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» The influence of the English language over the Romanian language


The influence of the English language over the Romanian language




The influence of the English language over the Romanian language

silicon

Transcriere fonetica:

[silicon] – in Romanian

['silikən] – in English

Format/sens:

The noun silicon is used in the domain of chemistry and has the same sense as in English, but it is also used frequently in Romanian, not in English, in the domain of aesthetic and plastic surgery, e.g.: implanturile din silicon, proteze cu silicon. But we also meet this word in tre expression Silicon Valley, that it is borrowed from English, e.g.: dupa 25 de ani mai tarziu, aceasta decizie avea sa dea startul la ceea ce se numeste astazi Silicon Valley.




The noun silicon has one sense in English – silicon (symbol) Si, atomic number 14 – (a tetravalent nonmetallic element; next to oxygen it is the most abundant element in the earth s crust; occurs in clay and feldspar and granite and quartz and sand; used as a semiconductor in transistors). Chemical element, element, substance, matter, physical entity, semiconductor, conductor.

Criteriul filierei: imprumutat indirect < fr. silicone

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: imprumut bine asimilat

The pronunciation and the orthography are exactly like in English.

The sense is the same just in one example, in the domain of chemistry.

Criteriul temporal: before World War II, with the sense of chemical element, but after ‘90’s with the sense of implant with silicon.

Criteriul necesitatii: it is necessary, because is one of the symbols from Mendelev’s Table and used in the domain of surgery.

single

Transcriere fonetica

[singal] – in Romanian

['siηgəl] – in English

Format/sens: In Romanian, the noun single has the same orthography, pronunciation and senses as in English and it is used in music: disc single - a base hit on which the batter stops safely at first base; in sport: individual and individual, being or characteristic of a single thing or person; unmarried state; individual, separate.

e.g.: Noul site de matrimoniale dedicat tuturor persoanelor single din Romania si strainatate!; single player, la un joc pe calculator.

Criteriul filierei imprumtat direct < engl. single

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: xenism

The pronunciation, the orthography and senses are exactly like in English.

Criteriul temporal: after ‘90

Criteriul necesitatii: it is not necessary , for single persons we have the Romanian word “solo“

*sit-in

Transcriere fonetica:

[sit in] in Romanian

[sit in] in English

Format/sens:

In Romanian, sit-in (<engl. sit-in) has the same meaning as in English, the noun sit-in has one sense a form of civil disobedience in which demonstrators occupy seats and refuse to move.

The verb sit-in in English has two senses

- attend as a visitor;

- participate in an act of civil disobedience

Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct < engl. sit-in

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: xenism

The pronunciation, the orthography and sense are the same like in English.

Criteriul temporal: very recent

Criteriul necesitatii: it is not necessary

*Skylab

Transcriere fonetica:

[scaileab] in Romanian

['skailǽb] in English

Format/sens:

In English, the noun Skylab has one sense – United States space station; in orbit from 1973 to 1979, space station, space platform, space laboratory, satellite, artificial satellite, orbiter, equipment; e.g.: Cosmos-Skylab, Skylab Lab, Skylab Impex SRL.

In Romanian has the same sense, ortography and pronunciation: the Skylab satellite. e.g.: 1973 — dupa lansarea sa, marele laborator spatial american Skylab“ a adapostit in cursul acelui an trei echipaje de cosmonauti specializati; but it is used and with some other senses: forerunner “skylab“ for children (premergator skylab pentru copii)

Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct < engl. Skylab,

Criteriul gradului de asimilare imprumutat pentru un anumit domeniu, intra in categoria cuvintelor straine

The pronunciation, the orthography and sense are the same like in English.

Criteriul temporal: exists in Romanian from the time the word moved on in English

Criteriul necesitatii: it is an English word and we need it to refer to the space station, than it is necessary only in this field

*slapstick

Transcriere fonetica:

[slep-stic] in Romanian,

['slǽp,stick] in English

Format/sens:

In Romanian different pronunciation from English, but the same orthography and the same meaning: - boisterous comedy with chases and collisions and practical jokes; - acoustic device consisting of two paddles hinged together; used by an actor to make a loud noise without inflicting injury when striking someone, “slapstick style of humor”.

e.g.: ce se intelegea odata prin slapstick (comedie fizica) - nu “slapstick-ul“ degradat, obosit si meschin al atitor comedii de azi, ci “slapstick-ul“ curat; actiunea la climax era prezenta intr-o succesiune de “slapstick episodes“, adica “episoade misto“ Cu un umor destul de negru si cu influente „slapstick“, comedia asta o sa atraga pe toata lumea, indiferent de gusturi; Evolueaza de la comedia de tip slapstick la comedia dramatica



Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: xenism

The orthography and sense are the same like in English.

The pronuncition is almost the same, we do not use the “ea“ like in English

Criteriul temporal: very recent

Criteriul necesitatii: it is not necessary, because we can use our Romanian words

**slice

Transcriere fonetica

[slais] in Romanian

[slais] in English

Format/sens: The word is borrowed from English with the same spelling and pronunciation. In Romanian we find it only in the domain of electronics, computers: bit-slice and hair-styling and in tenis “the slice effect“.

e.g.: - tehnici de tuns pivot-point, “slice“ si free-hand? “Slice“ inseamna taiere prin alunecare tangentiala pe suvita;

- urmatoarele parti explica modul de creare a schemei de “slice-uri“ exemplu; urmeaza modalitatea de stergere a unui slice; FreeBSD-ul se instaleaza pe un slice, o singura partitie, care se subpartitioneaza;

- serviciul „topspin-slice“ este cel mai des intilnit prin serviciu folosit In acelasi timp, efectul “slice“ face ca traiectoria mingii sa faca o curba (tenis)
In English has another senses: - a share of something; - a serving that has been cut from a larger portion; - cut, gash, slash, slice; a golf shot that curves to the right for a right-handed golfer; - a thin flat piece cut off of some object; - a spatula for spreading paint or ink; - cut into slices.

Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct < engl. slice

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: folosit intr-un anumit domeniu

The pronunciation and the orthography are the same in both languages, but different it doesn’t inheritted all the meanings ans senses

Criteriul temporal: after ‘90

Criteriul necesitatii: it is necessary only in the field of tennis and electronics

*sill

Transcriere fonetica:

[sil] in Romanian

[sil] in English

Format/sens: - structural member consisting of a continuous horizontal timber forming the lowest member of a framework or supporting structure; - from geology a flat (usually horizontal) mass of igneous rock between two layers of older sedimentary rock.

e.g.: “Sill-ul“ provine din dezvelirea lavelor injectate pe planurile de stratificatie ale conului; apare sub forma unor pereti circulari, care inchid o depresiune, relief vulcanic

Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct < engl. sill

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: folosit intr-un anumit domeniu

The pronunciation and the meaning are the same, the ortography is the same in most cases, but sometimes it is written “sil“

Criteriul temporal: after World War II

Criteriul necesitatii: it is necessary, because the word is explaining a phenomenon from a field, geology

. singleton

Transcriere fonetica:

[singlton] in Romanian

['siŋgəlton] in English

Format/sens: - a single object (as distinguished from a pair) used in the domaine of electronics, computers; - a set containing a single member; - the playing card that is the only card in a suit held in a bridge hand.

“Singleton“ pentru mai multe conexiuni la db simultane; clasa “singleton“ pentru accesul la baza de date; instanta clasei “Singleton“ doar prin intermediul operatiei Instance sabloane de proiectare; sablonul Singleton se aplica in situatiile in care - cursuri de informatica, automatica, limbaj al persoanelor specializate

Criteriul filierei: imprumut direct

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: folosit intr-un anumit domeniu

The same spelling, pronunciation and senses in both languages

Criteriul temporal: after ‘90

Criteriul necesitatii: it is necessary in the domain of electronics

**skateboard

Transcriere fonetica:

[scheitbord] in Romanian

[skeitbord] in English

Format/sens:: - a board with wheels or rollers attached to the bottom that is ridden in a standing or crouching position and propelled by foot.

Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct < engl. skateboard

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: imprumu bine asimilat

The noun is borrowed from English with the original sense, the same spelling and pronunciation

Criteriul temporal: after ‘90

Criteriul necesitatii: we don not have another definition for this object, it will be difficult to explain: o placa pe care poti sta cu picioarele etc., it easier this way

slang



Transcriere fonetica:

[sleng] in Romanian

[slǽŋ] in English

Format/sens: used especially in linguistics: slang expression, slang term - informal language consisting of words and expressions that are not considered appropriate for formal occasions; often vituperative or vulgar; jargon, lingo, argot, patois, vernacular - a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves): e.g. vedeti ce “slang“ au raperii, de ex pentru marijuana exista peste 26 de cuvinte

Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct < engl. slang

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: imprumut bine asimilat

The noun is borrowed from English with the same orthography and meaning, but the pronunciation is a bit different, we do not use the “ea“, we use “e“

Criteriul temporal: after ‘90

Criteriul necesitatii: it is not that necessary, because we have our own Romanian words to explain

*sleming

Transcriere fonetica:

[sleming] in Romanian; slam in English [slǽm]

Format/sens: The word is borrowed from English with the different spelling (is written as we hear it) and the same pronunciation and senses, especially when we refer to Slam, we find even the variant “slem“. In English we have the noun “slam“ - victory, triumph, winning all or all but one of the tricks in bridge - used in tennis: e.g. Grand Slam, Marele Slem, Turneul de Mare Slem Openul Frantei

Criteriul filierei: “sleming“ imprumutat indirect. It has the sense from the English word, but it was borrowed with different ortography

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: cuvint strain

The meaning is the same, written as we hear it in most cases, in English we find only “slam“

Criteriul temporal: after ‘90

Criteriul necesitatii: necessary in tennis’ terms

**slick

Transcriere fonetica

[slic] in Romanian

[slik] in English

Format/sens: It is used when we refer to cars, tuning and design auto: slick auto (in a car wash, tio give the car a gleamin surface), also photo “slick“ (quality paper), “slick“ saloon for haircuts (to give someone’s hair a glossy appereance),

Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct < engl. slick

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: xenism

The word is borrowed from English with the same orthography, writing and almost the same meaning.

Criteriul temporal: after 2000

Criteriul necesitatii: not necessary

. *sincrofazotron

Transcriere fonetica:

[sincrofazotron] in Romanian,

Format/sens: We find this word in Physics – cyclic accelerator for heavy particles and whose principal of function combines sincrofazotron’s elements, cosmotron, e.g.: sincrotron, sincrociclotron, sincrofazotron), si aciclici, cu traiectoria particulei accelerate dreapta (ex. accelerator de particule in cascada
Sincrofazotron - Accelerator de nuclee usoare si protoni de 10 GeV

Criteriul filierei: terminologie tehnnica < fr. synchrophasotron

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: imprumut integrat pentru cei dintr-un anumit domeniu

The ortography, the meaning are the same, the pronunciation almost the same

Criteriul temporal: after World War II

Criteriul necesitatii: when it is used in the specific field of study

Sir

Transcriere fonetica:

[sör] in Romanian

[sə:r] in English

Format/sens: - term of address for a man; - a title used before the name of knight or baronet.

Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct < engl. sir

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: imprumut bine asimilat

The noun has the same orthography, pronunciation and sense like in English:

Criteriul temporal: after World War II

Criteriul necesitatii: now it is very popular, it well aknowledged the meaning og this noun

**skeet

Transcriere fonetica:

[schit] in Romanian

['ski:t] in English

Format/sens: We find it in sport, skeet shooting, trapshooting - the sport of shooting at clay objects that are hurled upward in such a way as to simulate the flight of a bird.



Skeet - cu si despre munte (echipament, alimentatie, marcaje turistice, tehnica mersului

Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: xenism

This noun has the same orthography, sense and pronunciation like in English

Criteriul temporal: after 2000

Criteriul necesitatii: it is not necessary

***slap

Transcriere fonetica:

[slep] in Romanian

[slǽp] in English

Format/sens: In English, the noun slap has two senses - smack: a blow from a flat object (as an open hand); - the act of smacking something; a blow delivered with an open hand, bang, smack, bolt.

In Romanian: slap, sn (Muz.) Efect sonor obtinut la contrabas prin lovirea gatului

Slap Shot - a fast-moving shot made in hockey with a full swinging stroke.

Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct < engl. to slap

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: imprumut integrat when we refer to the music field, a techinical word and a xenism in the domain of computeres, electronics

The pronunciation is not exactly like in English and the sense is different, in Romanian we find the word in the domain of music – sound effect – and in components of computers: head slap

Criteriul temporal: after ’90 in electronics

Criteriul necesitatii: necessary in the domain of music

**slesing / slashing

Transcriere fonetica:

[slesing] in Romanian

['slǽƒiŋ] in English

Format/sens In Romanian it is used in computers games, a language of gamers: e.g. Damage-ul armelor este de patru feluri: range (arc, sulita), “slashing“ (sabie); De asemenea, va puteti mari rezistenta versus “slashing“ sau bludgeoning gamesuri. In Sports, hochey, scrima.
Slashing has one sense - as if striking with slashing blows, cut down; piercing

- flog, welt, whip, lather, lash, slash, strap, trounce;

- slash, gash;

- cut drastically;

- convulse, thresh, thresh about, thrash, thrash about, slash, toss, jactitate.

Slash- To cut or form by cutting with forceful sweeping strokes: slash a path through the underbrush.
Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct < engl. slashing

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: xenism

The spelling is as its pronunciation in English, but is also used with the the same ortography when we find it in sport - in hockey, scrima, in the language of computers: “hacking and slashing”.   

Criteriul temporal: after ’90

Criteriul necesitatii: it is not necessary, we can say “sabie“ in stead of slashing or slesing, but it is a technical term in hockey and scrima

*sling

Transcriere fonetica:

[sling] in Romanian

[sli ] in English

Format/sens: Slingback, sling - a shoe that has a strap that wraps around the heel, also used in Romanian, not from very long time, it is a recent borrowing of Romanian fashion designers, and English, e.g.: “ . papuci cu toc de 3-4 cm sau pantofi care au doar varful acoperit si bareta la spate (sling-back). Pantofii cu bareta la spate (sling-backs) sunt, de asemenea, acceptabili.”

And also in the domain of electronics, internet, computers etc. has the same meaning in both languages, e.g.: “Sling Media prezinta Slingbox TV, PC world – un fel de dispozitiv. Categorie: Hardware. Un gadget electronic care promite sa elibereze utilizatorii de folosirea televizoarelor si care le” , Industrie prelucrare/echipamente-echipamente manufactura. Oferta: JUMBO, SLING-BAGS din tesatura de polipropilena cu inalta stabilizare la razele UV, avand capacitati de incarcare de 500-1000-1500 kg, diferite modele in functie de solicitarile clientilor, saci pp cu valva

Other senses are not familiar in Romanian: - a drink – gin sling, rum sling: a highball with liquor and water with sugar and lemon or lime juice.

- slingshot, sling and catapult - a plaything consisting of a Y-shaped stick with elastic between the arms; used to propel small stones;

- sling - a simple weapon consisting of a looped strap in which a projectile is whirled and then released

- sling, scarf bandage, triangular bandage - bandage to support an injured forearm; consisting of a wide triangular piece of cloth hanging from around.

A weapon consisting of a looped strap in which a stone is whirled and then let fly. A slingshot.
Criteriul filierei: imprumutat direct < engl. sling

Criteriul gradului de asimilare: xenism

The pronunciation and the orthography are the same in both languages. The meaning it is the same when we refer to shoes, computers and electronics.

Criteriul temporal: it is quite a new borrowing, after 2000 in fashion

Criteriul necesitatii: it is not that necessary, it is more like a trifle, a trend, when we refer to shoes, but it is necessary when it is used in the domain of electronics, a computer language.








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