Termenul de disfunctie erectila este larg utilizat pentru definirea incapacitatii constante sau recurente a barbatului de a obtine si / sau mentine o erectie suficienta pentru un act sexual satisfacator. Sunt numeroase cauzele care pot conduce la disfunctie erectila. Dintre acestea ne vom ocupa de cauzele psihogene si de stress dar si de consecintele socio-profesionale (functionarea globala) produse de disfunctia erectila (DE).

Material si metoda

Studiul a avut in vedere 2 loturi de pacienti activi din punct de vedere sexual:lotul A- 23 de subiecti cu virsta cuprinsa intre 20 si 25 de ani, studenti UMF „Carol Davila” Bucuresti; lotul B- 23 de subiecti cu varsta de 50-55 de ani, studii medii si superioare, selectati pe criteriul adresabilitatii.Am folosit drept procedee de lucru: anamneza medicala, sexuala si psihosociala, instrumente standardizate de lucru (Scala de intensitate Shim,Scala de determinare a impactului DE, Scala de evaluare a depresiei, Scala Covi pentru anxietate, Scala de evaluare a functionarii globale).

Rezultate

Studiul efectuat a relevat urmatoarele aspecte: la grupa de varsta 20-25 de ani, procentul subiectilor care se confrunta cu DE este de 8,69, in timp ce subiectii cu varste cuprinse intre 50 si 55 de ani sunt mult mai afectati de aceasta boala( doar un subiect prezinta functie erectila normala, ceilalti dezvoltand un grad mai mic sau mai mare al DE ).In ceea ce priveste impactul DE, comparativ, subiectii lotului 1 sunt, in ansamblu, multumiti de viata lor sexuala, numarul celor nemultumiti de aceasta fiind mai mic decat in cazul celor apartinand lotului 2 studiat.Totodata, in cazul lotului 1 doar 3 subiecti au prezentat anxietate posibil, insa, nonrelativa cu performanta sexuala, dar in relatie cu efortul intelectual, studiul fiind realizat in sesiunea de vara ( iunie-iulie 2004).Subiectii lotului 2 au dezvoltat un grad mai mic sau mai mare al anxietatii, de aceasta data,conform anamnezei sexuale si scalei COVI, relativa la performanta sexuala.

Concluzii

Disfunctia erectila (DE) reprezinta o afectiune subdiagnosticata si prin urmare insuficient tratata asociindu-se cu disconfort considerabil si alterarea calitatii vietii. Indicele de suferinta subiectiva asociat cu aceasta afectiune este direct proportional cu severitatea disfunctiei erectile,iar indicile de anxietate si depresie se afla in relatie direct proportionala cu severitatea DE si invers proportionala cu indicele functionarii globale. Acesta din urma se afla si in relatie de interdependenta directa cu asteptarile pacientului putand fi influentat semnificativ de facori culturali,etnici si religiosi.

DE este incontestabil o tulburare psihosomatica indusa de conditii psihogene, cu o importanta componenta psihosociala.

Aspecte intrafamiliale ale ingrijitorului

bolnavului cu dementa Alzheimer

psiholog Adriana Madalina Padureanu

medic psihiatru Letitia Dobranici

Rezumat

Scopul lucrarii este acela de a descrie tipurile de probleme care apar in cadrul familiei bolnavului de dementa Alzheimer in diferite faze de evolutie a bolii. Lucrarea a fost realizata cu sprijinul specialistilor de la Centrul Memoriei iar interviurile au fost luate participantilor la grupurile de suport pentru ingrijitorii bolnavilor de Alzheimer. In viata de familie a bolnavului de Alzheimer apar multe aspecte specifice, fiecare dintre acestea necesitand o abordare particulara. Lucrarea de fata descrie schimbarile de rol si de statut profesional si social care apar in cadrul familiei odata cu declansarea bolii, modificarile survenite in starea de sanatate psihica si somatica care apar la membrii familiei care ingrijesc bolnavul de Alzheimer, situatiile care genereaza nivelul cel mai ridicat de dificultate in ingrijire. De asemenea, lucrarea cuprinde descrierea particularitatilor bolii din punct de vedere cognitiv, comportamental si functional precum si grijile speciale ale ingrijitorului in diferitele stadii de evolutie a bolii.

Implicatiile psiho-sociale ale osteoporozei de menopauza

conf. univ. dr. Mona Vintila

prep. univ. Mirona Ioana Valean

Universitatea de Vest din Timisoara

Rezumat

Introducere: Osteoporoza se include printre bolile majore legate de modul de viata. In ultima decada este recunoscuta ca o problema majora de sanatate publica atat din punct de vedere profesional cat si comunitar, in numeroase state ale lumii.

Studiul de fata si-a propus sa evidentieze diferentele in abordarea problematicii sanatatii la femeile din mediul urban fata de cele din mediul rural, precum si impactul la nivel psihic al bolii - aparitia anxietatii ca trasatura si conturarea unei labilitati emotionale accentuate in profilul personalitatii acestora.

Metoda: Cele doua esantioane au cuprins 40 de femei bolnave de osteoporoza din mediul urban si 40 de femei bolnave de osteoporoza din mediul rural. Subiectilor li s-a aplicat Inventarul pentru anxietate – STATE – Trait Anxiety Inventory X2, Inventarul de personalitate Freiburg, Chestionarul Multidimensional de Sanatate privind perspectiva subiectilor asupra sanatatii si Scala de Evaluare a Mecanismelor Cognitive de Aparare (SEMCA) legat de modalitatea de raportare a subiectilor la boala.

Rezultate: Am obtinut diferente semnificative in privinta trasaturilor de personalitate – accentuarea labilitatii emotionale - la cele doua loturi studiate consecinta a stresului determinat de efortul de a face fata dificultatilor familiale si profesionale, auto-imagine scazuta si aparitia sentimentului de inutilitate, somn insuficient din cauza grijilor si disconfortului fizic. Alte diferente semnificative s-au inregistrat in ceea ce priveste problematica preocuparii pentru sanatate la femeile din mediul urban fata de cele din mediul rural, modul de abordare fiind in stransa legatura cu educatia si conceptia de viata a acestora. Am identificat si o relatie semnificativa intre anxietate si mecanismele de coping privind modul de prelucrare a informatiei negative ca modalitate de raportare la starea de boala.

Concluzie: Modificarile de ordin intern si extern aparute ca urmare a efectelor cumulative ale osteoporozei au la baza implicatii psiho-sociale care se repercuteaza in mod direct in viata femeii afectand sfera relatiilor intrafamiliale a acesteia dar si pe cea a interrelatiilor cu oamenii din jurul sau.

IV. SESIUNI DE POSTERE

Terapia de familie in conditiile experientei depresive

Letitia Filimon

Universitatea din Oradea

Rezumat

Lucrarea incepe cu o discutie asupra depresiei, natura si impactul sau: costurile socio-economice si cheltuielile de sanatate, perturbarea familiei si suferinta individului. In capitolul urmator sunt rezumate legaturile bidirectionale dintre depresie si distres, teoriile psihologice prin care se explica aparitia si mentinerea depresiei intr-un context relational marcat de distres si cercetarile asupra terapiei de familie, in conditiile prezentei depresiei, cercetari asupra terapiilor comportamentale, cognitive si cognitiv-comportamentale, strategice si experientiale. In continuare, trecem in revista concluziile cercetarilor privind factorii cognitivi si comportamentali pe baza carora se diferentiaza familia cu depresie/distres de cea nondepresiva si fara distres, precum si studiile privind influenta functionarii familiei asupra reaparitiei sau cronicitatii depresiei. Concluzionam cu o prezentare mai detaliata a terapiei comportamentale de familie: argumentarea tratamentului, evaluarea functionarii relatiilor familiale si a functionarii individului, structura terapiei, rolul terapeutului, tehnicile terapeutice si mecanismele schimbarii. Principalele tehnici menite sa amelioreze simptomele unui partener depresiv prezentate intr-un studiu de caz, sunt: argumentarea tratamentului, psihoeducatia privind influenta depresiei asupra sanatati relatiei, schimbarea comportamentului, exersarea comunicarii si a rezolvarii de probleme, prevenirea reinstalarii

Scheme cognitive si satisfactie maritala

Daniela Roman

Universitatea din Oradea

Rezumat

Pornind de la Modelul cognitiv comportamental al familiei si de la Terapia cognitiva a lui Beck in ceea ce priveste influenta schemelor cognitive disfunctionale asupra starii emotionale a individului, cercetarea propune studierea influentelor acestor scheme cognitive asupra satisfactiei maritale.

Aceasta teorie (CBF) incearca sa explice satisfactia maritala avand la baza urmatoarele doua principii: cognitiile privind familia si abilitatea de a rezolva problemele.

Cercetarea porneste de la urmatoarele ipoteze:

Schemele cognitive disfunctionale influenteaza satisfactia maritala; Schemele cognitive disfunctionale influenteaza atribuirea controlului marital; Schemele cognitive disfunctionale duc la distres emotional si comportamente dezadaptative.

Participantii la acest studiu, in numar de 80 (40 de cupluri casatorite), au varste cuprinse intre 22 si 60 de ani si provin atat din mediul urban, cat si rural, avand diferite profesii.

Pentru aceasta cercetare am folosit urmatoarele instrumente:

Chestionarul schemelor cognitive

Scala de ganduri, emotii si comportamente

Scala de masurare a satisfactiei maritale (Dyadic adjustment scale)

Scala de masurare a controlului marital (Miller marital locus of control scale)

Rezultatele obtinute sustin ipotezele formulate si permit sublinierea unor concluzii. Schemele cognitive disfunctionale duc la o satisfactie maritala scazuta, la locus of control extern, la distres emotional si comportamente dezadaptative.

Mai exact, sotul sau sotia care are convingerea ca nu poate fi placut de cei din jur, ca celalti vor profita de el, ca il vor parasi, ca este mai putin eficient decat ceilalti, ca este necesar sa-si ascunda trairile emotionale, va manifesta o satisfactie maritala scazuta.

De asemenea, partenerul cuplului marital cu credinta in scheme disfunctionale are un locus of control extern; nu va participa la rezolvarea conflictelor din familie, nici la sustinerea fericirii maritale, intrucat credinta acestuia este ca totul vine din afara, ca esti fericit daca te fac ceilalti fericit ori daca ai noroc.

In ceea ce priveste comportamentele dezadaptative, rezultatele sunt semnificative, cu exceptia a doua scale. Aceeasi situatie o intalnim si in cazul distresului emotional. Se poate afirma ca persoanele cu convingeri disfunctionale vor manifesta comportamente dezadaptative in casnicie, recurgand la cearta si violenta in situatiile problematice, exprimand emotii negative disfunctionale si dezadaptative.

Lucrarea de fata are implicatii la nivel teoretic si pragmatic. In psihoterapie se urmareste identificarea schemelor cognitive disfunctionale si inlocuirea acestora cu scheme cognitive functionale, care duc la satisfactie maritala.

Calitatea vietii de cuplu

Psiholog Adriana Dicu

Rezumat

Desi tema cuplului conjugal a aparut simultan cu aparitia omului, ea a fost abordata stiintific, in centre specializate de relativ putina vreme. In Romania, consilierea familiala trateaza, in special, problemele sexuale si de contraceptie in cadrul centrelor de planing familial sau problemele legate de cresterea copiilor in cadrul centrelor de protectie a drepturilor copilului sub indrumarea medicilor si mai putin a psihologilor.

Relatiile cu ceilalti si, mai ales, calitatea acestor relatii – fie ca sunt relatii de prietenie, de iubire sau de rudenie – isi pun amprenta asupra imaginii personale asa cum si imaginea personala influenteaza relatiile interpersonale.

Integrarea armonioasa in relatia de cuplu este o dovada a intelegerii si acceptarii responsabilitatilor ce le revin celor doi parteneri. O personalitate matura nu cauta o compensare sau un refugiu in cuplu, nu-si cauta un partener care sa-i aduca echilibrul personal ca pe un dar. Singura forma de dragoste capabila sa asigure fericirea unui cuplu este aceea dintre doua personalitati echilibrate ce isi cunosc adevarata valoare si nu imaginea idealizata careia ar vrea sa-i semene.

Fericirea in cuplu este un concept greu de definit care difera de la un cuplu la altul. In linii generale, fericirea se identifica cu sentimentul de completitudine care, in cuplu, este provocat de calitatea relatiei celor doi.

Chiar daca multe relatii esueaza lamentabil, majoritatea cuplurilor se formeaza cu scopul si cu dorinta arzatoare ca relatia lor sa dureze si nu-si pot imagina motivele care ar putea sa-i determine sa se desparta. Insa motive si obstacole exista si de cele mai multe ori marea provocare este capacitatea de a se adapta la viata in doi, de a renunta la unele activitati personale in favoarea celor conjugale sau de a-si pastra calmul in timpul conflictelor inerente unei relatii.

Cercetarea, analiza calitativa a relatiei de cuplu, a aratat ca exista o relatie directa intre stima de sine si conceptia despre sine, lume si viata pe de o parte si calitatea vietii de cuplu pe de alta parte.

Nimeni nu poate da reteta reusitei relatiei de cuplu nu numai pentru ca fiecare privim in mod subiectiv problematica, dar mai ales pentru ca exista un numar foarte mare de factori ce o influenteaza: tensiunea sentimentelor, educatia, mediul, personalitatile si caracterele celor doi etc. Totusi, a adopta o atitudine pozitiva fata de sine, fata de partener si fata de viata, in general, poate avea efecte benefice, iar aceasta atitudine se transpune in actiuni precum:



urmarirea bunastarii si implinirii personale; pare paradoxal, dar este adevarat, pentru ca nu poti oferi nimic celui de linga tine atunci cind nu poti sa-ti oferi nimic tie insuti;

asumarea responsabilitatii asupra propriului comportament;

fii un bun prieten al tau;

implicarea in activitati impreuna cu grupul tau de prieteni; timpul petrecut cu ceilalti este timp pentru tine;

constientizarea sentimentelor personale fata de partener;

cunoasterea sentimentelor partenerului pentru a veni in intampinarea lui.

Aceste actiuni nu sunt legi, nu reprezinta principii validate in viata de cuplu. Sunt, de fapt, principii general valabile, chiar daca nu esti implicat intr-o relatie de cuplu trebuie sa-ti fii un bun prieten, sa-ti exprimi si sa-ti asumi responsabilitatea pentru comportamentul tau, sa-ti cunosti sentimentele pe care le nutresti pentru diferite persoane din jurul tau si sa cunosti sentimentele pe care altii le simt pentru tine.

Sculptura – tehnica terapeutica eficienta in abordarea cuplului aflat in dificultate

Studii de caz

psih. Msd.Lévai Mihaela Ioana

consilier de familie

Fundatia Albin, Oradea

Rezumat

Fiind unitatea de baza a relatiilor interumane, cuplul trebuie sa fie in centrul atentiei atunci cand unul din membri familiei prezinta un anumit simptorm in jurul caruia se organizeaza intregul sistem. Adesea acest symptom este expresia unor disfunctii la nivelul cuplului conjugal sau parental. Lupta pentru hegemonie in cuplu duce la conflicte care pot aparea constient sau inconstient si care reduc satisfactia maritala. Cand conflictul este latent, ori negat de cei doi parteneri “de dragul armoniei”, abordarea lui directa este ineficienta. In asemenea cazuri metodele optime de comunicare sunt cele bazate pe limbaj analogic. Virginia Satir si colab. propun un mod inedit de comunicare despre relatiile intrafamiliale, in general si intracuplu, in special, prin sculptarea relatiilor. Aceasta tehnica terapeutica are ca prim obiectiv reducerea verbalizarii excessive si realizarea unei intalniri intime autentice intre cei doi parteneri.

Lucrarea urmareste sa prezinte aplicari concrete ale tehnicii de sculptare in cazul a doua cupluri cu blocaj in comunicare. Primul cuplu se confrunta cu dificultati la nivelul relatiei sexuale, iar cel de-al doilea aduce in vizor lupta pentru hegemonie si tema increderii in cuplu. In ambele cazuri s-a utilizat tehnica sculpturilor, dupa modelul propus de Philippe Caillé.

Utilizarea sculpturii in consilierea cuplului are anumite avantaje atat pentru cei implicati, cat si pentru terapeut, dar eficatitatea ei depinde de priceperea terapeutului si de abilitatea lui de a “citi ” mesajul sculptat.

Factorii satisfactiei in cuplu

Credinta, ca resursa

Drd. Ferenczi Réka Rozália

Universitatea Maghiara din Transilvania – Sapientia

Targu – Mures

Rezumat

Dupa Elisabeth Elliot (1998) este de ajuns sa meditam 5 minute asupra sexualitatii si ne dam seama, ca ne confruntam cu un secret. Cine ne poate explica dinamica relatiei dintre barbat si femeie? Solomon, cel mai intelept om, care a trait vreodata, ne marturiseste ca il depaseste acest subiect:

Vezi Pildele din Biblie 30.18-19

In lucrarea mea relatez factorii de reusita in alegerea partenerului, si factorii predictivi si actionali ai satisfactiei in cuplu. Ma opresc asupra celor mai importante probleme de cuplu si asupra diferentelor intre sexe. In final analizez relatia dintre satisfactia in cuplu si viata de familie. Incerc sa gasesc rolul credintei, religiei in acest proces.

Impactul stresului cotidian asupra femeilor

Bodea Camelia, Iacob Cosmina

Rezumat

Traim intr-o lume plina de tensiune si stres, iar modul in care raspundem la tracasarile zilnice este important pentru sanatatea noastra. In vietile noastre se inlantuie presiunile si problemele ale caror impact il simtim acasa, in familie, la scoala, la serviciu si spunem ”sunt stresat”. Lucrarea Impactul stresului cotidian asupra femeii are la baza Modelul circumplex al familiei a lui R.Olson si Modelul fiziologic al stresului si teoria raspunsului elaborata de Selye, Modelul cauzal si teoria stimulilor, Modelul interactional si teoria tranzactionala

Scopul cercetarii este de a scoate in evidenta masura in care stresul cotidian este determinat de interactiunea dintre statutul profesional si statutul marital al femeii, in ce masura tipul de familie din care face parte femeia influenteaza nivelul de stres perceput si mecanismele de coping utilizate. De asemenea urmarim sa reliefam modul in care statutul profesional si marital influenteaza mecanismele de coping utilizate in scopul adaptarii la situatii stresante.

Subiecti: 40 de femei alese aleator casatorite/necasatorite, cu loc de munca/fara loc de munca.

Procedura: Testele utilizate: Scala de Perceptia Stresului (Perceived Stress Questionnaire), Scala de Coping (COPE), Scala de Adaptabilitate si Coeziune Familiala ( Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale II). Testele au fost aplicate individual.

Ipoteza: 1. Interactiunea dintre statutul profesional si statutul marital influenteaza nivelul stresului perceput

Ipoteza 2. Interactiunea dintre statutul profesional si statutul marital influenteaza mecanismele de coping

Ipoteza 3. Tipul de familie influenteaza nivelul de stres perceput

Ipoteza 4. Tipul de familie influenteaza mecanismele de coping

Concluzii: In acest studiu vom vedea in ce masura, tinand cont de influentele zilnice, femeile isi mobilizeaza resursele constructiv folosind mecanismele de coping pe cand altele in mod negativ trecand in situatii de criza. Motivul pentru care unele femei folosesc mecanisme de coping pe cand altele nu, este in functie de semnificatia pe care o are evenimentul pentru ea.

Rezultatele acestui studiu pot fi folosite in consilierea maritala si familiala.

Utilitatea terapiei familiale

in situatia de expertiza medico legala

lect. dr. Zamosteanu Alina Oana

lect. drd. Anghel Zvetlana-Mandruta

Universitatea „Tibiscus”, Timisoara

psih. Mircea Carmen Mihaela, psih., S.C. Elma Electronic S.R.L., Timisoara

Oravitan Netodea Daniel, student

Universitatea „Tibiscus”, Timisoara

Rezumat

Lucrarea are in vedere prezentarea unor modele si concepte specifice terapiei familiale, precum si a unor modalitati de interventie, referindu-se la aspecte precum: structura familiala, ciclul de viata, parentificare, loialitate, genograma. Toate acestea sunt folosite in vederea lecturarii sistemice a unei situatii cu implicatii medico-legale, cu particularizare la un caz de incest. Importanta unei asemenea aplicatii a conceptelor si tehnicilor terapiei familiale rezida intr-o mai profunda intelegere, la nivel familial, a situatiei mentionate, evitand interpretarea simplista a acesteia in termeni de victima-abuzator. Lucrarea poate servi ca punct de plecare in abordarea pluridisciplinara, cu referire la terapia familiala, a situatiilor cu implicatii medico-legale.

Gandurile irationale si insatisfactia maritala

psiholog Popus Adriana

S.A.M. „Ioan Bococi”, Oradea

pornind de la teoria lui Ellis in ce priveste influenta negativa a gandurilor irationale asupra starii emotionale a individului, am extins studiul si asupra satisfactiei maritale.

Presupunand ca aceste cognitii evaluative irationale au un efect devastator si in cadrul familiei, am formulat cateva ipoteze mai specifice pe care am dorit sa le verificam. Am presupus astfel ca insatisfactia maritala este cauza directa a acestor cognitii irationale, ca acestea duc la distres emotional si comportamente dezadaptative (cearta si agresarea fizica a partenerului / partenerei), ca acele ganduri evaluative irationale influenteaza si cognitiile inferentiale (atribuirile, expectantele, locus of control, eficacitatea), la care am mai adaugat doua ipoteze de verificare conform carora am presupus ca vor exista diferente semnificative intre stadiile vietii de familie (necasatoriti, casatoriti cu copii si casatoriti fara copii) si intre femei si barbati in cea ce priveste gradul de rationalitate si cel al satisfactiei maritale.

Pentru verificarea acestor ipoteze am folosit urmatoarele instrumente: scala ABS 2 (Atitude and beliefs scale), PB (Survey of personal beliefs), chestionarul de ganduri, emotii si comportamente (elaborat de S.Popa si A. Popus) si scala vizand satisfactia maritala.

Prima ipoteza a experimentului a fost confirmata de datele semnificative pe care le-am obtinut: mai exact subiectii irationali s-au dovedit a fi mai nesatisfacuti decat cei rationali in sarcini precum realizarea sarcinilor din gospodarie, activitatile sociale, bani, comunicare cu partenerul / partenera, viata sexuala.

Din cadrul categoriilor de cognitii evaluative irationale cea mai puternica in cadrul familiei s-a dovedit a fi cea de evaluare globala a persoanei, fie ea raportata la confort, aprobare sau realizare, deoarece aceasta a determinat insatisfactia subiectilor irationali in toate domeniile, de la realizarea sarcinilor din gospodarie pana la independenta personala.

Rezultatele semnificative au dus si la confirmarea celei de a doua ipoteza a lucrarii, conform careia am presupus ca acei subiecti care sunt mai irationali vor ajunge si la un distres emotional mai mare decat cei rationali si vor avea si comportamente dezadaptative. Aceasta inseamna ca acei subiecti irationali care gandesc 'trebuie in mod absolut sa am confort, sa fiu realizat, sa fiu satisfacut, . ' vor avea emotii mai intense precum ingrijorare, suparare, enervare, remuscare, regret, dezamagire (acestea fiind emotii adaptative) sau anxietate, tristete, furie, vina, rusine, durere (emotii dezadaptative) si vor ajunge la comportamente dezadaptative precum cearta sau chiar agresarea fizica a partenerului / partenerei.

In ceea ce priveste influenta cognitiilor evaluative asupra cognitiilor inferentiale - ipoteza nr. 3 - datele au fost si de aceasta data semnificative. Prin urmare subiectii irationali au fost cei care au facut atribuiri externe de tipul: 'el / ea e de vina sau familia lui / ei, educatia pe care a primit-o!'.

Am mai dorit sa verificam daca cognitiile irationale difera si in functie de evolutia (stadiile) vietii de familie. Datele obtinute de noi confirma aceasta ipoteza, mai exact diferentele cele mai semnificative sunt intre cuplurile de necasatoriti si cei de casatoriti cu copii. Acestia din urma se dovedesc a fi cei mai irationali, aceasta se poate explica si datorita faptului ca au mult mai multe responsabilitati vis-ŕ-vis de cresterea si educarea copiilor, de asigurarea atat a confortului fizic si psihic personal, cat si cel al copiilor.

In final mai adaugam faptul ca nu exista diferente semnificative intre barbati si femei in ceea ce priveste irationalitatea si satisfactia maritala.

Cum gandesc copiii nostri?

Lector univ. drd. Simona Trip

Lector univ. drd. Cecilia Sas

Psiholog Pasca Paula

Universitatea din Oradea

Rezumat

Modelul cognitiv - comportamental al familiei sugereaza ca familiile si astfel membrii societatii vor manifesta sanatate mentala daca vor avea o buna intelegere a ceea ce inseamna familie si isi vor invata copiii acest lucru. De asemenea modelul cognitiv - comportamental sustine ca si factori de predictie a fericirii maritale: 1) cognitiile relationate de familie pe care sotii le au si 2) deprinderile lor de rezolvare de probleme. Baucom, Epstein, Sayers si Sher (1989) identifica urmatoarele variabilele cognitive ca fiind importante in relatiile de familie (apud Schwebel si Fine, 1994): atentie selectiva; atribuiri;expectante, mediu sau lung; asumptii; standarde. Acestea formeaza teoria personala asupra familiei, teorie care se transmite de-a lungul generatiilor. Ellis considera cognitiile irationale ca fiind standarde disfunctionale cu privire la cum noi, altii si lumea ar trebui sa functioneze. Rezultatele acestui studiu subliniaza o puternica relatie intre nivelul irationalitatii parintilor si cel al copiilor, aceleasi categorii de cognitii irationale sunt manifestate atat de parinti cat si de copii.

V. ATELIERE DE LUCRU

Psihoterapia experientiala a cuplului

Prof.univ.dr. Iolanda Mitrofan

Universitatea din Bucuresti

Rezumat

Optimizarea relatiei de cuplu se bazeaza pe autoconstientizarea nevoilor de relatie si a strategiei interactionale specifice fiecaruia dintre noi in relatia de parteneriat, in general, si a celei de cuplu, in special. Modalitatile experientiale cu suport creativ-expresiv produc insight-uri revelatoare privind dinamica asteptarilor, proiectiilor, interactiunilor si stilului de comunicare si luare a deciziilor in cuplu. Tendintele la control si manipulare a partenerului, precum si deficitele de exprimare emotionala pot polariza in jurul imaginii de sine, a nivelului de autoincredere si a abilitatilor asertive personale. Exercitiile practicate in cadrul workshop-ului in maniera nonverbala (grafica), centrat pe tematica delimitarii teritoriului, raportului intruziune-excludere, tipurilor de granite si negocierii conflictului pot conduce ad-hoc, aici si acum, la constientizari si restructurari atitudinale si comportamentale in relatia de parteneriat. Experimentul in grup este nu doar provocativ pentru o mai buna autocunoastere, ci si autorestructurativ (diferentiat de la caz la caz)

Principii ratinal emotive si comportamentale in educarea copiilor

lect.univ.drd. Simona Trip

Universitatea din Oradea

Educatia rational emotiva si comportamentala este o aplicatie a terapiei rational emotive si comportamentale in educatie. Programele de educatie rational emotiva si comportamentala au un caracter de preventie a distresului emotional si a problemelor comportamentale in randul copiilor si adolescentilor, ele se adreseaza in principal dezvoltarii sanatatii mintale si nu recuperarii din patologie. Studiile arata ca ele pot fi utilizate cu succes de catre consilierii scolari cu scopul de a urmari dezvoltarea academica, personal-sociala si vocationala a elevilor. Sunt discutate atat concluziile studiilor anterioare cat si viitoare directii de cercetare in domeniul educatiei rational emotive si comportamentale.

Chei in investigarea complexa a familiei dependentului de drog

Prof.univ.dr. Ruxandra Rascanu

Universitatea din Bucuresti

Rezumat

Studiul prezentat cuprinde 32 persoane dependente de drog + familiile lor, investigate psiho-clinic prin utilizarea „CFDD”. Subiectii au varsta intre 19 si 30 de ani, ambele sexe, scolaritate: medie si superioara (nefinalizata), 18 casatoriti si 14 divortati

Concluziile studiului sunt: Necesitatea continuarii studiilor de tip interdisciplinar; Dezvoltarea unor retele puternice de voluntari instruiti dintre tineri; Educatia continua a adultilor, mai ales cand au intemeiat o familie; Lipsa afectiunii in familie genereaza modele negative sau nestructurarea modelelor parentale (materne + paterne) fapt care duce la cautarea lipsei --------- NIRVANA drogurilor !; Asigurarea bunastarii materiale (in exces, fara eforturi de coparticipant pentru copil) nu genereaza modele pozitive in familie, ci modele negative; Aparitia (prin imitatie de multe ori) a modelelor negative de tip occidental determina non-acceptarea normelor si valorilor autohtone (mai ales cand nu au conotatii cunoscute) fapt ce va avea un impact resimtit la nivelul psihismului global prin introectarea mai rapida a modelelor negative de catre minor; Lipsa comunicarii – Cauza si efect in fenomenologia dependentei de drog

„Derapajul” in lumea dependentei de drog evidentiaza note de infantilism nu doar la tineri, ci si la adultii din familia de origine.

VI. ABSTRACTS

Cognitive Factors in couple dynamics

Ph.D. Daniel David

University „Babes-Bolyai”

Abstract

The study presents the cognitive models of couple dynamics. A comprehensive analysis shows the strong and the weak points of each examined model. A new integrative and empirical supported model is proposed.

The roles’ division in contemporan family

Ph.D. Chipea Floare, Lavinia Onica-Chipea

University of Oradea

Abstract

The paper tackles the influence of the social changes concretized in the progress of technology, the implication of women in extrafamily activities and the change of social norms in the sense of promoting individualism upon the exercice of the roles within the family. The differences between the family behavior registered in Romanian society (the tendency in decreasing the rate of marriages of fertility, increasing of divorce rate and infractionality, but more temperate compared to those characterized by the the developed societies) is accountable for the low rhytms of economic development, through the cultural norms which protect the family system and even the public policies in the field of family.

The influence of family enviornmet upon th cognitive and expresive performance in early childhood

Ph.D. Elena Bonchis

University of Oradea

Abstract

The issue of nature – nurture influences upon the human development process is not a new one, by contrary it is older than Psychology itself, considered as a sience.

This controversy, which has aroused heated debates, is today, in opinion of A. Birch (1999), more powerfull than ever. However, the question it is not posed in nature versus nurture terms, but rather it is phrased in terms of the joint influences of heredity and environment conditions.

So, the problem raised refers to the relative importance of the nature and nurture. The studies on this topic reveal the great contribution of the environment, especially familiy influences, upon the entire human development. From this perspective, this paper refers to the differences between preschoolers cognitive performances, revealed within the problem solving activity of the conservation tasks used by J. Piaget and of the expressive tasks typical for the “ship drawing”.

Children as savers

Elena Anghel

SPER

Abstratc

The child is the symptom of the whole family. His emotional or behavioural difficulties sign their parents’ distress. When the parents decide to see a therapist for the child, they actually see him or her for themselves. Very good observer of the couple dynamic, the child indirectly tells them that the parental couple do not function effectively anymore. That is why he or she brings the parents to counselling or psychotherapy. The advantages of experiential diagnosis, the efficacy of arttherapy and psychodrama well adjusted to family therapy techniques increases each member’s well-being and establishes a new balance in the family system. Thus, child psychotherapy is very often integrated in family psychotherapy.

Is Beating Coming From Heaven?!

Laura Elena Nastasa, Laura Teodora David

University Transilvania Brasov

Motto: „Our children give us the chance to become the parents we always want it us to be.”

(L. Hart)

Abstract

The present paper wishes to disclose the children’s perception upon parents’ abuse over them.

General hypothesis: Within the process of sensibilization over public opinion about parents’ abuse over underage children, the last ones may be efficient partners because they are able to defend their rights through different means: information, problems solving and empathic and assertive attitudes depending on necessities.

There were involved two groups of 15 children aged between 12 and 14. They were informed about means and rules of group counseling and it was underlined that their opinion is important.

The provocative methods used determined a pleasant and creative atmosphere, which allowed the students a direct and spontaneous manifestation of their ideas and feelings. The activity was structured in three stages:

  1. Revealing the level of students knowledge about parents abuse over children through exercises for interrelation, personal considerations over a commercial advertising about abuse and „Release the peanuts” exercise.
  2. Completing of information and solution finding doing feature report about abused children and exercises like „The flying balloon” and „Dialogue bubbles”.
  3. Students participation in a role play named „An abuse trial” in order to exercise the defense of their rights.

The results show that, in general, the children have knowledge about family violence, which come from mass media and also from friends, parents, relatives, teachers and psychologist. They demonstrate interest and implication when curiosity, other persons and reality drive them.

They are able to construct commercial advertising using penetrating messages like: „Adults, you don’t know the pain of a beaten child!” or „When you heat a child is like you tear a rare flower!”.

Children can offer each other an open and safe environment where they show themselves and also compete. They prove tenacious in achieving their goals, creativity and spontaneity.

The role-playing has the objective to place the child in the role of abused one and after that in the one of a friend. The first role helped them to discover the feelings from inside and doing so to find the best solutions as a friend. In the end the students played the most difficult roles during the trial, feeling intense and sometimes opposite emotions, but all were winners.

The activity was well appreciated by all participants. During these sessions new effective means emerged through we can involve children in their own formative process as adults, becoming valuable partners and defenders of children rights because: „When you look at the world through a child eyes you know how to make it better!”.

Parents as saboteurs in the psychotherapy

of children with conduct disorders

Ph.D. Geanina Cucu-Ciuhan

University of Pitesti

Abstract

In the treatment of children conduct disorders the psychotherapist must take into account some problems that can occur and that can perturb the parent’s involvement into the therapy.

The first problem, very actual in our country, is related with the involvement of the parents in the therapeutic process. From this point of view we can talk about three categories of parents: reticent, passive and active. The reticent parents are the ones who take as a personal affront the referring of their child to the psychological office, even it’s about the school counselor’s office. The therapist must understand that, from practical reasons, the child mental illness is defined depending on the parents, and he has to work under theses parameters. He must understand the ways parents use to define their children emotional problems. The passive parents are the ones who, even they referred their child to the psychotherapy office, they think that their role is complete and their only hope is that at the end of the necessary number of séances, the child will come from the door hilled and they will continue their lives peacefully. The active parents are the ones who solicit by themselves the psychotherapist and are actively involving themselves in the therapeutic process. But, also in this case, we must take into the account the fact that the parents are emotionally involved in the child’s difficulties and can alliterate the descriptions.

The second problem is related to the fact that the parents are a part of the problem, a partial or even fundamental cause of the child’s disturbance. They can modify the information given to the therapist unconscious or even conscious, from a very powerful sense of guilt. In many cases, the distortion of information and differences between parents can have much more importance than the original information. This happens because, whatever is the therapeutic orientation, the parents are directly indirectly a part of the treatment. In fact, the parents control the therapeutic access to the child, and this means that understanding a child can have no use if the therapist doesn’t understand the parents and doesn’t help them to go on with the treatment.

This paper analyses the way in witch the therapist can actively involve the parents in the therapeutic treatment of the conduct disorder child and presents case studies.

The indifferent parental style and its effects on child’s development

Diana Saitis, Delia Fodor

Cluj-Napoca

Abstract

The lenient parental style is characterized by the fact that the parents do not clearly communicate the set of rules they have established , they do not impose them, give in to their child’s emotional blackmail (i.e. crying) and apply inconsistent punitive measures. When carried to extremes, this style is visible in negligence and indifference to the child with a high frequency of rejecting behaviour. This leads to repressed affection and lack of interest in the growth , education or possible problems of the child. Entrusting the grandparents with the child’s care can be considered a common and often guised form of indifference, which creates distortions in the process of consolidation of parental representation.

Children raised by lenient parents become impulsive, aggressive and resistant to authority and they do not comply to the rules. They don’t have goals and display lack of self confidence and reduced self-control. In addition to this, in the case of negligence there comes the hostility in the parents-children relationship, an attitude that can foster a deviant behaviour of the child. (school skipping, lying, theft, physical and verbal violence towards the entourage and drug addiction., etc.). If the child is brought up by his grandparents, misunderstandings occur when the parents ‘claim’ their rights. These are caused by an ever-changing father figure instills in the child denial and resistance to non-imprinted figures. The factors that influence the quality of family life are:

-single parent family units

-financial means

-the parents’ work places –frequent absence from home ( sometimes both parents work abroad and the child is raised by the grandparents or a third party)

-technology (TV, Internet, PC) replaces to a large extent the family interactions, being often ‘used’ as a baby-sitter

-culture and family values (the parents’ level of education and culture, their values, etc.)

The paper presents the case of an eleven year-old with a defying opposing disorder. Thus H. is irascible, he fights his mother, refuses to comply to the requirements and the rules imposed by the latter. The son’s attitude towards his mother is ambivalent and he reacts violently when she asks for a certain type of behavior although he verbally expresses his affection and feels anxious when his mother ignores him or when temporary separation is an issue. The student’s school results are very low, his self-esteem is diminished, in spite of an above average intellect. In what concerns his social skills, the child integrates into the class community easily, but has no friends outside school and shows no interest in relating to persons of the same age.

These manifestations are the consequences of his parents’ neglect (the father’s, through his prolonged absence, total lack of implication, physical abuse and verbal violence stemming from alcohol consumption and his mother’s who spends a limited time with the child, being shallow , inconsistent and not emotionally involved most of the times)

During the counselling sessions that both the mother and the child attended, the main objectives were re-establishing the mother-son emotional connection , creating a set of rules concerning household rules that should be observed in the future and increasing the child’s self-esteem.

The counselling resulted in reducing the child’s violent manifestations and obtaining a better self-control of his impulses. Also,the mother has been taught to display a more adequate way of expressing her affection towards her son, and to motivate the child to study as a result of a higher self- esteem.

“The girl in tears”

Elena Vladislav

S.P.E.R.

Abstract

This case cast a light on the way mother’s dysfunctional defensive mechanisms get transferred to and generate child’s depression. A seven year old girl was brought to psychotherapy because she used to cry every day while at school. The study offers an inside into the meaning of child’s cry in the family system and into the way the psychotherapeutical plan is achieve.

The hypothesis of the case was that the cry is the expression of child’s suffering as a result of repeated losses over the last year of her life. It was the mirror reflection of her mothers’ unexpressed depression after she lost both her parents while she was pregnant. The mother didn’t mourn her parents and consequently the child didn’t learn the natural mechanisms of defense against losses. Between mother and child there was fused relationship, the girl acting as a screen for mother’s depression to be projected on.

Psychotherapeutical sessions of experiential type focused on child-mother relationship, aiming at defining the limits between relationship and consolidating each role in the family.

Gyermekvédelem és családkonzultáció

Fazakas Ida

Eszterházy Károly Főiskola, Eger

Albin Alapítvány, Nagyvárad

szociálpedagógus, szociális munkás

A családkonzultációt, családterápiát egyre több területen alkalmazzák a gyakorlatban, így a gyerekvédelemben is. Természetesen a magyarországi gyermekvédelem alakulóban van, és ennek mind a törvényi, mind a gyakorlati munkában látjuk bizonyítékait. Ebben a tanulmányban nem térünk ki a magyarországi gyermekvédelem egész rendszerének az elemzésére, csupán egy szeletét emeljük ki, a gyermekvédelmi gyakorlatban alkalmazható családkonzultációs lehetőségeket. Összefoglaljuk azokat a tényezőket, amelyek a családorientált megközelítésmódot elkülönítik a hatósági munkától, és megpróbáljuk ennek a szemléletnek a hatékonyságát láttatni. Külön kiemeljük azokat a motivációs tényezőket, amelyek a családorientált konzultáció első fontos eleme, hogy a gyakorlatban sokszor érvényesülő „kötelező együttműködés” ellentmondását feloldjuk.

The Multisystemyc Approach And Family Therapy To A Psychotic Child

L. Nussbaum, A.Jurma,

Timisoara

Abstract

The central concept for the family therapy is the system. In the family system, the family members are very close, that a perturbation of family system homeostasis goes to a patient identification, which is presented like a dysfunction.

The multisystemic approach is a way to analyze the influence of different situations (family, school, friends, and community) to the child behavior. This therapy suppose the interventions for the child, parents, couple, large family, school and specialists who work with the child. This paper has the goal to presentation the multisystemic approach for a psychotic child.

A Systemic Approach Of The

Family Houses From Romania

Oana Simona Tuduce

Special School No .1 Oradea,

Abstract

Working with abandoned children that are institutionalised in different types of placement centers, I wanted to identify by the means of this work, the way of fonctioning of the family houses, these being quite a new way of institutionalisation in our country.

After trying to draw a general background of the institutionalisation phenomenon in Romania after 1989, presenting some data about the child’s protection strategy at national level, and about the steps that has been done from 1990 till nowadays, concerning the abandoned children, I concentrated on the analyses of the placement center as a family house, known as „family house”. I have presented the staff and the members of such a „family”, their duties and I have approached it from the Sistemic Theory’s point of view. I have identified the systems and the sub-systems that exist in such a „family”, their rules, the borders between them and the roles each member has.

I have also made some proposals regarding the solving of the difficult aspects, that may contribute to the finding of a more efficient ways of working in and with these institutions.

A szülői nevelői és konfliktus megoldási stílus hatása a 10-12 éves gyerekek személyiségére

Réka Rozália Ferenczi

Sapientia – Erdélyi Magyar Tudományegyetemen

Humántudományok Tanszék

Marosvásárhely

Ranschburg (1977) a következőképpen vélekedik: „Nincs értelme – de nem is lehet hosszú ideig – más arcot mutatnunk gyermekeinknek, tanítványainknak, mint amilyenek valójában vagyunk, és magunkat, egész személyiségünket kell előbb olyanná – vagy megközelítően olyanná – alakítanunk, amilyenné gyermekeinket vagy tanítványainkat nevelni szeretnénk.”

A fenti idézet azt igazolja, hogy a családi nevelés és a személyiség kapcsolata iskoláskorban a mintaadáson, a mintakövetésen alapszik. E két tényező közötti szoros összefüggést több elmélet, kutatás igazolja, mint pl. a Kozéki modell, Maccoby és Martin modellje, Baumrind modellje, Becker modellje, Anderson modellje.

Előadásomban egy vizsgálatról számolok be, mely a szülők nevelési stílusát, konfliktus megoldási módozatait a gyerekek szemszögéből méri fel, megállapítva, hogy kinek a stílusát tartják követendőnek. Továbbá kitérek arra, hogy a különböző nevelési stílusok, konfliktus megoldási módozatok milyen hatással vannak a gyerek személyiségének Eysenck szerinti dimenzióira: a pszichoticitásra, az extraverzió-introverzióra, a neutrocitásra, a szociális konformitásra, az impulzivitásra, a vállalkozó kedvre, az empátiára, a feszültség, félelem, szorongás, a pszichikus tenzió skálájára, az adekvát, pozitív önértékelés skálájára, a külső kontroll mértékét megállapító skálára.

Effects Of Parental Models Absence Upon The Gender Beliefs System Of The Institutionnalized Adolescents

Monica-Liana SECUI

University of Oradea

Abstract

The interest given to the study of gender identity and roles continues to be high, been well known the fact that belonging to a sex category has profound implication at psychological and socio-cultural level. The perspective offered by the theoretical approaches of the gender beliefs system development - gender identity, stereotypes and attitudes toward gender roles - emphasize the importance of parents as main social agents. A large body of research results certifies the differential treatment of boys and girls, and also the process of observational learning due to parental models exposure. Taking into account these aspects, the study of the way in which gender beliefs of the abandoned adolescents placed in residential care units are structured is a topic of interest for both theoretical and practical reasons, having in view the importance of gender identity in interpersonal functioning, especially within the intimate, love relations. The aim of our study is to investigate this problem based on the data obtained for a sample of 177 adolescents (13-18 years), setting two equivalent groups from participants’ sex and age point of view: 60 adolescents from residential care units (29 boys and 31 girls) and 117 adolescents grown by their own families (55 boys and 62 girls). The measures used for the assessment of gender beliefs are Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1975, 1978) for masculinity and femininity, Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996) for hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes, and a set of personality characteristics selected from Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974) for gender stereotypes content. The results indicate interesting particularities of the institutionalized adolescents’ gender identity and attitudes. The boys from residential care units present a lower level of masculinity, a less stereotyped view of males on masculine traits, and a very small, practically statistic not significant, bias in favor of their own sex group. There are not significant differences between the femininity level of the girls from institutions and family, but the hostile sexism of girls from residential care units is higher and their image about males is less conforming to social stereotypes content. In conclusion, our results support the assumption that the lack of parental models, together with the placement in residential care institutions affect the process of identification with gender roles, having in view the fewer opportunities necessary for the development of gender beliefs system.

The parents perception of the severity of asthma and its psychological impact in their children’s life

Laura Teodora David

Laura Elena Nastasa

University Transilvania Brasov

Abstract

In diagnosing and treating pediatric patients an important amount of information is coming from the parents. They are also the ones who evaluate the efficacy of the treatment.

The present study has the following objectives:

to identify the concordance between parent’s perception about the illness severity in their children and an objective measurement performed by physician the psychological impact of illness in children’s life as it is perceived by parents.

There were assessed 54 children, aged 5-14, diagnosed with persistent asthma. The parents were asked to make a judgment of the illness in three categories: mild/moderate/severe. For the objective methods, the criteria were: FEV1 value (a spyrometric parameter), peak expiratory flow after physical exercise, use of b2 mimethics (a medication used in exacerbation), number of attacks in the last year. In order to assess the psychological impact, the parents filled a questionnaire regarding: coping behavior, ability to adapt in new situations, independence.

For the entire group the correlation was r 0.31 p< .01 between parents estimation and the objective methods. The concordance value between the two methods was 52%, a rather low value due to the parents’ tendency to rate their children as more severe than they appeared by the objective measure of health status.

Regarding the psychological impact, the results showed the following: children whose parents ranked their asthma as mild or severe had significantly higher scored meaning greater impact t 2.54 and t 2.68 (p< .02) than did those children rated as moderate.

Children’s ranks on the objective methods were not significantly associated with questionnaire scores. Taking only the parameter of exacerbation, we’ve got more impact as the attacks were more frequent (p< .05).

Conclusions: the study demonstrates the parents’ tendency to consider their child’s illness as more severe than in reality and also adjustment problems in mild cases of asthma. Even though, medically speaking, the mild types are easy to control, the presence of chronic disease interfere in the daily living of the family. The moderate type is perceived somehow different and it has a lower impact. The severe type, through the limitations it implies becomes more difficult to overcome.

Families Affected By Hiv/Aids Infection – Challenges & Limits

Geta Manea, Bianca Nedelcu

Romanian Angel Appeal Fundation

Moto:

“It is more important the way you react to something than the cause itself”

Abstract

The present work is the consequent fruit of eight years of experiences and direct observations of HIV/AIDS affected families.

The starting point would be the fact that an infected child has a tremendous impact over his family, the evolution of the desease being directly influenced by the reactivity of the rest of the family members endorse to stress and needs of the one in pain.

Finding out the child’s diagnosis influences the whole family dynamics switching to psychological and behavioural modifications amplifying the child’s next reactions in both ways positive, and negative, complying to what his family says and acts.

Psychological impact over the rest of the family set its start when the doctor communicates them the positive result to the HIV test. The stress due to this particular desease, to its evolution, to the reserved prognostic, to the infirmities that might appear, leads to a broken family balance, to a real crisis. Often, this impact over the rest of the members of the family has a side effect over the child, generating false projections when it comes to how bad it is to be infected with HIV or to its evolution.

First we would like to analyse the infected child’s reactions to how the rest of the family perceves the desease (limits), and secondly the mecansims and ressorts that lead to finding and using the child’s ressources as well as those of his family (challanges).

HIV infection is initialy perceved as a negative stress factor puttting a constant pressure on both family, and the infected child, revealing states of soul such as suffer, tension, desper, overwhelmness, fear, sadness, hate, rage. In the end all of these feelings will convert into a positive attitude wich will succed to put on wheels all the human ressources in order to reach hope and desire to fight against the desease.

From our experience with families affected by HIV/AIDS infection we came to a relation between negative reactions of the family and the emotional state of their child. We would like to think that the familiy itself guides their infected child to a negative or positive perception with the condition that also the family feels the same way.

In the beginning all the families go thru similar emotions like shock or denial (the family considers the infection an unjustice: “Why him?”, “Impossible!!! Not more than yesterday he was ok!”), than they do not belive in the precision of the diagnostis and they continue to hope in a negative result (“Maybe it is a mistake”, “Maybe we should take again the test”); at last they protest and discharge emotional tensions by expressing feelings like fury and revolt.

What happens all this time with the child?

Child’s feelings appear as a feedback to the reactions of his family and to knowing or not knowing the real diagnosis. Like his parents the child goes thru the same emotional steps living in sadness, inapetit, seakness, autoisolation, he doesn’t respond to the treatment, he is nervous, he refuses any kind of activity.

The particularities of this desease can make the family to respond not so well to the stress, to the changes in structure, to brake the links between its members. Sadness, anxiety, and depression overwhelm the family and all the suffer that the child goes thru is doubled by the pressure over his family. There are still situations in wich families accept the diagnosis, manage to adapt and to go further to a level where they are satisfying the needs of their member in pain, and applying the family targets and purposes for future. We observe that this further perspectives apply also to child’s behaviour – he starts to make future plans, desires to attend a school, he has apetit, tolerates very well the medication, he is joyful, eager to make new friends, he doesn’t want to go again to hospital. The way the family adapts to such a level of stress implies a higly perception degree of the situation, efficient interhuman communication and a special cohesion.

The background for those observations is a burnout questionaire (Lageron, 2003) applied to 35 children and 55 parents. We identified individual reaction and copying profiles to stress that comes with the desease. Other two questions revealed answers after applying COPE scale (Carver, 1989) trying to make a child copying profile against that of his parents:

how do families confrunted with the same difficult problem of infection overcome the stress?

what are the mecanisms and ressorts for finding out the vital resources of the family and the child for fighting and giving a new sens of life?

The influence of support group interventions in reducing depression, anxiety and irritability symptoms among mothers of HIV infected adolescents from Constanta County

Ana-Maria Schweitzer

Baylor Black Sea Foundation Constanta

Abstract

Objectives: to emphasize the influence of support group interventions in reducing depression, anxiety and irritability symptoms among mothers of HIV infected adolescents from Constanta County. Methods: psychometric; self-evaluation individual questionnaires (Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, Irritability Scale). Target groups: 3 groups of 17 subjects each. Group 1: mothers of HIV infected adolescents engaged for approximately 30 months in support group sessions; group 2: mothers of HIV infected adolescents that never attended support groups; group 3: community mothers of undiagnosed adolescents (considered uninfected and without any chronic disease). Results: there is a clinically and statistically significant decrease of anxiety and depression symptoms only in group 1. At the end of support group interventions there is no difference between group 1 and group 3. Group 2 has statistically significant and possibly clinically significant higher levels of irritability compared to both group 1 and group 3, also with higher levels of anxiety and depression. Conclusions: including mothers of HIV infected adolescents in long- term support groups is beneficial, anxiety and depression symptoms being dramatically reduced to a level comparable with the one in the community (acceptance, positive coping). Mothers of HIV infected adolescents not included in support groups have possibly clinically significant levels of irritability compared with community persons or support group persons (limited acceptance of the disease, inadequate coping). Further research could investigate the stability of these results and the optimal support style in promoting disease acceptance among mother of HIV infected adolescents.

Marrital roles and family stability

Maria Constantinescu, Cornel Constantinescu

University of Pitesti

Abstract

The success, the happiness and the stability of a marriage depend greatly on the partners’ capacity to assume the conjugal functions, to suit the other’s expectations, to harmonise the relationshpis among family’s members. The functions that the partners fulfil in their own family are known as conjugal functions. These „are labelled of natural-biological contacts of the couple, of the complexity and depthness of spiritual-psycological, moral, economical ones”. The conjugal functions are very complex and involve feelings, gestures, actions, offering the family characteristic features, which individualize it among the other social groups.

When the children are borned, the conjugal microuniverse enriches and the relational system within complicates. About the conjugal function, the partners asume specific parental functions, defined in contact with their own children. The different manner the partners asume the parental responsabilities have emotional and psycological conotations which affect the children’s socialisation. Achieving a harmonious conjugal and parental function is both science and art of a complete and mature development of personality. The capacity of the person to react positive, from an emotional point of view, with the other members of society constitute the main premise of a future satisfying conjugal and parental function.



As well as in any other group, there is in couple a certain pocess of regulation of functions. Thus it is meaningful the evolution of „the endeavour of conjugal part”. Iolanda and Nicolae Mitrofan define this concept as „image or sound of images accomplished on the ground of desires projected conscious or unconscious by a partner regarding the marital behavior of the other partner within the conjugal relations”.

This endeavour changes as a result of the process of communication which takes place between the partners. If the endeavour of conjugal part is in agreement with the partners’s function availibilities, the cuople develops functional. The american psychology tried to explain the harmony or the lack of it through the difference between “what they have expected” and “what they have find”.

Each partner of the conjugal couple assumes and practice the marital function in a personal way. This step depends on a great amount of factors and the most important is the way the person is formed and educated for the part-status of husband and parent in the origin family. Other authors think that although the origin family influence the relation of a person with his partner, the psychosocial personality of the person is a product of a series of social factors. The conjugal part, although undertaken initially through imitation of patterns from the origin family, it is learned and improved in the own conjugal nucleus.

Experiential techniques in Family Therapy

Mindu Sandrina

University “Dunarea de Jos” Galati

Abstract

The current social economical conditions, the disfunctionalities from all romanian society, the lack of system values that leads to the loss of educational reference points, rises the psychical tension to a interfamilial level and deepens the conflicts between generations.

Neglecting the parental rolls or not taking the sex – roll inversions seriously leads to the perturbation of the transactional patterns in the familial system.

The parents are feeling overwhelmed and inadequate in the parental - filial relation, often leading to a rigid educational scheme in which they are practicing the authority through imposed rules, due the anxiety and frustration that are experiencing, schemes that obviously do not correspond with the acceleration of children psychical grow rhythm, and of the new conditions in the every day life.

This paper represents a qualitative study on the experiential techniques roles in family therapy using the case study as a method. The main purpose of this study represents the construction of a therapeutical experiential approach that will observe the intensification of the authentical and benefical interactions between the family members in the real context of life.

In the first part of the paper, are analyzed different types of therapeutical approaches of a familial system accented on the roll and necessity of using the nondirective techniques , experiential. So, in the communicational crisis context, existing in the familial system, the emotional expression, the awareness of family members behavior motives, the develop of the empathic capacity, the opening towards the needs and interest of the person next to him, the emotional „ grow” of the family constitutes the most important objectives in experiential therapy. The nondirective technique offers the possibility of reaching them during therapeutic approach. Detaching from habitual schemes without results, the identifications and evolving the functional alternatives, the evolving flexibility and resonance in familial systems are as well important aspects in therapy.

The focalization of each family member on his inner life and on the way in which he is interpreting his own existence and his relations with others, leads to the identification and mobilization of all inner emotional resources, rational and spirituals, representing an authentical modality of solving the problems.

Becoming to trust himself and to value his oneness, his life and personal needs, to develop his capability to cast multiple alternatives, becomes capable to trust himself and the others and to facilitate advancement .

The second part of the paper includes case studies in order to exemplify the approach of therapeutic structure , being underlined the objectives, the therapeutical relation, the progress in used techniques and in the end, conclusions.

Love and cuple relationship

Lucian Cochinescu

University of Pitesti

Abstract

Love is the strongest bond between two human beings – poets even say it makes the world go round; no wonder even the psychologists are interested in the subject and have even developed a scale to measure this thing shrouded in mystery called “love”.

We all think we’re experts in love, but we’re not. How many of us know, for example, that men fall in love first and cling to a dying relationship more than women do? Or that we often marry our neighbors and not a stranger coming from far away places?

But how can we define love? According to Beverly Fehr, among the characteristics of love are: wanting to be with another person; caring; acceptance; sharing; trusting; to respect; to forgive; to help; to miss the other person when apart; empathy; happiness; friendship; truthfulness and so on.

All these characteristics can be reduced to three: passion, intimacy and commitment. Intimacy is here the central part, as it involves emotional support and living through and for the other person. These components combine in various degrees to form different kinds of love: friendship; sexual love; romantic love; parental love or fraternal love.

Parental love is the prototype for a love relationship based mainly on tenderness, respect and loyalty. On the contrary, in the case of passion, we have a strange mixture of opposite feelings: pain and ecstasy; anxiety and release; love and jealousy. Passion usually does not last long.

Adult love is based on a primary mechanism: attachment, the bond between mother and her child- so it makes us feel good and safe. Two people form a couple in order to fulfill some basic needs: to obtain sexual gratification, to form a family, to gain material resources.

Sexual gratification is important especially for men. Sexual desires are linked with the level of testosterone in the blood; they also depend a lot on the perceived attractiveness of the partner- as Shakespeare put it; “beauty is in the eye of the beholder”.

Today we face a change of attitude concerning the sexual life, and so a change of behavior. In our world non-restricted sex (sex without love) is met more often than restricted sex (having sex only with the person you love); also, liberal and moderate couples are met more often than traditional couples.

Passionate love is a fire fueled up by the obstacles it faces. Shakespeare, in “Romeo and Juliet”, was right: the obstacles met in the way of love (e.g. if the parents disapprove the relation) causes physiological arousal and these fuels up the passion. The mechanism underlying the phenomenon is a cognitive one: we label our internal arousal, which we don’t fully understand, as “love”. Researchers have supported this theory.

An important part of passion is jealousy. Is seem that we all want absolute loyalty, but would like some freedom for ourselves. Men are irritated by the thought their woman has sex with another man, whereas woman are irritated by the thought their man loves another woman.

Another reason for a man and a woman to form a couple is to form a family bond; it seems marriage is good for our health and it satisfies our need to belong or our affiliation motive. Men look for a woman who’s kind, women look for a man who is at the same time dominant and kind. Of course, these options vary across cultures and not only; some women prefer old, rich and famous men.

But all the love may vanish one day- and so comes the divorce and all the suffering. There are numerous causes that lead to divorce: lack of communication; infidelity; the fading away of passion. It seems that couples based on similarity last longer, while couples based on dependence and attribution errors are doomed to fail. It is good to take a good look at our partner before marriage, because after we might see him in another light and might want to change him- and people can’t be changed unless they want to.

To loose your partner is a traumatic event, is painful. Studies have shown that the decision is seldom mutual; the one who decides for divorce is happier after it, whereas the other feels hopeless, rejected, depressed. In the end, the formal partners must go on with their separate lives. It helps if they have someone to support them (relatives, friends), and in the end it is often proved that divorce was a step forward. Nevertheless, divorce is followed by an increase in alcohol abuse, violence, psychical disturbances and so on.

Psychologists have tried to describe the dynamics of all these phenomena. Eich Rubin (1970) developed a “love scale”, that predicts how the relation will develop in the next six months. Among the items we cite: “I feel I can trust my partner totally” or “I would do anything for my partner”.

Giving how far people are willing to go just to be with the one they love, the topic presented here is of major interest.

Implications Of Psychological Types In The Dynamic Of The Couple Life

Neagoe Ileana Loredana,

Raban-Motounu Nicoleta

University of Pitesti,

Abstract

In the modern society, the development of a couple implies a dynamic interactional high complexity system. The psychological dimension of this system (at both individual and interpersonal levels) involves a unique combination of aspects regarding the communication and knowing the other partner, the role of personal and relational maturity and competence in keeping the equilibrium and the stability in the couple. As aspects of the psychological dimension, our study emphasizes the implications of the psychological type (as Jung described it) in the success, the stability and the satisfaction of the married life.

Several studies reported by the authors of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the researchers from the Center for the Application of the Psychological Type showed high frequency of the marriages between people that have in common at least two of the characteristics from the psychological type. These studies suggest that knowing the characteristics of life partner’s psychological type should help to understand and to appreciate him as the person he is. There are no ,,good” or ,,bad” combinations of types in close relationships. Each particular combination (all the common or the opposite preferences, in every combination) has its unique structure of both happiness and problems.

People that have common preferences communicate easily but they also share common values and ,,blind spots”. A couple having opposite preferences can work a lot to understand each other but, in the same time, they can live all the joy and vitality that emerge from these differences.

Our study looks at specific psychological types more closely (as they appear in the married couple) and focuses on the way they influence several defining aspects of the married life. In the same time, we try to clarify the complex evolution they have in the dynamic of the couple, and to identify the meanings and the implications of their combination.

Our main goal is to analyze the relationship between the combination of the psychological types and the manner that several aspects of married life are perceived and lived. The complementarity, similarity, and conflict among the psychological types in the couple have a great influence on the manner of viewing several aspects in the life of the couple, and they have a direct impact on whether the partners are compatible or not.

As defining aspects of the couple life we considered: the intimacy level, the capacity of solving the practical problems, passion, conflicts, physical violence, verbal violence, affective fulfilment, mutual support, professional achievement, level of content, feeling of being with the other person, feeling of individuality, spiritual fulfilment, the level of communication.

Our research explore all the aspects using both qualitative and quantitative measures integrated in a correlational study.

We used psychometrical and statistical methods.

To identify the characteristics of the psychological types we used Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. The aspects of the married life were examined by a Self-evaluation list, made by us.

Thinking Styles, Irational Beliefs And Marital Satisfaction

Carmen Bora, Delia Birle, Rosana Stan

University of Oradea

Abstract

Happy marriages are not an incident. They are made on solid principles, essential for a warm and loving relationship. Before marriage, we are confronted with different aspects of making a relationship, a family, choosing a mate. This is the first step toward family life and our happiness and marital satisfaction depends on this decision.

Two individuals make a couple because they are psychologically similar. They have the same attitudes, beliefs, values, interests. Our choices in life, especially our choices for marriage, must take in consiedration the compatibility between our thinking styles. A style is a way of thinking. It’s not an ability, it’s more the way we use our abilities. If styles does not match with the choices people make, they will have to support the consequences of their choices.

The ABC model of rational-emotive behavioral family therapy asserts that the main causes of the disturbed emotional consequences (C) of the family life are not be found in the activating event (A), but in the irrational beliefs of the spouses about the activating event. Marital satisfaction depends on how we manage to change our irrational beliefs into rational ones.

Altough, theoretically, people can have a large number of irrational beliefs, these can be reduced to three categories of “must”: a) I must have performances and/or a must be aproved by my partner! It’s awful if I can’t do this! I coulnd’t bear tihis failure! I don’t have any value as a person if a don’t get the respect from my partner! b) I must be treated onestly and with consideration by my parner! It’s awful if this doesn’t happen! The person who fails in this is a bad person and I can’t bear him because of his wretched behaviour! c) Everything must be the way I want and if this doesn’t happen it’s horrible! I can’t stand in such a terrible world! It’s an awful place!

Conflict in the couple and personality

Tempea Ioana Cristina

The Ecologist University of Bucharest

Abstract

This paper intends to light up the unconscious play between partners’ choice and partners’ conflict. Thereby plays a very important role the Jürg Willi’s concept of complicity “Kollusion” It refers to the unconscious neurotic play of a couple, a play with a background of an unexpressed agreement of the partners, so to speak a “secret consent”.

The concept of “complicity” means in this context that by both partners exists a similar unsolved basic conflict. Simplifying there are four basic themes we can talk about: the narcissistic theme of the relationship, the oral theme, the anal theme and the phallic one. The conflict is shared out by them into different roles. One of the partners undertakes more the regressive and the other the progressive part of a theme. So it results the impression that a partner is perfectly the opposite of the other one; in fact is only a question of polar variants of the same theme. This “distribution of the roles” causes the attraction and the clinging of the partners. Each of them hopes to be freed from his conflict through his partner.

During a long life together this “self –healing attempt in connivance” fails because of the return/breakthrough of the repressed. In the beginning seems to be the perfect choice of a partner. Often the partners develop more and more extreme positions. Then become unbearable, when the partner enjoys clearer those tendencies that himself/herself repressed: after a while the progressive partner can not endure any more to offer his/ her partner that satisfaction, which he/she refused it him-/her –self; the regressive partner hates the other because the dependency on his/her help it grieves him/her. So changes the partners’ play into a destructive complicity (partners’ conflict). What in the beginning produced attraction between partners, turns into the cause of the conflict between them.

The objective of a therapy is to realize a flexible and free balance in couple. So the connivance themes can be transformed into a reciprocal enrichment:

a. narcissistic: through the confirmation of the partner as a individual delineated personality;

b. oral: through a reciprocal give-and take;

c. anal: through solidarity without compulsion;

d. phallic: through reciprocal completion of sex identity.

Dimensions and fundamental aspects of communication in the conjugal couple

Alina-Maria Paraschiva

„Valahia” University, Targoviste

Abstract

Communication is the main means for individuals to interact, establishing relations of attraction or repulsion and in most cases, the failure of a conjugal relationship is given by a weak communicational interaction between the two partners. Within the conjugal couple, the communication takes different aspects, from verbal exchanges to transmitting the messages through non-verbal or para-verbal language.

Because the partners’ differences of tastes, needs, priorities and ideas lead to conflicts of interest, often difficult to be solved, we intend to analyse the communication’s differences between the two genders in order to try to find ways to improve the communication at conjugal couple level.

We have tried to identify the categories of messages transmitted in the conjugal couple and we have five such categories:

Messages referring to “day-by-day” conversation on usual or less important topics;

Messages referring to projects affecting the couple or the whole family life;

Messages referring to affective support and to transmitting the feelings of love;

Messages that contain ways to mange the dissatisfaction and the conflicts appeared inside the couple;

Messages contained in a “genuine conjugal communication”, messages needed for analysing the results and those used for certain changes needed for a good couple relation.

Starting from the determined categories of messages, we have tried to analyse the differences appeared at communication level between the two genders, taking into consideration the following parameters:

Verbal communication (the clarity of the message transmitted; difficulties of verbal communication)

Non-verbal communication (the space in the non-verbal communication, gestures of courtesy)

Para-verbal communication

Factors influencing the conflict (the partners’ incompatibility, the partners’ personality, abilities to solve conflicts, stressing circumstances)

Male/female characteristics

Communication styles

Communication patterns

We have also tried to draw up some characteristics needed by a couple relation as a whole and by each partner, in order to improve the communicational process:

partners’ degree of “maturity”

way of perceiving the partner’s message and the way this message is understood

clear expression of needs

existence of congruent communication

clarification of transmitted message

according the time needed for communication.

For a couple relation to be a viable all along its existence the partners have to attain a correct relationship, reached through an efficient communication.

The implication of disfunctional cognitiven in marital satisfaction, depression and alcoholism

Dindelegan Camelia, Dindelegan Vasile, Oros Gheorghe

University of Oradea

Abstract

The central aim of this research is to answer the following questions: “ How do disfunctional cognitives influence marital satisfaction” and “ What are the specific cognitive distorsions in case of depression and alcoholism? ”

The starting assumption was that disfunctional cognitives have a great impact upon marital satisfaction, leading to disfunctional emotions, while cognitive distorsions generate depression and addiction to alcohol.

The research has been conducted upon a number of 90 married persons, out of which 30 have been diagnosed with ethylic toxicodependence, 30 with depression and 30 represented the control group (non-alcoholic subjects). The patients suffering from the above-mentioned pathologies have been hospitalized at the Neurologic and Psychiatric Clinic in Oradea for medical treatment during the research period.

The research was based on the following four questionnaires, to which all the three categories of subjects ( the depressives, the alcoholics and the control group) have answered.

The Cognitive Style Questionnaire ( Blackburn, 1986) consisting of 30 short descriptions of some common events. The events are classified according to the three themes connected to A.Beck’s cognitive triad: the self, the world, and the future.

The disfunctional attitudes’ scale ( Weissman and Beck, 1978), including 40 items that emphasize the specific disfunctional cognitives in depression, namely the belief that a person’s value depends upon the opinion of the others in relation to that particular person.

Beck’s Questionnaire for Depression ( Beck, 1961 ), which is a questionnaire for self-evaluation, and the general note indicates the subjective depth of depression, which can provide a quantitative estimation of the subjective symptomatology intensity of depression.

The diadic adjustment scale ( Graham B.Spanier ), which measures the quality of marriage or of the couple. It has 32 items and aimes to evaluate the quality of the relationship, as it is percieved by the married couple, or consensually. This instrument can measure the general satisfaction of the couple by using the total scores. The factorial analisys shows that this instrument measures four aspects of the relationship: the diadic satisfaction, the diadic cohesion, the diadic consensus and the emotional expression.

Both the quantitative and the qualitative analysis of data has been conducted for each scale of the cognitive style questionnaire, so that, out of 6 types of cognitive styles we obtained highly significant results in 5 of the cases, as far as marrital satisfaction was concerned: positive/negative self, world negative and positive/negative future ( significant for world positive). Thus the spouse that is convinced that his or her close relations will be compromised cannot be liked or appreciated by those around him/her both in positive and in negative life life situations; they also fear that they may be abandoned or neglected; that it is necessary that they should conceal their emotions; even in positive life-situations they will show a low level of marital satisfaction.

The results of the research demonstrate that the persons with cognitive distortions, a negative cognitive style and disfunctional attitudes will display a non-adaptive behaviour in marriage, very often resorting to quarrel or violence in strained situations, thus expressing disfunctional emotions. There is also a high risk of depression in the case of women and addiction to alcohol in the case of men.

The character and the pragmatic importance of this research lies in the bringing to the psychologists’ attention of the disfunctional cognitives role. In family counselling and psychotherapy, it is very important to discover the negative cognitive style and disfunctional attitudes, in order to be able to work towards their modification, to persuade the individual to keep his/her marital satisfaction to the highest possible level, and to diminish the risk of emotional unrest or alcohol addiction.

Social support perception and helplessness: psychopatological effects

Mihai Ion Marian, Marius Drugas

University of Oradea

Abstract

This study is an empirical examination of the stress-diathesis model, the basic model of the learned helplessness theory. Starting from the theoretical disputes we will try to clarify some of these in the case of men. For this purpose we used a sample of 150 men, age varying from 18 to 60. Our hypothesis is that self labeling will have a great influence on the experienced hopelessness. Further more we seek to describe the way in which the attributional style acts as an indicator for hopelessness, lack of trust and isolation. We conclude that men’s orientation toward hopelessness or hope is mediated by the following factors: trust (with all it’s dimensions), attributional style and perceived social support.

Atitudes And Responses To Infidelity

Radu Alina Ramona, Bonchis Elena, Trip Simona

University of Oradea, Psychology Department

Abstract

Evolutionary psychology is the predominant framework within which differences between the sexes in the elicitation of jealousy have been studied. Consistent with evolutionary theory, proponents of evolutionary psychology have predicted differences in the arousal of men's and women's jealous reactions such that men are believed to be most threatened by their mate's sexual infidelity, and women are believed to be most threatened by emotional infidelity (Buss, Larsen, Westen, & Semmelroth, 1992). On the orher hand, Widerman & Allgeier (1993), Harris & Christenfeld (1996), Nannini & Meyers (2000) contradicted this results and sustained that there are no significant differences between sexes.

Hypothesis- The present research wants to clarify the opposite results pointing out the relation between sex and jealousy; secondly we wanted to underline the presence of the responsibility that people accept for their partner’s infidelity taking into account the different types of infidelity and the sex of the participants.

Method- Design- A 3x 2 x 2 independent groups design was used to verify the hypothesis.

Participants- Participants were 150 in a quasiequal proportion between the 2 sexes, aged between 19-60 years old; they all volunteered for the research.

Materials and Procedure

Participants completed a booklet containing all of the stimulus materials. The first section included demographic questions and brief queries about the participant’s current romantic relationship status and past experiences of infidelity. The second section presented 3 infidelity scenarios (proposed by Nannini and Meyers, 2000) : a scenario representing the condition of sexual but not emotional infidelity, another one presenting the condition of emotional but not sexual infidelity and a third one that presented both sexual and emotional involvment. After reading the scenario, the subjects indicated the degree of emotional upset that they were likely to experience using a 7-point summative response scale varying from 1 (very little) and 7 (very much). They also had to decide wheteror not they would remain into the relationship and whether or not they are responsible for their partner’s infidelity.

Results- The preliminary results point out the fact that there are some differences between sexes in corelation to their responses to infidelity.

The Alcoholic In The Family

Veronica Mihai

Neurosis Sanatorium Predeal

Abstract

The 'alcoholism' word was used for the first time in 1859 Magnus Huss describing alcoholic abuse.

The facilitator factors for alcoholism can be grouped as follows: occasionally factors, sociological and cultural factors, the individual personality factors and genetically factors.
The evolution for alcoholic dependency can be divided in the following phase:

·  pre alcoholic phase
·  prodromal phase
·  critical phase
·  cronical phase.

Alcoholic abuse is the forth-public sanity problem on the

Globe. This problem is having fatal consequences not just for the alcohol abusers but also for the abusers family members. The alcoholic abuser descendents are affected through fetus embryonic syndrome and disturbed behavior syndrome.
It is well known truism that the alcoholic is like a family burden.
The alcoholic family is not viable because can't accomplish the basic family functions reaching just partially and in dept. The homeostasis with the triple aspects: verbal communication, affective necessity and the role in the alcoholic family are badly affected.(Bogdan Fl., Platon M., Somogy D., Weber C.).

There is a striking negative influence of alcohol consumption upon the familial ambiance through disturbing quality and signification of psycho affective feelings and all family members.
The social and familial ambience are very important factors on the alcoholism behavior. This phenomena was revealed trough a study made by the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science from the Medical University from with participation of L.A. Sarbu A., Ban Vv., Glodan L.Bbratucu S., neamtu t. in 1980.Hinkin C. and Kahn M.W.. After this study, in 1995 was advanced a new concept CO DEPENDENTCY witch can explain some psychological characteristics observed at the wives/husbands (partners) and children of the alcoholic family members. Co alcoholics are contributing for continuing partner alcohol dependence sustainability and without their knowledge there are contribute complicit.
Martin Hambrecht presented four types of complicity style for disease, co-conspirator in disease:

1.Paternal co alcoholic
2.Maternal co alcoholic
3.Fellowship co alcoholic
4.Proffessional co alcoholic.

In conclusion the alcoholic and its family are in need for therapeutic help because of the gravity of consequences of this disease. The successful treatment are given by the participation of the all family members at the individual therapy sessions/group therapy with specialized theraphyists in the family therapy. Alcoholic dependency represents a family problem and even a family disease.
The alcoholic person and its family cannot understand by their own that the problems between their relations because of lack of objective vision about the situation. In our country are functional the AA groups and co-dependent groups. The Association for Helping the Alcohol and Another Drugs Dependent Persons are another institution for alcohol disease treatment member of International Blue Cross.

Psycho- Social Implication Of Menopausal Osteoporosis

Ph.D Reader Mona Vintila, Mirona Valean

West University of Timisoara

Abstract

Introduction: Osteoporosis has been included among the major problems regarding life style. In the last decade it was recognized like a serious alarm of public health both from professional and communitarry point of view, in many states of the world.

The present research aims to reveal the differences between women coming from urban versus rural area regarding the approach of health problems and also to point out the psychological impact of illness – the appearance of anxiety and the increased emotional lability in their personality profiles.

Method: Both samples are formed of 40 women with osteoporosis, the first group coming from urban area, while the second from rural area. We applied the State – Trait Anxiety Inventory X2, the Freiburg Personality Inventory, and the Multidimensional Health Questionnaire regarding health perspectives and the Evaluation Scale of Cognitive Defense Mechanisms in order to estimate the manner of approaching illnesses.

Results: Significant differences were obtained regarding the increased emotional lability in both study samples as a consequence of the stress induced by the effort of dealing with family and professional difficulties, law self image and feeling of uselessness, insufficient sleep caused by worries and physical distress. Other significant differences were recorded between the health problems in urban area women and rural area women, the manner of approaching being in strong connection with their education and life style perspective. A significant relation was identified between anxiety and coping mechanisms regarding the way of processing negatives information as a way of managing the illness.

Conclusion: Internal and external changes appeared as a result of cumulative effects of osteoporosis are based on the psycho-social implications with direct impact in women’s life affecting both family and social relations with others.

Family Therapy in Depressive Experience Conditions

Letitia Filimon

Universitatea din Oradea

Abstract

The paper begins with a discussion of the depression, its nature and its impact: social, economic and health costs, family’s disruption and individual’s sufference. In the next section, there are summarized the bidirectional link between depression and distress, psychological theories that explain the development and maintenance of depression in distressed relationship and the research on family therapy for depression: behavioral, cognitive and cognitive behavioral, strategic and conjoint family therapies. We review research conclusions on specific cognitive and behavioral factors that distinguish depressed/distressed family from nondepressed/nondistressed family, and the studies on the influence of family functioning in recurrence or chronicity of depression. We conclude with a more detailed description of behavioral family therapy: treatment rationale, assessment of relationship and individual functioning, structure of therapy, role of the therapist, techniques and mechanisms of change. In order to improve symptoms of a depressed partner, we are including in a case study, as main techniques: presentation of treatment rationale, psychoeducation about the influence of depression upon relationship health, behaviour exchange, communication training, problem- solving training and relapse prevention of disorder,.

Cognitive Schema and marrital satisfaction

Daniela Roman

University of Oradea

Abstract

Starting from the cognitive- behavioral family model and from Beck’s CBT, the present research tries to point aut the influence of the disfunctional cognitive schemata toward the marital satisfaction. The researh starts from the following hypothesis: Dysfunctional cognitive shemata influences the marital satisfaction, the marital locus of control and generates emotional distres and maladaptative behaviours. The 80 subjectes (40 married couples) that volunteerd for the research are aged between 22- 60 years old and came both from the rural and the urban area. As working insruments we used: Cognitive schemata questionnaire, Thoughts, emotions and behaviours scale, Dyadic adjustment scale and Miller marital locus of control scale. The results of the research sustain our hypothesis and have implications for the couple therapists.

La sculpture – technique thérapeutique efficace pour aborder le couple en détresse

Lévai Mihaela Ioana

Le couple, soyant l’unité de base des relations entre les hommes, doit ętre au centre des préoccupations de l’intervenant lorsque l’un d’eux présente un certain symptôme autour duquel s’organise tout le systčme. Souvent ce symptôme est l’expresion des disfonctions au niveau du couple conjugal ou parental. La lutte pour la hégémonie au sein d’un couple mčne aux conflits qui font leur apparition conciemment ou sans se render compte et ces conflits diminuent la satisfaction marital. Quand le conflit est latent, ou il est nié par les deux conjoints “pour garder l’harmonie”, il n’est pas suffisant d’aborder directement ces conflits. Les methods de communication qui s’appuient sur un langage analogique sont beaucoup plus efficacies. David Kantor, Fred et Bunny Duhl, Virginia Satir, L. Onnis et P. Caillé et des autres therapies proposent les sculptures comme d’autre moyen de communication sur les rélations dans la famille et dans le couple. Cette téchnique thérapeutique reduit de la verbalisation excessive et provoque une rencontre intime authentique entre les deux partenaires. Elle permet la réalisation la plus réelle de la „carte familiale”, soyant une riche source d’informations et d’hypothčses, et un réel support pour ceux qui y sont impliqués mais pour le thérapeut aussi, qui peut ” lire” le message sculpté et y ajouter de nouvelles valences.

Les couples présentés dans ce travail sont bloqués du point de vue des émotions dans la relation, avec de grandes différences en ce qui concerne l’avenir commun, avec des aspects pas négociés encore dans le couple. La sculpture, bien qu’elle ne résolve pas les symptômes, elle est destinée d’offrir au cerveau du matériel pour la méditation ŕ propos de la relation, et pour les émotion authentique elle offre un terrain de manifestation par le sublimation.

A párkapcsolati elégedettség tényezői.

az istenhit, mint erőforrás

Rozália Réka Ferenczi

Sapientia – erdélyi magyar tudományegyetemen

humántudományok tanszék

marosvásárhely

Elisabeth Elliot (1998) szerint elegendő a nemiségről öt percen át elmélkedni, és bárki rá fog döbbenni, hogy titokkal áll szemben. Ki magyarázhatja meg a férfi és a nő kapcsolatának dinamikáját? Salamon, a valaha élt legbölcsebb ember bevallja, hogy e kérdés megválaszolásában alulmaradt:

„Ez a három dolog csodálatos előttem, sőt négy dolgot nem értek:

a sasnak az útját az égen,

a kígyó útját a kősziklán,

a hajó útját a mély tengeren,

És a férfi útját a leánnyal.”

Péld.30,18-19.

Előadásomban részletezem a sikeres párválasztás, illetve a párkapcsolati elégedettség előrejelző és ható tényezőit. Kitérek a főbb párkapcsolati problémákra, valamint a nemek szerinti különbözőségekre. Végül a párkapcsolati elégedettség és a családi élet összefüggéseit vizsgálom. Közben folyamatosan arra próbálok választ találni, hogy az istenhit, a vallásosság milyen szerepet játszik ebben a folyamatban.

The Impact Of Daily Stress On Women

Camelia Bodea, Cosmina Iacob

Abstract

We are living in a world full of tension and stress, and the way we are responding to our daily problems is important for our health. In our lives there are pressures and problems and their impact is reflected at home, in our families, at school, at work and we say “I’m stressed”. This study The impact of the daily stress on women is based on The Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems of Olson, Russell and Sprengkle,1984, The physiological model of stress and the response theory of Selye, The causative model and the stimuls theory, The interactional model and the transactional theory.

The goal of this study is to emphasize how the daily stress is a result of the interaction of professional statute and marital statute of woman, in what way the family types influences, the perceived level of stress, the coping mechanisms used. We are also interested in proving how the coping mechanisms are used for the adaptation on stressed situations.

Subjects: For this study were selected by chance 40 women, married or not married, working and not working women.

Procedure: We used Perceived Stress Questionnaire, COPE Scale and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale II. All tests were done individually. Hypothesis 1: The interaction between the marital statute and the profesional statute influences the perceived level of stress. Hypothesis 2: The interaction between the profesional statute and the marital statute influences the coping mechanisms. Hypothesis 3: Family types influences the perceived level of stress. Hypothesis 4: Family types influences the coping mechanisms.

Conclusions: In this study we are going to see how on the basis of all the influences represented by daily events, the women mobilizes its resources into constructive coping or negatively into crisis. The main determinant of why some women cope while others fall into crisis is the meaning that the event holds for her .

Implications: The results of this study can be used in counselling by marital and family therapists.

The Use Of Family Therapy In Forensic Expertise

Zamosteanu Alina Oana, Anghel Zvetlana-Mandruta,

„Tibiscus” University, Timisoara

Mircea Carmen Mihaela

S.C. Elma Electronic S.R.L., Timisoara

Oravitan Netodea Daniel

„Tibiscus” University, Timisoara

The present paper shows models and concepts specific to the family therapy, as well as methods of intervention, focusing on family structure, life cycle, parentification, loyalty, and genogram. All of these are used for the systemic approach to a situation with forensic medical implications, incest in this case. The importance of the utilisation of family therapy concepts and techniques brings a deeper understanding of the above mentioned situation from the family point of view, avoiding a simplistic interpretation in terms of victim-abuser. The paper can be used as a starting point in the multidisciplinary approach, relating to the family therapy, and to the situations with forensic medical implications.

How are our children thinking?

Simona Trip, Cecilia Sas, Paula Pasca

University of Oradea

Abstract

Based on the family cognitive-behavioral model, one of the best predictor of the family function is the cognitive pattern, the personal theory that family’s members share. Baucom, Epstein, Sayers si Sher (1989, in Schwebel si Fine, 1994): identify the following cognitive variables of the family cognitive pattern: selective attention, attributions, expectancies, assumptions, standards. The personal family theory is transmitted trans - generational. This study investigates how children learn to believe in the same standards as their parents. Ellis considers that irrational beliefs are standards regarding how the world, others, and we have to function. The results show powerful correlation between parents’ level of irrationality and their children, the children believe the same categories of irrational beliefs as their parents.

A spiritualitás a családterápiás munkában.

(Dr. Komlósi Piroska, egyetemi docens, Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem,. Budapest)

Napjainkban egyre több ember szembesül azzal, hogy élete egy bizonyos szakaszában, főleg fordulópontjain el kell gondolkodjanak az életük értelmén, célján. Ezzel kapcsolatos elbizonytalanodásaik, kereséseik, szorongásaik gyakran segítség keresésére mozdítják őket. Azt is tapasztaljuk, hogy ezekről nagyon nehéz beszélniük, talán megfelelő szavaik sincsenek. Ha a terapeutának nincs füle ezeket a belső szükségleteket meghallani, akkor az életében megakadt ember és családja reményt vesztve úgy érzi, nincs már hol keressen . Esetleg valamelyik szekta megértőnek bizonyul, de az időleges érzelmi megnyugvásért sajnos gyakran drága árat fizetnek.

A transzcendencia felé való nyitás, a spirituális dimenzióval való foglalkozás az emberek legszemélyesebb szféráját képezi a mi társadalmainkban. Mivel a szakemberek sem felkészültek ezek meghallására és kezelésére, bizony, a lelki egyensúlyhoz segítés útján sokszor nem veszik észre azokat az értékes motiváló erőket, amelyeket az elvesztett, vagy soha nem ismert spiritualitásból nyerhetnének némely páciensek.

Úgy érzem, a családterápiás szakmának fel kell készülnie, hogy ezzel az élménykörrel tudjon mit kezdeni. A transzcendens élmény iránti igény leginkább a krízisben, válságos vagy traumatizált helyzetekben erősödik fel. Ezt az erőforrást nem hagyhatjuk figyelme kívül, ha segíteni akarunk.

Számítok arra, hogy a résztvevők a tapasztalataikat készek lesznek megosztani és termékeny diszkusszió alakulhat ki.

The Children Roles In The Family Therapy

Balogh Klára

Paediatrician, psychotherapist

Psychosomatic Private Praxis Debrecen

During this workshop the participants deal with the children roles in the process of the family therapy.

Children’s symptoms can urge the parents to look after any kind of help.

They can be pretext to go to the family therapy.

They can be helper one of their parents.

They can be indicator of the depth of the therapeutic process.

They can become co therapist.

Their symptoms can signal the end of the therapy.

The participants f the workshop will discuss how to handle these roles during the therapy, how to use these roles, how to liberate them from their roles.

The tools of the workshop: self experience practices, simulated cases, symbolic work.

Rational emotive and behavioral principals in children education

Simona Trip

Univeristy of Oradea

Rational emotive education is an extention of rational emotive therpay. The rational emotive programs have an important role in emotional distress and behavioral problems prevention in children and adolescents. Thei are focused especially on the mental health development and less on the psychological pathologies recovery. The outcome studies show that rational emotive education can be succesfully applied bz the school counsellors to promote academic, personas-social, and vocational development in students There are discussed the conclusions of the previous studies and research future directions in rational emotive education.








Politica de confidentialitate





Copyright © 2021 - Toate drepturile rezervate