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Timpurile verbale: prezentul simplu si continuu

Timpurile verbale: prezentul simplu si continuu

Timpurile verbale: prezentul simplu si continuu

Este foarte important sa intelegem utilizarea si sensul timpurilor in limba engleza. Multe dintre aceste forme verbale nu au corespondent in limba romana. Mai mult, sensul exprimat de formele verbale in limba engleza nu corespunde intotdeauna cu cel utilizat in limba romana.

7.1. Clasificarea timpurilor verbale 7.1.1. in functie de timp:

1. Prezentul simplu
2. Prezentul continuu
3. Prezent perfect
4. Prezent perfect continuu
5. Trecut simplu
6. Trecut continuu
7. Trecut perfect
8. Trecut perfect continuu
9. Viitorul simplu
10. Viitorul continuu
11. Viitorul perfect
12. Viitorul perfect continuu


1.1. Forma
Prezentul simplu are forma de baza a verbului (write, work).
La persoana a III-a sg., forma de baza + -s (he writes, she works).
Ex.: I play, you play, we play, they play
He plays, she plays, it plays

Forma negativa se formeaza cu auxiliarul do:
Ex.: I do not drink tea.
She/he does not play football.

Forma interogativa:
Ex.: Do you work here?
Does she/he sing beautifully?

Forma prezentului simplu pentru you, persoana a II-a singular si plural, este identica.

Persoana a III-a singular a prezentului simplu adauga -s la sfarsit!

1.2. Functii:
Actiuni obisnuite, care se intampla in prezent sau in mod regulat, dar nu neaparat in momentul exact al vorbirii:
Ex.: Mina plays tennis every weekend.
The Post office opens at 9:45.

Adevaruri sau realitati general acceptate:
Ex.: Some vegetarians eat fish but they do not eat meat.
Winds carry weather balloons around the earth at the height of 24 kilometers.

Expresia opiniilor:
Ex.: I think Spain is beautiful.
They believe everything they read.

Expresie a preferintelor:
Ex.: Lisette likes cats and dogs, but she prefers cats.
Jim prefers maths to languages.

Se foloseste pentru a exprima asa numitul prezent istoric, facand astfel referire la actiuni care s-au intamplat de fapt in trecut.
Ex.: We were watching the back door when, all of a sudden, in walks Dierdre.
Dierdre tells me that she took her brother to the dentist.

Prezentul simplu poate avea valenta de viitor mai ales cu verbe ca: arrive, come, leave care sugereaza evenimente planuite sau programate:
Ex.: The train from Boston arrives this afternoon at two o'clock.
High tide is at 3:15 p.m. The Super Bowl starts at 6:15 p.m.

Expresii care semnaleaza frecvent actiunile obisnuite exprimate prin prezentul simplu:
all the time, always, every classe, every day, every holiday, every hour, every month, every semester, every week, every year, most of the time, never, often, rarely, sometimes, usually

1.3. Conjugare


I walk

you walk

he/she/it walks


we walk

you walk

they walk


I sleep

you sleep

he/she/it sleeps


we sleep

you sleep

they sleep


I am

you are

he/she/it is


we are

you are

they are

I walk to work every day.
The Chicago Bulls sometimes practice in this gymnasium.
Dr. Espinoza operates according to her own schedule.
Coach Calhoun recruits from countries outside the U.S.A.


2.1. Forma
Acest timp se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to be la prezent + forma de baza a verbului + -ing (participiu prezent).
Ex.: I am buying all my family's Christmas gifts early this year.
She is working through the holiday break.

Forma negativa - se adauga not dupa forma de prezent simplu a auxiliarului to be.
Ex.: It is not raining.

Forma interogativa se obtine prin inversiunea auxiliarului to be cu subiectul:
Ex.: Are they playing?
Is he eating?

2.2. Functii
Prezentul continuu indica: o actiune care se afla in plina desfasurare in momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: The phone is ringing. I can't answer it. I'm washing my hair.
It's raining so they have to stop the game.

O actiune care se afla in desfasurare in perioada prezenta, dar care poate nu se intampla concomitent cu momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: They are writing a new book.
She's studying English at the Language Center.

Descrie o tendinta sau actiune care a debutat recent:
Ex.: More and more people are starting to play golf in Malaysia.

Pentru a desemna o actiune care este planificata pentru viitor:
Ex.: To meet the demand for English language courses, they are planning to expand.
Mohan is leaving for London next week.

2.3. Verbele dinamice si statice
In general, numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si acestea se numesc verbe dinamice.
Aspectul continuu al unui verb arata ca o actiune este, era sau va fi in desfasurare. Formele verbale progresive (aspectul continuu) se folosesc numai in cazul verbelor dinamice, de miscare, care exprima calitati capabile de schimbare.
Nu se spune 'He is being tall' sau 'He is resembling his mother' sau 'I am wanting spaghetti for dinner',
ci vom spune: 'He is tall', 'He resembles his mother', 'I want spaghetti'.
Tabelul urmator descrie in detaliu diferentele dintre verbele statice si cele dinamice:

Verbe care exprima o activitate:
abandon, ask, beg, call, drink, eat, help, learn, listen, look at, play, rain, read, say, slice, throw, whisper, work, write

Ex.: I am begging you. I was learning French. They will be playing upstairs.

Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple:
Ex.: I beg you. I learned French. They will play upstairs.

Verbe care exprima procese:
change, deteriorate, growmature, slow down, widen

Ex.: The corn is growing rapidly. Traffic is slowing down.
Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple:
Ex.: The corn grows rapidly. Traffic slows down.

Verbe de perceptii senzoriale:
ache, feel, hurt, itch

Ex.: 'I feel bad' si 'I am feeling bad' au acelasi sens in acest caz.

Verbe care exprima actiuni tranzitive:
arrive, die, fall, land, leave, lose

Formele continue indica inceputul actiunii pe cand formele temporale simple, din contra.
Ex.: She was falling out of bed (when I caught her).
She falls out of bed every night.

Verbe exprimand actiuni momentane:
hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, tap
Formele continue indica durata scurta si sugereaza repetitia.
Ex.: She is hitting her brother.
He is jumping around the house.

Verbe de perceptie, senzatie, activitate mentala:
abhor, adore, astonish, believe, desire, detest, dislike, doubt, feel, forgive, guess, hate, hear, imagine, impress, intend, know, like, love, mean, mind, perceive, please, prefer, presuppose, realize, recall, recognize, regard, remember, satisfy, see, smell, suppose, taste, think, understand, want, wish

Ex.: I detest rudabaga, si nu I am detesting rudabaga.
I prefer cinnamon toast, si nu I am preferring cinnamon toast.

Verbe de relatie si posesie:
be, belong to, concern, consist of, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, equal, fit, have, include, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess, require, resemble, seem, sound

Ex.: I am sick, si nu I am being sick.
I own ten acres of land, si nu I am owning ten acres.
My brother owes me ten dollars si nu My brother is owing me ten dollars.

Imaginati-va diferenta de inteles dintre verbele statice si cele dinamice prin prisma intentiei, cele statice exprimand calitati neintentionate, pe cand cele dinamice calitati intentionate:

Two plus two equals four.
Jane is leaving for Bucharest.

Equals este un verb static si nu poate lua o forma continua; nu exista optiune sau intentie in acest caz. Doi plus doi a fost si va fi intotdeauna egal cu patru.

Is leaving exprima optiunea si intentia subiectului de a efectua actiunea respectiva.

Verbul to have nu se foloseste niciodata in aspectul continuu atunci cand are sensul de 'a suferi de':
I have flu. He has a fever.

Se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are intelesul de 'a angaja pe cineva pentru o actiune':
I'm having my hair done on Wednesday.
They're having the house painted.

Have se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are sensul de 'experienta':
I'm having a lot of problems with this task.
They're having trouble selling their house.

2.4. Conjugare


I am walking

you are walking

he/she/it is walking


we are walking

you are walking

they are walking


I am sleeping

you are sleeping

he/she/it is sleeping


we are sleeping

you are sleeping

they are sleeping


I am being

you are being

he/she/it is being


we are being

you are being

they are being

The summer is passing too quickly.
Raoul is acting like his father.
Some football players are not being good role models for youngsters.
Is he being good to you?

3. Trecutul simplu
3.1. Forma

Verbele regulate formeaza trecutul simplu prin adaugarea la forma de baza a verbului +-ed.
Ex.: scream > screamed, work > worked

Verbele neregulate au forme proprii de trecut.
Ex.: sleep > slept, drink > drank

Forma negativa se compune cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do, conjugat la trecut (did) + not in fata verbului principal. Did + not se folosesc des in forma contrasa didn't.
Ex.: I did not jump over.
She didn't finish the work.

Forma interogativa se formeaza prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul did si subiect:
Ex.: Did you want it?
Did it rain there?

3.2. Functii

Trecutul simplu se foloseste pentru a exprima fapte si realitati din trecut:
Ex.: In the past people believed that the earth was flat.

Descrie un eveniment sau actiune incheiata petrecuta in trecut:
Ex.: John Loud invented the ballpoint pen in 1888.

Pentru a descrie starea, conditia sau obiceiuri din trecut:
Ex.: I went to school by bus when I was a child.

3.3. Conjugare


I walked

you walked

he/she/it walked


we walked

you walked

they walked


I slept

you slept

he/she/it slept


we slept

you slept

they slept


I was

you were

he/she/it was


we were

you were

they were

Exemple: When I was a girl, I walked five miles to school every day.
Carmelita slept through the entire class.
We worked really hard to make this a success, but then Chuck ruined it with his carelessness.
Every time I finished a sandcastle, the waves came in and washed it away.
Tarzan dove into the swamp and swam toward the alligator.

4. Trecutul continuu
4.1. Forma

Trecutul continuu se formeaza cu ajutorul formei de trecut simplu a auxiliarului to be, was/were + forma participiului prezent (-ing) a verbului principal.
Ex.: I was singing.
You were talking.

Ex.: You were not / weren't singing.
She was not / wasn't reading.

Ex.: Was I speaking clearly?
Were they playing the flute?

4.2. Functii

Trecutul continuu ca si prezentul continuu sunt forme verbale apartinand registrului oral, limbii vorbite cu precadere si sunt rar folosite in registrul scris.

Trecutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima actiuni in desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. Deoarece indica o limita a duratei actiunii este foarte folosit pentru a indica actiuni care au avut loc (trecut simplu) in timp ce o alta actiune era in desfasurare, sau pentru a indica o actiune in desfasurare care este intrerupta de o alta.
Ex.: Carlos lost his watch while he was running.
I was watching Oprah when John came in screaming.

Exprima activitati din trecut:
Ex.: Once I was driving through Kenya with a friend.

Pentru a vorbi despre obiceiuri din trecut. Trecutul continuu este insotit in acest caz de always.
Ex.: Grace was always handing in late papers.
My father was always lecturing my brother.

In general, numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si acestea se numesc verbe dinamice. (vezi: 2.3. Verbe dinamice si verbe statice.)

4.3. Conjugare


I was walking

you were walking

he/she/it was walking


we were walking

you were walking

they were walking


I was sleeping

you were sleeping

he/she/it was sleeping


we were sleeping

you were sleeping

they were sleeping


I was being

you were being

he/she/it was being


we were being

you were being

they were being

Exemple: Dad was working in his garden all morning.
During the mid-50s, real estate speculators were buying all the swampland in Central Florida, and innocent people were investing all their money in bogus development projects.
Was he being good to you?

5. Viitorul

In mod paradoxal, limba engleza nu are o forma ca atare a viitorului, dar idee de viitor se poate exprima in nenumarate moduri.

  • Will/ shall + infinitiv : He will be here at 5 o'clock.
  • Be going to + infinitiv : She's going to buy a new computer.
  • Prezentul continuu : The British Council is moving to a new building next year.
  • Prezentul simplu : The train leaves at 7:15.

5.1. Forma

Cea mai frecvent folosita modalitate de a exprima o actiune viitoare este cu ajutorul lui will/ shall sau a formei contractate a acestora 'll.
Ex.: She will leave soon.
We shall overcome.

In engleza moderna forma shall este foarte putin utilizata.

Cea mai des folosita in Engleza vorbita si scrisa in registrul informal este forma 'll.

Ex.: I will not / won't finish.

Ex.: Will you catch the ball?

5.2. Functii

Viitorul exprima preziceri ale actiunilo viitoare sau interogatii despre viitor.
Ex.: Computer technology will influence our future.

Decizii care tocmai s-au luat si care nu au fost planuite.
Ex.: I'll finish this report tomorrow.

Face promisiuni
Ex.: I'll phone you tomorrow.

Invita pe cineva la un eveniment, actiune
Ex.: Will you come to my house on Sunday?

To be about to = a fi pe punctul sa
Ex.: He is about to die.
To be + infinitiv = exprima ideea unor planuri pentru viitor, ordine sau conditii.
Ex.: There is to be an investigation into the mayor's business affairs.
You are to be back on the base by midnight.

5.3. Conjugare


I will walk

you will walk

he/she/it will walk


we will walk

you will walk

they will walk


I will sleep

you will sleep

he/she/it will sleep


we will sleep

you will sleep

they will sleep


I will be

you will be

he/she/it will be


we will be

you will be

they will be

Exemple: We will be victorious!
We shall overcome.
We are going to win this race.
The bus arrives at three this afternoon.
The boss is announcing his retirement at today's meeting.

6. Viitorul continuu

Will + be + participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului

Viitorul continuu indica o actiune continua, care va avea loc si se va desfasura la un moment dat din viitor.
Ex.: I will be running in next year's Boston Marathon.
Our campaign plans suggest that the President will be winning the southern vote by November.
By this time tomorrow night, I will be sleeping in my own bed.
Next fall, we will be enjoying all the vegetables we planted last spring.
Will we be spending too much money if we buy that big-screen TV?

9. Timpurile cu aspect perfect

7. Prezentul perfect
7.1. Forma

Prezentul auxiliarului have (have/ has) + participiul trecut al verbului (regulat sau neregulat).
Ex.: You have worked hard.
She has taken her medicine.

Ex.: I haven't been to Spain.
I've (have) not seen this movie.

Ex.: Have I met you before?
Have they built the house?

7.2. Functii

Prezentul perfect este una dintre particularitatile limbii engleze, acest timp neavand corespondent in limba romana.

Prezentul perfect este un timp apartinand prezentului. A fost asemanat cu un pod care face legatura dintre trecut si prezent. Dar accentul se pune pe momentul vorbirii, pe acum.

Prezentul perfect exprima o actiune incheiata sau 'perfectata' in trecut si care se extinde pana in momentul prezent:
Ex.: I have walked two miles already (dar continui sa merg).
I have run the Boston Marathon (dar acest lucru s-a intamplat demult).
The critics have praised the film Saving Private Ryan since it came out (si continua sa il laude).

Actiuni sau evenimente din trecut care conduc pana in momentul prezent. In acest caz, folosirea timpului prezent perfect arata ca rezultatul evenimetului sau actiunii care apartine momentului prezent este cel care conteaza si nu momentul in care a avut loc actiunea.
Ex.: He has bought a new car (si acum au o masina noua).
They have been to Mexico but they have not been to South Africa (in consecinta, au cunostinte despre Mexic dar nu stiu prea multe despre Africa de Sud).

Obiceiuri sau evenimente si actiuni frecvente in decursul unei perioade de timp care conduc la momentul prezentului.
Ex.: She has studied English for four years (si inca mai studiaza engleza.)
Brazil has won the World Cup four times.

7.3. Adverbe

Alegerea intre prezentul perfect si trecutul simplu este de multe ori influentata si de adverbele care insotesc verbul. Daca adverbele respective se refera la o perioada trecuta, vom folosi trecutul simplu.
Ex.: I studied all night/yesterday/on Wednesday.

Cu adverbe care marcheaza un inceput in trecut si conduct pana la momentul prezentului, vom folosi prezentul perfect.
Ex.: I have studied up to now/lately/already.

Expresii adverbiale cum ar fi: today, this month, for an hour se pot folosi atat cu prezentul perfect cat si cu trecutul simplu.
Ex.: I worked/have worked hard today.

Exista tendinta de a folosi prezentul perfect pentru a anunta un eveniment din trecutul recent.
Ex.: The company's current CEO has lied repeatedly to her employees.

Dar vom folosi trecutul simplu pentru a relata sau anunta evenimente care au luat sfarsit si apartin trecutului indepartat.
Ex.: Washington encouraged his troops.

7.4. Conjugare


I have walked

you have walked

he/she/it has walked


we have walked

you have walked

they have walked


I have slept

you have slept

he/she/it have slept


we have slept

you have slept

they have slept


I have been

you have been

he/she/it has been


we have been

you have been

they have been

For five generations, members of my family have been doctors.
Vaughan has batted clean-up since he came to the Redsox.
She has swum the English Channel every summer.
How long has it been since the last time we met?

8. Prezent perfect continuu
8.1. Forma

Have/has + been + participiul prezent (-ing)
Ex.: I have been waiting for an hour.

Ex.: You haven't been talking too much.

Ex.: Have they been feeling unwell?

8.2. Functii

Si aceasta forma verbala apartine timpului prezent si se raporteaza la momentul prezent.

Se foloseste pentru a descrie stari sau sentimente care au debutat in trecut si au continuat de-a lungul unei perioade de timp si sunt inca prezente pana in momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: It has been raining for two days (and it's still raining).

Diferenta dintre forma prezentului perfect si cea a prezentului perfect continuu este ca forma continua accentueaza durata actiunii sau a starii.

8.3. Conjugare


I have been walking

you have been walking

he/she/it has been walking


we have been walking

you have been walking

they have been walking


I have been sleeping

you have been sleeping

he/she/it has been sleeping


we have been sleeping

you have been sleeping

they have been sleeping


There is no present perfect progressive for the 'to be' verb. 'Have been being' is expressed simply as 'have been': 'We have been being successful in the past.'


Maria has been writing her dissertation for the last six years[, but she finished yesterday].
The Redsox have been losing games since the All-Star break [and they continue to do so].
Have we been telling the truth to consumers about tobacco?
Haven't we been lying to teenagers about smoking?

8.4. Folosirea adverbelor cu prezentul perfect

Exista cateva expresii adverbiale care se folosesc in mod frecvent cu formele prezentului perfect. Aceastea sunt: since, so far, ever, never, for, since, etc.
Ex.: There have been 92 accidents since the beginning of the year.
Have you ever been to Romania?
I have never seen a purple cow.
John has been working on his thesis for two years.
They haven't seen him since 1989.

- poate fi folosit atat cu trecutul simplu cat si cu formele perfecte (prezent, trecut, viitor perfect).
- are sensul de: in timpul, pe durata, pentru o perioada de timp.

- se foloseste doar cu formele perfecte.
- are sensul de incepand de la un moment dat.

9. Trecutul perfect
9.1. Forma

Had + participiu trecut al verbului

Trecutul perfect indica faptul ca o actiune s-a incheiat, 'perfectat' la un moment din trecut inainte ca un alt eveniment sa se produca.
Ex.: I had walked two miles by lunchtime.
I had run three other marathons before entering the Boston Marathon.

9.2. Conjugare


I had walked

you had walked

he/she/it had walked


we had walked

you had walked

they had walked


I had slept

you had slept

he/she/it had slept


we had slept

you had slept

they had slept


I had been

you had been

he/she/it had been


we had been

you had been

they had been

Prior to the Revolutionary War, Washington had been a surveyor and land speculator.
Aunt Glad had invested heavily in the air-conditioning industry before the Great Crash of 1988.
She had swum the English Channel every summer until 1997.
How long had it been since you saw each other?

10. Trecutul perfect continuu

Forma: Had + been + participiu prezent (-ing)

Acest timp indica o actiune continua care s-a incheiat la un moment dat din trecut.

Hemingway had been losing his self-confidence for years before the publication of Old Man and the Sea.
Had they been cheating on the exams before the school put monitors in the classroom?

11. Viitorul perfect

Forma: Will + have + participiul trecut al verbului

Viitorul perfect indica o actiune care va fi fost incheiata la un moment dat din viitor.
Ex.: I will have spent all my money by this time next year.
I will have run successfully in three marathons if I can finish this one.
By this time next week, I will have worked on this project for twenty days.
Before he sees his publisher, Charles will have finished four chapters in his new novel.
A Democratic president will have been in the White House for nearly half of the twentieth century.
How long will it have been since we were together?

12. Viitorul perfect continuu

Forma: Will + have + been + participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului

Acest timp indica a actiune continua care va fi incheiata la un moment dat din viitor.
Ex.: By the time he finishes this semester, Gesualdo will have been studying nothing but parasites for four years.
Will they have been testing these materials in the lab before we even get there?

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