Man as Artist - The Listener, by John Berry
Once there was a puny little Czech concert violinist named Rudolf, who lived in Sweden. Some of his friends thought he was not the best of musicians because he was restless; others thought he was restless because he was not the best of musicians. At any rate, he hit upon a way of making a living, with no competitors. Whether by choice or necessity, he used to sail about Scandinavia in his small boat, all alone, giving concerts in little seaport towns. If he found accompanists, well and good; if not, he played works for unaccompanied violin; and it happened once or twice that he wanted a piano so badly that he imagined one, and then he played whole sonatas for violin and piano, with no piano in sight.
One year Rudolf sailed all the way out to Iceland and began working his way around that
rocky coast from one town to another. It was a hard, stubborn land; but people in those difficult places do not forget the law of hospitality to the stranger--for their God may decree that they too shall become strangers on the face of the earth. The audiences were small, and even if Rudolf had been really first-rate, they would not have been very demonstrative. From ancient times their energy had gone, first of all, into earnest toil. Sometimes they were collected by the local schoolteacher, who reminded them of their duty to the names of Beethoven and Bach and Mozart and one or two others whose music perhaps was not much heard in those parts. Too often people sat stolidly watching the noisy little fiddler, and went home feeling gravely edified. But they paid.
As Rudolf was sailing from one town to the next along a sparsely settled shore, the northeast turned black and menacing. A storm was bearing down upon Iceland. Rudolf was rounding a bleak, dangerous cape, and his map told him that the nearest harbor was half a day's journey away. He was starting to worry when he saw less than a mile off shore, a lighthouse on a tiny rock island. At the base of the lighthouse was a deep narrow cove, protected by cliffs. With some difficulty, in the rising seas, he put in there and moored to an iron ring that hung from the cliff. A flight of stairs, hewn out of the rock, led up to the lighthouse. On top of the cliff, outlined against the scudding clouds, stood a man.
'You are welcome!' the voice boomed over the sound of the waves that were already beginning to break over the island. Darkness fell quickly. The lighthouse keeper led his guest up the spiral stairs to the livin room on the third floor, then busied himself in preparation for the storm. Above all, he had to attend to the great lamp in the tower, that dominated the whole region. It was a continuous light, intensified by reflectors, and eclipsed by shutters at regular intervals. The duration of light was equal to that of darkness.
The lighthouse keeper was a huge old man with a grizzled beard that came down over his
chest. Slow, deliberate, bearlike, he moved without wasted motion about the limited world of which he was the master. He spoke little, as if words had not much importance compared to the other forces that comprised his life. Yet he was equable, as those elements were not. After the supper of black bread and boiled potatoes, herring, cheese and hot tea, which they took in the kitchen above the living room, the two men sat and contemplated each other's presence. Above them was the maintenance room, and above that the great lamp spoke majestic, silent messages of light to the ships at sea. The storm hammered like a battering ram on the walls of the lighthouse. Rudolf offered tobacco, feeling suddenly immature as he did so. The old man smiled a little as he declined it by a slight movement of the head; it was as if he knew well the uses of tobacco and the need for offering it, and affirmed it all, yet - here he, too, was halfway apologetic - was self-contained and without need of anything that was not already within his power or to which he did not relinquish his power. And he sat there, gentle and reflective, his great workman hands resting on outspread thighs. It seemed to Rudolf that the lighthouse keeper was entirely aware of all the sounds of the storm and of its violent impact upon the lighthouse, but he knew them so well that he did not have to think about them; they were like the involuntary movements of his own heart and blood. In the same way, beneath the simple courtesy that made him speak and listen to his guest in specific ways, he was already calmly and mysteriously a part of him, as surely as the mainland was connected with the little island, and all the islands with one another, so commodiously, under the ocean.
Gradually Rudolf drew forth the sparse data of the old man's life: He had been born in this very lighthouse eighty-three years before, when his father was the lighthouse keeper. His mother - the only woman he had ever known - had taught him to read the Bible, and he read it daily. He had no other books. As a musician, Rudolf had not had time to read much either - but then, he had lived in cities. He reached down and took his beloved violin out of its case.
'What do you make with that, sir?' the old man asked.
For a second Rudolf thought his host might be joking; but the serenity of the other's expression reassured him. There was not even curiosity about the instrument, but rather a whole interest in him, the person, that included his 'work.' In most circumstances Rudolf would have found it hard to believe that there could exist someone who did not know what a violin was; yet now he had no inclination to laugh. He felt small and inadequate. 'I make - music with it,' he stammered in a low voice.
'Music,' the old man said ponderously. 'I have heard of it. But I have never seen music.'
'One does not see music. One hears it.'
'Ah, yes,' the lighthouse keeper consented, as it were with humility. This too was in the nature of things wherein all works were wonders, and all things were known eternally and were poignant in their transiency. His wide gray eyes rested upon the little fiddler and conferred upon him all the importance of which any individual is capable. Then something in the storm and the lighthouse and the old man exalted Rudolf, filled him with compassion, and love and a spaciousness infinitely beyond himself. He wanted to strike a work of fire and stars into being for the old man. And, with the storm as his accompanist, he stood and began to play--the Kreutzer Sonata of Beethoven.
The moments passed, moments that were days in the creation of that world of fire and stars; abysses and heights of passionate struggle, the idea of order, and the resolution of these in the greatness of the human spire. Never before had Rudolf played with such mastery--or with such an accompanist. Waves and wind beat the tower with giant hands. Steadily above them the beacon blazed in its sure cycles of darkness and light. The last note ceased and Rudolf dropped his head on his chest, breathing hard. The ocean seethed over the island with a roar as of many voices.
The old man had sat unmoving through the work, his broad gnarled hands resting on his
thighs, his head bowed, listening massively. For some time he continued to sit in silence. Then he looked up, lifted those hands calmly, judiciously, and nodded his head.
'Yes,' he said. 'That is true.'
Why did Rudolf sail about Scandinavia?
What does the violin mean for Rudolf?
Consider the following attributes of 'the listener': lighthouse keeper,
equable, a huge old man with a grizzled beard.
What can he be perceived as?
Which is the significance of 'music'?
Look up the following words and phrases in a dictionary.
to hit upon a way fiddle stubborn
to bear down cape sparse(-ly)
to moor shutter poignant
to hew battering ram gnarled
to scud beacon judicious(-ly)
to relinquish resolution massively
to stammer courtesy steadily
1. Provide synonyms for the following words.
puny, restless, bleak, equable, gnarled
The Noun (Substantivul)
O clasa de cuvinte deosebit de importanta in vocabularul unei limbi, inclusiv in vocabularul limbii engleze, este cea a cuvintelor care definesc "ceva', orice "obiect' ce poate fi perceput de simturi, reprezentat in minte, imaginat sau gandit: fiinte (man- om, people- popor, Victor, writer- scriitor, lamb- miel), precum si tot ce tine de lumea organica (plant- planta, tree- pom, rose- trandafir), tot ce tine de lumea anorganica (rock- stanca, coal- carbune, water- apa; lucruri (table- masa, road- drum, train- tren, ink-pot- calimara), notiuni abstracte (idea- idee, faculty- facultate), insusire (kindness- bunatate) etc. In orice dictionar, numarul unor asemenea cuvinte depaseste cu mult pe acela al cuvintelor apartinand altor clase, lucru firesc daca ne gandim la varietatea infinita de obiecte si notiuni de care omul a luat si ia cunostinta in cursul istoriei sale. Despre ele vorbim, pe seama lor facem diverse aprecieri, le punem in diferite relatii, le luam ca puncte de referinta, in dictionare ele sunt mentionate ca substantive (in dictionarele engleze, n. -noun) si tot astfel in gramatici. Ca parte de vorbire insa, deci ca element gramatical, substantivul nu poate fi caracterizat si definit numai pe baza intelesului (a "valorii sale semantice'). Gramatica trebuie sa tina seama si de forma acestei parti de vorbire, de felul cum se asociaza cu alte cuvinte-parti de vorbire, precum si de functiile gramaticale pe care le poate indeplini in propozitie (sau, in general, intr-un context).
I. Classifications of Nouns
According to word-formation, nouns can be:
a) simple: pencil, dog, mountain, etc.
b) derived: driver, booklet, discount, etc.
c) compound: postcard, dining-room, editor-in-chief, etc.
According to countability, nouns can be:
a) countable, when they can have a plural form and can be used with the indefinite article, or with many, few, several: apples, lesson, son, etc.
Give me an apple. They eat many apples.
b) uncountable, when they can not be used in the plural or with the indefinite article, but can be used with much, little:
There was much noise in the hall.
II. Number of nouns (Numarul substantivelor)
Variable nouns form the plural in the following way:
a) the inflection -s is added to the singular:
book - books
cat - cats
toy - toys
b) -es is added to the singular nouns ending in: -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh:
bus - buses
box - boxes
watch - watches
brush - brushes
c) -es is added to nouns ending in -y preceded by a consonant (y changes into i):
fly - flies
city - cities
d) -es is added to nouns ending in -o preceded by a consonant:
hero - heroes
potato - potatoes
tomato - tomatoes, (but: photo - photos, piano - pianos, radio - radios)
e) -e(s) is added to nouns ending in -f(e) , which changes into -v:
wolf - wolves
leaf - leaves
knife - knives
wife - wives (but: roof - roofs, cliff - cliffs, chief - chiefs, handkerchief - handkerchiefs, dwarf - dwarfs, proof - proofs, handcuff - handcuffs, belief - beliefs)
f) the root vowel changes:
man - men
woman - women
foot - feet
tooth - teeth
goose - geese
louse - lice
mouse - mice
g) -en is added to the singular;
child - children
ox - oxen
h) foreign plurals are preserved with some borrowed nouns (mainly Latin and Greek)
stimulus - stimuli
larva - larvae
stratum - strata
basis - bases
criterion - criteria (but: cactus - cacti/ cactuses, formula - formulae/ formulas)
i) -s is added to the last element of a compound noun:
washing machine - washing machines
forget - me - not - forget - me - nots
to the first element:
passer-by - passers-by
son-in-law - sons-in-law
or both elements take the plural:
woman driver - women drivers
Some nouns have the same form in the singular and in the plural:
deer, sheep, fish, fruit, Chinese, Portuguese, Swiss, dozen, hundred, thousand, means, series, species, etc.
A sheep is in the valley. Ten sheep are in the valley.
The plural forms fishes, fruits denote different species and varieties:
studied the fishes of the
2. Invariable nouns (Substantivele invariabile)
I. Singular invariable nouns, which take a verb in the singular, are:
a) concrete uncountable nouns: bread, meat, luggage, furniture, money, etc.
My luggage is very heavy. (Bagajele mele sunt grele.)
The money is on the table. (Banii sunt pe masa
b) abstract uncountable nouns: music, progress, nonsense, information, knowledge, advice, homework, etc.
His advice is always good. (Sfaturile lui sunt intotdeauna bune.)
His knowledge of French is poor. (Cunostintele lui de franceza sunt slabe.)
c) proper nouns: John, The
d) nouns ending in -s: news, measles (and other names of diseases), optics, mathematics (and other names of sciences), cards, ninepins (and other names of games):
This news is very good. (Aceste vesti sunt foarte bune.)
Mathematics is fun.
NOTE: To express quantity of uncountable nouns, we can use the words: piece, item, bar, slice, pound, etc.
a piece of news/information/furniture/advice/cake/bread (o veste/informatie/mobila/un sfat/ o bucata de prajitura/paine), a bar of soap/chocolate, a slice of bacon/cake, a pound of sugar/flour/rice/coffee.
II. Plural invariable nouns, which take a verb in the plural are:
a) articles of dress: trousers, pyjamas, tools and instruments: scales, scissors, etc.:
His trousers are on the chair.
Where are the scissors?
b) proper nouns: The Alps, The
c) other "pluralia tantum" : savings, surroundings, customs, contents, wages, stairs, etc.:
The surroundings are very beautiful.
d) Substantivized adjectives: the rich, the poor, goods, etc.
The poor are suffering.
The goods were carried by train.
When we want to refer to one article of dress or instrument, we can use the word pair: a pair of trousers/scissors/scales. Some "collective nouns" like: family, team, crew, jury, etc., take a verb in the plural when reference is made to the component elements, and a verb in the singular, when they are used generically.
His family is large.
His family are at home. (Ai lui/membrii familiei lui sunt acasa.)
III. Case of Nouns. The Genitive (Cazurile substantivelor. Genitivul)
From the point of view of form, there are two types of genitive:
1. The analytical genitive with the preposition of, used with neuter nouns or with long noun phrases:
the cover of the book, the colour of his face
2. The synthetical genitive with 's added to singular nouns or irregular plurals:
the man's performance, the men's result
and (') added to regular plurals, or to proper nouns ending in -s:
the students' answers, Dickens' works
It may be used with the following:
a) nouns denoting persons or other beings
George's letter, the doctor's order, the cow's milk
b) nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, value
a two months' vacation, a life's work, a mile's drive
c) collective nouns: the firms investment, the government's decision
d) nouns that can be personified (geographical names, vehicles, natural phenomena, etc.):
England's history, the ship's crew, the day's heat
IV. Gender of Nouns (Genul substantivelor)
There are four categories of gender:
a) masculine: man, brother, uncle, etc.
b) feminine: woman, sister, aunt, etc.
c) neuter: book, house, snow, etc.
d) common: cousin, friend, pacient, etc.
Gender contrasts are expressed with the help of:
a) different words: husband-wife, boy-girl, bull-cow, cock-hen, etc.
b) compounds: schoolboy-schoolgirl, he-bear - she-bear, etc.
1. Turn the italicized nouns into the plural and make all the other necessary changes in the sentences.
1) The chicken was eaten by a fox.
2) That knife should be wiped at once.
3) Last night a house was robbed by a thief.
4) The child in that family has bad manners.
5) The farmer has a hen, a goose, and a sheep.
6) My sister-in-law is a teacher.
7) The housewife and the middle-aged woman are the principal consumers of this product.
8) My cat never catches a mouse.
Choose the right word from the brackets.
1) The scissors (is, are) here.
2) A (little, few) knowledge (is, are) a dangerous think.
3) (Much, many) people on the ship (is, are) getting seasick.
4) There (is, are) several means of accomplishing our purpose.
5) How (much, many) information do you have about this man.
Politica de confidentialitate
Copyright © 2020 - Toate drepturile rezervate