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THE ARTICLE - ARTICOLUL


THE ARTICLE - ARTICOLUL


THE ARTICLE - ARTICOLUL

a)     Definitie

Articolul este, unul dintre cele mai dificile capitole, atat datorita numeroaselor sale functii cat si implicatiilor stilistice determinate de context si, intr-un sens mai larg, de stilurile functionale (stiintific, poetic, de conversatie,).Importanta cunoasterii modului de folosire a articolului englez nu poate sa scape nimanui.Aproape fiecare substantiv din limba engleza este insotit de un articol, intrucat articolul este cel mai de seama determinant al substantivului.



b)    Formele articolului

(Articolul nehotarat) :- The Indefinite Article

articolul nehotarat se asaza inaintea cuvantului pe care il

determina si, datorita valorii sale semantice ("un","o")

A (un , o ) inaintea sunetelor consonantice sau semiconsonantice;

An ( un , o) inaintea sunetelor vocalice ;

(Articolul hotarat) : - The Definite Article

functia principala, caracteristica , a articolului hotarat, este de a arata ca substantivul inaintea caruia sta a fost mentionat in cursul discutiei, expunerii, descrierii, ca intr-un fel sau altul, este cunoscut in respectiva situatie de catre cel caruia i se adreseaza:

- articolul hotarat <the>;

eg .:

He is definitely the man for the job.

Este cu siguranta omul potrivit pentru slujba.

Under the circumstances he could not act otherwise/In asemenea imprejurari, nu putea proceda altfel:

(Articolul Zero) : The Zero Article

Articolul zero, paradoxal prin denumire, inseamna, de fapt, absenta unui articol exprimat (the, sau a(n) insa articolul zero indeplineste functii precise si inlocuirea lui poate atrage dupa sine fie schimbari de inteles, fie, pur si simplu, greseli de exprimare:

- folosim articolul zero cu :

* Un plural numarat :

- sens general

I love roses.

Imi plac (iubesc) trandafirii.

- un anume numar :

I ' ve bought roses.

Am cumparat trandafiri.

- nenumarabil

sens general - I hate tea.

Urasc ceaiul.

o anumita cantitate - I'd like tea and bread.

Imi place ceaiul si painea;

c)     Pozitia articolului

articolul nehotarat se asaza inaintea cuvantului pe care il

determina si, datorita valorii sale semantice ("un","o")

articolul precede substantivul si toate adjectivele (cu sau fara adverb) asezat inaintea unui substantiv;

A smart hat.

O palarie eleganta.

In acelasi timp <all> si <both> preced articolul hotarat ( se asaza dupa acestea):

They had all the fun .

Ei sunt cei care s-au distrat cel mai bine.

All the boys were there.Toti baietii erau acolo.

Both the men = both men ) were guilty.

Amandoi (oamenii ) erau vinovati.

Both the novels are on the shelf. Amandoua romanele sunt pe raft.

Si adverbele <quite > si <rather> preced in mod normal articolul :

quite     = complet, foarte exact ;

rather = mai degraba, destul de (mult) aproape, o piesa buna ;

eg.:     It was quite /rather a good play.

Era foarte /destul de (mult) aproape o piesa buna.

It was quite the best play I have seen.

Era cu adevarat cea mai buna piesa pe care am vazut-o vreodata.

In acelasi timp <quite > si <rather>, se aseaza uneori dupa articolul nehotarat precum in :

eg.: That was a rather unfortunate remark to make .

Era o remarca mai degraba regretabila.

eg.: That would be a quite useless task.

Era mai degraba o sarcina inutila, fara valoare.

Adverbele <too> = de asemenea, <so > = deci, asadar, <as> = precum, preced adjectivul si articolul nehotarat.

Deci avem constructia

TOO/SO/AS + Adjectiv + Subiect

eg.:

If that is not too great a favour to ask = daca nu este prea mult (o prea mare favoare) sa va intreb .

Never have I seen a film so boring.

N-am vazut niciodata un film atat de plictisitor.

I have never seen as fine an actor as Oliver.

N-am vazut niciodata un actor atat de bun ca Olivier

De asemenea, putem gasi < such as> (un altfel, asemenea ) si <what a > = (ce ! )

She is such a fool !   

Este asa o proasta

What a joke !

Ce gluma !

Remarcati faptul ca < SUCH> (asemeni) cu < so >, el este precedat :

eg.:

I have never seen such a beautiful painting .

N-am mai vazut niciodata o pictura atat de frumoasa.

I have never seen such a beautiful painting!/a painting so beautiful.

N-am vazut niciodata o pictura atat de frumoasa.

< Half > (jumatate) de asemenea, precede in mod obisnuit articolul :

eg.: Half the world knows about this .

Jumatate din lume stie despre asta.

I will be back in half an hour. (vointa autorului).

Ma voi intoarce intr-o jumatate de ora.

Pentru a suprima notiunea vointei cu <will > construieste de asemenea fraza :

I will be back in half an hour.

Ma voi intoarec in jumatate de ora.

Daca <half> si substantivul formeaza un substantiv compus, articolul se plaseaza primul

eg.: Why don't you buy just a half bottle of rum ?

De ce nu cumperi doar o jumatate de sticla de rom ?

Comparati cu

He drank half a bottle of rum.

El a baut jumatate din sticla de rom .

Cateva exemple de retinut

1/-Tv-Video

To listen to the radio DAR To watch T.V.

2/ Autoritati

To talk about the President of the USA, the Queen of England.

Dar President Clinton and Queen Elisabeth.

Mesele si zilele saptamanii :

fara articol

To have lunch , dinner . ./On Monday .

4)Jocuri si sporturi

fara articol;

eg.

To play football, tennis, chess DAR articolul inaintea instrumentelor muzicale :

to play the guitar . .

to play the piano .

5) Limbi straine si nume de tari la singular :

- fara articol :

I love French, English . /I love French./

Imi place limba franceza, limba engleza.

Imi place limba franceza

DAR locuitorii, primesc articolul hotarat

eg.:

I love the French; the Irish . people.

Iubesc francezii, irlandezii .

DAR numele de tari la plural sau care formeaza un element comun primesc art.hotarat .

The United States, the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, . .

6/Profesii

articolul nehotarat

eg.: He is a doctor.

El este (un) doctor.

7/Dupa prepozitiile : AS/WITHOUT :

articolul nehotarat

eg.:

To be without a car.

A fi fara masina.

8/Dupa prepozitiile : AT/BY

- fara articol:

At midnight, dawn, dusk . /By car, boat, radio, .

La miezul noptii / Cu masina .

9/ Dupa exclamatiile introduse de WHAT/SUCH

articolul nehotarat

What a beautiful horse !

Ce cal frumos !

10/ Expresii de timp

articolul nehotarat

Once a day !

O data pe zi !

11/Expresii care primesc articolul hotarat

To have a cold .

A avea raceala.

To have a fever.

A avea febra.

To have a temperature.

A avea temperatura

To have a headache.

A avea o durere de cap.

12/Boli :

fara articole sau uneori the flu - (gripa

13/Cursuri de apa si lanturile muntoase

cu articolul hotarat

The Thames, the Hudson, the Himalayas, the Alps.

14)Varfuri :

- fara articol :

Ben Nevis, Kilimandjaro, Mount Everest

15) Lacuri / insule :

nu primeste articolul hotarat ( urmat de of) sau cand sunt la plural :

Lake Michigan, Easter Island, The Great Lakes, The Isle of Wight.

16)Nume de mari

- primesc articolul definit :

The Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Artic Ocean

Articolul hotarat apare in expresii

for the time being = deocamdata, pentru moment;

in the long run = pana la urma;

on the whole = in general

at the bginning = la inceput

in the end = la sfarsit

in the morning = dimineata, in cursul diminetii;

by the way = apropo;

at the latest = cel mai tarziu;

the day after tomorrow = poimaine;

to have been through the mill= a fi trecut prin ciur si sita;

many happy returns of the day= la multi ani!

Articolul nehotarat apare in expresii

to have a mind to = a-i fi pofta sa, a avea chef de;

to have a care = a avea grija;

to take a fancy to = a indragi;

for a time = un timp, o vreme;

in a nice fix(fam.) = la anaghie, la stramtoare

once in a blue moon = din an in Paste;

not to care a rap/straw = a nu-i pasa nici cat negru sub unghie;

to keep an eye on    = a nu slabi din ochi/a fi cu ochii pe . ;

at a time = deodata,in acelasi timp;

all of a sudden    = brusc.

Articolul zero in expresii

at random = la intamplare

in time    = la timp;

for good    = pentru totdeauna;

hand in hand = mana in mana

at/by night = noaptea;

at down    = in zori

at last    = in cele din urma;

on end    = in sir

bag and baggage = cu catel si cu purcel

by ear    = dupa ureche

by word of mouth = din gura in gura

in keeping with in conformitate cu

side by side = unul langa altul

by mistake = din greseala

New words :

- hat = palaria

- men = barbati

- guilty = vinovat(a);

- quite = complet, foarte exact;

- rather = mai degraba,o piesa buna;

- unfortunate    = regretabil(a), neplacut(a)

- useless = inutil(a); fara valoare

- boring = plictisitor(oare);

- never = niciodata

- painting = pictura

- joke = gluma

- beautiful = frumos(oasa);

- half = jumatate

- world = lume;

- about = despre;

- why = de ce?

- to buy = a cumpara

- bottle = sticla;

- rum = rom;

- fever = febra;

EXERCITII

1. Puneti A/AN sau THE :

  1. This morning I bought ___newspaper and ____ magazine. ____newspaper    is in my bag but I don't know where I put ___ magazine.
  2. I saw ____accident this morning . ___car crashed into ___ tree. ____driver of ___car wasn't hurt but _____ was badly damaged.
  3. There are two cars parked outside : ____blue one and ____grey one .
  4. My friends live in ___ old house in ___small village.There is ___beautiful garden behind _____house . I would like to have _____garden like that.

2/Puneti articolul unde este necesar:

a.Would you like apple ?

b.How often do you go to dentist ?

c.Could you close door, please ?

d.I'm sorry,I didn't mean to do that.It was mistake.

e.Excuse me, where is bus station, please ?

f. I 've got problem . Can you help me ?

g.I'm just going to post office.I won't be long.

h.There were no chairs, so we had to sit on floor.

i.Have you finished book I lent you ?

j.My sister has just got job in bookshop in Manchester .

k.We live in small flat near city centre.

l.There's small supermarket at end of street I live in.

3/Puneti articolul corect :

  1. Where did you have ___lunch ? We went to ___restaurant.
  2. Did you have ____nice holiday ? Yes, it was ____ best holiday I've ever had.
  3. Where's ___nearest shop? There 's one at ____end of this steet .
  4. Do you often listen top _____radio ? No. In fact I haven't got ___radio.
  5. Would you like to travel in ____space ? Yes, I'd love to go to ____moon.
  6. Do you go to ______cinema often? No, but I watch a lot of films on _____TV.
  7. It    was _____nice day yesterday, wasn't it ? Yes, it was.We went for a walk by ____sea.
  8. What did you have for _______breakfast ?Nothing.I never eat _____breakfast.
  9. Can you tell me where ___room 23 is, please ? It's on ______second floor .
  10. We spent all our money because we stayed at _____ most expensive hotel in town.
  11. Why don't you stay at ____cheaper hotel ?

4/Puneti articolul corect :

  1. I haven't been to ____cinema for ages.
  2. I lay down on ____ground and looked up at __ sky.
  3. Margaret spends most of her free time watching ___TV.
  4. ____ television was on but nobody was watching it.
  5. Have you had _____dinner yet ?
  6. Emma and I arrived at _____same time.
  7. You'll find _____information you neeed at __top of____page 7.
  8. Peru is ____country in South America ____capital is Lima.

New words :

bag = geanta

driver = sofer

garden = gradina

apple = mar

mistake = greseala;

floor = podea;

cheaper = mai ieftin;

free time = timp liber;





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