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INDUSTRIE


INDUSTRIE


Note metodologice

Datele prezentate in Buletinul Statistic Lunar, cu privire la principalii indicatori economico-sociali, au caracter provizoriu si pot face obiectul unor rectificari ulterioare. Ele se obtin, de regula, prin cercetari statistice selective, fiind relevante pentru aprecierea tendintelor de evolutie economico-sociala pe termen scurt. Datele se definitiveaza anual, atat pe baza anchetei structurale de intreprindere, cat si a unor anchete anuale specifice pentru indicatorii economici si sociali.



Baza de sondaj, care asigura informatiile necesare construirii si revizuirii anuale a esantioanelor de intreprinderi, o reprezinta Registrul statistic al agentilor economici, care este corelat cu Registrul fiscal si actualizat pe baza bilanturilor contabile depuse la Ministerul Finantelor Publice.

La prezentarea datelor este utilizata Clasificarea Activitatilor din Economia Nationala (CAEN), elaborata de Institutul National de Statistica, armonizata cu cea folosita in cadrul Uniunii Europene si pe plan international, indicatorii fiind calculati dupa principiul omogenitatii/preponderentei, pe sectiuni, principalele grupe industriale, diviziuni, grupe si clase. Clasificarea Activitatilor din Economia Nationala (CAEN) a fost aprobata prin Hotararea Guvernului Romaniei nr. 656/1997.

Formele de proprietate care se utilizeaza pentru structurarea datelor sunt detaliate pe 8 tipuri specifice perioadei actuale, respectiv: proprietate integrala de stat (capital social integral de stat), proprietate majoritara de stat (capital social de stat peste 50%), proprietate majoritara privata (capital social privat peste 50%), proprietate integral privata (capital social integral privat romanesc sau romanesc si strain), proprietate cooperatista, proprietate obsteasca, proprietate integral straina, proprietate publica de interes national si local. In cursul anului, incadrarea pe forme de proprietate a unitatilor se realizeaza potrivit situatiei la momentul anchetei.

Datele valorice sunt exprimate in preturile curente ale fiecarei perioade.

Indicii de volum sunt determinati in conditii metodologice comparabile si in preturi constante.

Pentru activitatea de comert exterior, indicii valorici sunt calculati pe baza datelor exprimate in dolari SUA.

In Buletinul Statistic Lunar sunt prezentati, de asemenea, o serie de indicatori care provin din surse administrative, precizate in cuprinsul publicatiei, institutiile furnizoare fiind direct responsabile de continutul si calitatea informatiilor:

Balanta energiei electrice

- C. N. TRANSELECTRICA S.A.si S.C. Electrica S.A.

Efectivele de animale din gospodariile

populatiei si situatia lucrarilor agricole

- Ministerul Agriculturii, Alimentatiei si  Padurilor

Datele de comert exterior

- Directia Generala a Vamilor

Numarul de someri inregistrati si rata

somajului

- Agentia Nationala pentru Ocuparea Fortei de Munca

Bugetul de stat, bugetele locale si bugetul

asigurarilor sociale de stat

- Ministerul Finantelor Publice

Situatia monetara si cursul de schimb

- Banca Nationala a Romaniei

Inmatriculari de societati comerciale cu participare straina la capitalul social subscris

- Camera de Comert si Industrie a Romaniei si a Municipiului Bucuresti, Oficiul National al Registrului Comertului

Principalii indicatori ai pietei de capital

- Bursa de Valori Bucuresti

Indicatori privind activitatea de protectie a consumatorilor

- Autoritatea Nationala pentru Protectia Consumatorilor

Inmatriculari noi de vehicule rutiere

- Ministerul de Interne, Directia Generala de Evidenta Informatizata a Persoanei

Metodologiile de calculare a indicatorilor statistici sunt supuse unui proces continuu de revizuire si perfectionare, in scopul reflectarii cu acuratete a modificarilor care se produc in economie, adaptarii la noile cerinte informationale si alinierii la sistemul statistic al Uniunii Europene, conditie importanta a integrarii in aceasta structura. In consecinta, pentru o serie de indicatori, au fost actualizate sfera de cuprindere, esantioanele de cercetare si ponderile de agregare, procedandu-se la recalcularea datelor publicate anterior, pentru asigurarea comparabilitatii.

INDUSTRIE

Indicele productiei industriale (IPI) masoara evolutia rezultatelor activitatilor cu caracter industrial de la o perioada la alta, acesta fiind un indice de volum.

Indicele productiei industriale este de tip Laspeyres si utilizarea unor astfel de formule necesita revizuirea periodica a sistemului de ponderare si analiza a reprezentativitatii seriilor de produse selectate.

Incepand cu anul 2001, anul de referinta folosit la calculul IPI este anul 1998, cel mai apropiat an pentru care s-a dispus de elementele de ponderare.

Indicii productiei industriale masoara evolutia acesteia pe total industrie, sectiuni (industria extractiva, prelucratoare si energie electrica, termica, gaze si apa), principalele grupe industriale si pe diviziuni CAEN (10,11,13,14,15-37,40,41). Gradul de acoperire pe total industrie este de 78,3%.

Incepand cu luna ianuarie 2001, pentru calculul indicilor productiei industriale se utilizeaza 1621 produse, pentru care se inregistreaza date cantitative privind productia.

Productia realizata, indicator utilizat in evaluarea activitatilor industriale conform utilizarii metodologiei, se comensureaza prin cantitatea de bunuri produse (fabricate) in perioada analizata si care sunt destinate livrarii catre alti beneficiari, consumului intern sau sunt realizate in interes propriu (productia de imobilizari).

Productia consumata intern productiv, este formata din acele produse care urmeaza a fi supuse unor prelucrari ulterioare (la alte sectii ale societatii comerciale) in scopul obtinerii de produse finite. Productia realizata in interes propriu, se compune din produse care parasesc sfera industriei (neparticipand la alt proces de transformare industriala) si intra in sfera formarii brute de capital (prin crearea de noi mijloace fixe proprii) sau a consumului populatiei (produse consumate in cantine proprii ale unitatii).

Nomenclatoarele utilizate la calculul indicelui productiei industriale sunt:

. Clasificarea Activitatilor Economiei Nationale (CAEN) care a fost elaborata, pe de o parte, din necesitatea de reflectare a noilor relatii economice si pe de alta parte, pentru asigurarea alinierii cu Nomenclatorul Activitatilor din Comunitatea Europeana. Potrivit acestei clasificari, activitatile economico-sociale sunt structurate pe 5 trepte (sectiune, subsectiune, diviziune, grupa si clasa), constituite pe principiul omogenitatii, structuri de clasificare comparabile cu cele existente in statistica europeana (NACE) si cea mondiala (CITI/ISIC) utilizate in statisticile ONU.

. Nomenclatorul produselor industriale (PRODIND) are ca principala caracteristica detalierea produselor pe baza principiilor ce au stat la baza elaborarii CAEN-ului (materia prima, procese tehnologice, organizarea productiei, natura bunurilor si serviciilor, etc). O alta caracteristica o reprezinta faptul ca toate produsele sunt la acelasi nivel de nominalizare, urmand ca eventualele grupari solicitate pentru nevoia de analiza si diseminare, sa se faca prin prelucrare, pe baza criteriilor de structurare utilizate pentru definirea fiecarei pozitii.

Nomenclatorul de produse industriale (PRODIND) cuprinde circa 2700 produse fizice fata de 1030 existente in nomenclatorul precedent si caracterizeaza activitatile industriale din sectiunile CAEN: D, E, si F.

. Nomenclatorul agentilor economici ce furnizeaza lunar date privind productia fizica industriala cuprinde un esantion reprezentativ de intreprinderi cu activitate principala industria (CAEN 1010-4100).

Pentru o mai buna reprezentare a industriei alimentare, datorita specificului acesteia, in esantionul de intreprinderi sunt incluse si societatile comerciale cu activitate principala de agricultura, dar care au subunitati specializate in fabricarea produselor agroalimentare.

Construirea sistemului de ponderare si algoritmul de calcul

Agregarea indicilor primari ai productiei fizice industriale se realizeaza printr-un sistem de ponderari succesive, utilizandu-se pentru agregarea la nivel de produs (PRODIND) pretul mediu din anul de baza (1998), iar pentru nivelele de agregare superioare (clasa, grupa, diviziune CAEN sau principala grupa industriala) folosindu-se valoarea adaugata bruta la costul factorilor (VABCF) din anul de baza (1998).

Utilizand o formula de tip Laspeyres, primii indici agregati sunt cei de la nivelul clasei CAEN, urmatoarele nivele de agregare fiind determinate ca o medie aritmetica ponderata ai indicilor claselor, grupelor, diviziunilor, sectiunilor CAEN, principalelor grupe industriale cu VABCF corespunzatoare din anul de baza (1998).

Indicii pentru principalele grupe industriale (industria bunurilor intermediare; industria bunurilor de capital; industria bunurilor de folosinta indelungata; industria bunurilor de uz curent; industria energetica) se obtin prin agregarea indicilor la nivelul claselor CAEN componente, ponderate cu VABCF corespunzatoare.

Indicii productiei industriale pe total industrie se obtin prin agregarea indicilor calculati la nivel de diviziune CAEN sau principala grupa industriala.

Pentru a reflecta cat mai real evolutia lunara a productiei industriale, potrivit practicii internationale, pe langa indicii in volum absolut ai productiei industriale, se mai calculeaza si indici ajustati in functie de numarul de zile lucratoare din fiecare perioada, indici care caracterizeaza eficienta activitatii depuse in perioada (luna) respectiva.

Coeficientii de corectie cu care se ajusteaza indicii in volum absolut calculati la nivel de clasa, se determina fata de perioada de baza (1998), separat pentru produsele realizate in regim de foc continuu si separat pentru cele realizate in regim normal de lucru (numar zile calendaristice minus sambete, duminici si sarbatori legale).

Indicii ajustati se obtin prin multiplicarea indicilor in volum absolut, cu coeficientii de corectie obtinuti pentru produsele realizate in regim normal de lucru si pentru cele realizate in regim de foc continuu.

Indicii productiei industriale sunt provizorii si periodic se rectifica pe baza corectiilor ce se efectueaza retroactiv de catre intreprinderile din esantion, asupra datelor furnizate anterior de catre acestea.

Pentru asigurarea continuitatii seriilor de indici construiti in baze diferite, se va utiliza un 'coeficient de racordare' care permite legarea seriei de indici lunari din anii 2001 si 2002 cu baza 1998=100 la seria de indici cu baza 1995=100. Coeficientul de racordare se calculeaza ca un raport intre un indice de tip Laspeyres calculat ca medie lunara a anului 2000 in vechea baza (1995=100) fata de media lunara a anului 1999 in vechea baza (1995=100) si un altul pentru acelasi an 2000 in noua baza (1998=100) fata de media lunara a anului 1999 in noua baza (1998=100) pentru fiecare nivel de reprezentare in parte. Compararea a doi indici calculati in baze diferite se face utilizand coeficientul de racordare.

Valoarea productiei industriale totale - reprezinta in expresie valorica productia fizica executata in perioada analizata, indiferent de destinatia acesteia.

Insumarea productiei realizate, pe total si pe principalele destinatii (livrat, consum intern productiv sau stoc) s-a facut pe baza preturilor medii inregistrate in cadrul fiecarei luni raportate. Pretul mediu s-a obtinut ca un raport intre valoarea si volumul productiei livrate pentru fiecare din pozitiile nominalizate in nomenclatorul de produse industriale "PRODIND".

Cifra de afaceri reprezinta veniturile totale inregistrate de catre intreprindere in perioada respectiva, provenite atat din activitatea principala, cat si din activitatile secundare exercitate de aceasta. Cifra de afaceri nu include TVA si veniturile din vanzarea sau transferul de mijloace fixe.

Nomenclatorul agentilor economici (circa 9000) ce furnizeaza lunar date privind cifra de afaceri din industrie, cuprinde agentii economici care au ca activitate principala industria (CAEN 1010-4100).

Cercetarea statistica este de tip selectiv, utilizandu-se ca baza de sondaj nomenclatorul de unitati folosit la ancheta structurala anuala in intreprinderi. Colectivitatea generala a agentilor economici a fost divizata in doua subcolectivitati:

unitati cercetate exhaustiv;

unitati cercetate prin sondaj.

Subcolectivitatea exhaustiva cuprinde agentii economici din baza de sondaj care au 20 de salariati si peste, iar subcolectivitatea cercetata prin sondaj cuprinde agentii economici cu mai putin de 20 de salariati.

Indicii de volum ai cifrei de afaceri sunt calculati in conditii metodologice si de preturi comparabile. Pentru exprimarea valorilor din perioada curenta in preturile perioadei de referinta se utilizeaza indici de pret deflatori.

Incepand cu anul 2001, anul de referinta utilizat la calculul indicelui cifrei de afaceri din unitatile industriale este anul 1998, cel mai apropiat an pentru care s-a dispus de elementele sistemului de ponderare.

Agregarea indicilor primari se realizeaza printr-un sistem de ponderari succesive, utilizandu-se pentru agregare, cifra de afaceri din anul de baza (1998).

Utilizand o formula de tip Laspeyres, primii indici agregati sunt cei de la nivelul clasei CAEN, urmatoarele nivele de agregare fiind determinate ca o medie aritmetica ponderata a indicilor claselor, diviziunilor, sectiunilor CAEN, principalelor grupe industriale aferenti noii structuri.

Indicii de volum ai cifrei de afaceri sunt provizorii si periodic se rectifica, pe baza corectiilor ce se efectueaza retroactiv de catre intreprinderile din esantion, asupra datelor completate anterior de catre acestea.

Pentru asigurarea continuitatii seriilor de indici construiti in baze diferite, se va utiliza un 'coeficient de racordare' care permite legarea seriei de indici lunari din anii 2001 si 2002 cu baza 1998=100 la seria de indici cu baza 1995=100. Coeficientul de racordare se calculeaza ca un raport intre un indice de tip Laspeyres calculat ca medie lunara a anului 2000 in vechea baza (1995=100) fata de media lunara a anului 1999 in vechea baza (1995=100) si un altul pentru acelasi an 2000 in noua baza (1998=100) fata de media lunara a anului 1999 in noua baza (1998=100) pentru fiecare nivel de reprezentare in parte. Compararea a doi indici calculati in baze diferite se face utilizand coeficientul de racordare.

ENERGIE

Resursele de energie primara se determina in cursul anului numai pentru sortimentele principale, pe baza cantitatilor rezultate din productia interna si din import. Datele privind productia sunt obtinute prin cercetarea statistica exhaustiva a unitatilor producatoare de resurse energetice, iar cele privind importul sunt furnizate de directia de specialitate din INS.

Transformarea in combustibil conventional se efectueaza in functie de aportul energetic al fiecarui purtator de energie primara. Unitatea de masura este tona echivalent petrol (t.e.p.) in acord cu publicatiile internationale in domeniu. Prin conventie, aceasta reprezinta un combustibil cu puterea calorica de 41868 kj/kg (10000 kcal/kg). Pentru energia electrica, cu exceptia energiei nuclearo-electrice, transformarea se face pe baza potentialului energetic al acesteia (0,086 t.e.p./kWh), in conformitate cu noua metodologie adoptata in vederea armonizarii cu statistica energetica europeana, metodologie denumita generic "sistemul energiei finale". Energia nuclearo-electrica se transforma in combustibil conventional pe baza randamentului de producere, conform metodologiei internationale.

Energia electrica din import cuprinde cantitatea efectiv intrata pe teritoriul national pe baza contractelor de import, taxelor de tranzit si schimburilor cu alte sisteme nationale interconectate.

Balanta energiei electrice se intocmeste pe baza datelor obtinute prin cercetari statistice de profil (productie, consum in economie) si a celor furnizate de C.N. TRANSELECTRICA S.A. si S.C. ELECTRICA S.A. (importul, exportul, iluminatul public, consumul populatiei si consumul propriu tehnologic in retele si statii).

COMERT EXTERIOR

Comertul exterior include toate schimburile de bunuri intre Romania si alte tari avand ca obiect: importul de marfuri direct pentru consum, marfurile importate scoase din antrepozitele vamale sau zonele libere pentru a fi puse in consum, exportul de produse nationale, precum si exportul de marfuri importate declarate pentru consumul intern. De asemenea, se cuprind: importurile temporare de bunuri straine pentru prelucrare in interiorul tarii (prelucrare activa) si exporturile de produse compensatoare dupa prelucrarea in tara; exporturile temporare de bunuri pentru prelucrare in alte tari (prelucrare pasiva) si importurile de produse compensatoare dupa prelucrarea in afara tarii si bunurile importate sau exportate in sistemul de leasing financiar (la valoarea integrala a bunurilor).

In exporturi si importuri nu sunt cuprinse marfurile in tranzit, marfurile temporar admise/scoase, in/din tara (cu exceptia celor pentru prelucrare), marfurile achizitionate de organizatii internationale pentru utilizari proprii in Romania si marfurile pentru reparatii.

Marfurile care fac obiectul comertului exterior se inregistreaza potrivit Nomenclatorului Combinat (NC), care sta la baza tarifului vamal. Datele statistice prezentate conform Clasificarii Standard de Comert International (CSCI, Rev.3) si Marilor Categorii Economice (MCE), se stabilesc pe baza unor tabele de conversie intre aceste clasificari .

Datele valorice sunt exprimate in preturi externe efective FOB pentru exporturi si CIF pentru importuri.

Institutul National de Statistica (INS) evalueaza importurile CIF in preturi FOB pe baza unui coeficient de transformare CIF/FOB de 1,0834 stabilit printr-o cercetare efectuata la principalele societati comerciale de profit.

Pretul FOB (Free on Board - Liber la bord) reprezinta pretul la frontiera tarii exportatoare, care include valoarea marfii, toate cheltuielile de transport pana la punctul de imbarcare, precum si toate taxele pe care marfa trebuie sa le suporte pentru a fi incarcata la bord.

Pretul CIF (Cost, Insurance, Freight - Cost, Asigurare, Navlu) reprezinta pretul la frontiera tarii importatoare, care cuprinde atat elementele componente ale pretului FOB, cat si costul asigurarii si transportului international.

Indicii valorici ai exporturilor si importurilor se determina pe baza datelor exprimate in dolari SUA.

Comertului exterior cu fiecare tara partenera se determina pe baza principiului tara de destinatie (la export) si tara de origine (la import). Se considera 'tara de destinatie' tara in care marfurile vor fi consumate si 'tara de origine' tara in care a fost produsa marfa sau in care marfa a suferit ultima transformare.

Gruparile economice de tari sunt cele din Buletinul lunar de statistica al ONU si au urmatoarea componenta:

- tari dezvoltate: Statele Unite ale Americii, Canada, tarile Uniunii Europene, tarile Asociatiei Europene a Liberului Schimb, Insulele Faroe, Gibraltar, Malta, Monaco, Israel, Japonia, Australia, Noua Zeelanda si Africa de Sud.

- tari in tranzitie: tarile din Asociatia Central Europeana a Liberului Schimb, tarile Baltice, tarile din CSI, Albania, Bosnia si Hertegovina, Croatia, Fosta Republica Iugoslava Macedonia, Iugoslavia.

- tari in curs de dezvoltare: tarile specificate necuprinse in primele doua grupe

- tarile nespecificate: se cuprind bunurile pentru care nu s-a completat tara de destinatie la export sau tara de origine la import pe declaratia vamala.

- Uniunea Europeana (UE): Austria, Belgia, Danemarca, Finlanda, Franta, Germania, Grecia, Irlanda, Italia, Luxemburg, Olanda, Portugalia, Spania, Suedia, Marea Britanie.

- Asociatia Europeana a Liberului Schimb (AELS): Islanda, Norvegia, Elvetia, Lichtenstein

- Asociatia Central Europeana a Liberului Schimb (CEFTA): Republica Ceha, Ungaria, Polonia, Romania, Slovacia, Slovenia, Bulgaria.

- Organizatia Tarilor Exportatoare de Petrol (OPEC): Algeria, Arabia Saudita, Ecuador, Emiratele Arabe Unite, Gabon, Indonezia, Irak, Iran, Kuweit, Libia, Nigeria, Qatar, Venezuela.

Sursa datelor:

Directia Generala a Vamilor (DGV), care colecteaza si prelucreaza declaratiile vamale de export si import. Formulare statistice pentru colectarea datelor la unele categorii de marfuri transportate prin cablu sau conducte (energie electrica, gaze naturale, etc) si pentru o parte a importului de titei, se primesc de catre INS si se transmit la DGV pentru prelucrare si intregire a datelor obtinute din declaratiile vamale.

Datele lunare comunicate operativ sunt susceptibile de rectificari succesive de catre DGV, ca urmare a modificarii sau anularii unor declaratii vamale intocmite in lunile anterioare.

COMERT CU AMANUNTUL. SERVICII DE PIATA

Comertul cu amanuntul si repararea bunurilor personale si gospodaresti include revanzarea marfurilor catre consumatorii finali, in general, in cantitati mici si in starea in care ele au fost cumparate (sau cu transformari nesemnificative), precum si repararea de bunuri personale si gospodaresti, indiferent daca se realizeaza sau nu in relatie directa cu vanzarea cu amanuntul. In comertul cu amanuntul nu se cuprind: vanzarile de produse agroalimentare pe piata taraneasca; vanzarile de produse care nu sunt bunuri de consum (cereale, seminte, petrol brut, etc.); vanzarile de alimente si bauturi pentru consumul pe loc; inchirierea de bunuri personale de uz casnic. De asemenea, este exclusa vanzarea de autovehicule si motociclete care, incepand cu luna ianuarie 1998, potrivit Clasificarii Activitatilor din Economia Nationala si recomandarilor Comisiei de Statistica a Comunitatii Europene, se evidentiaza distinct in cadrul activitatilor de vanzare, intretinere si reparare a autovehiculelor si motocicletelor, comert cu amanuntul al carburantilor pentru autovehicule.

Serviciile de piata prestate pentru populatie sunt acele activitati care fac obiectul vanzarii si cumpararii pe piata - avand ca principal beneficiar populatia - si sunt produse de societati ale caror venituri provin in proportie de cel putin 50% din vanzarea productiei proprii, indiferent de denumirea preturilor practicate (tarif, taxa, pret de vanzare). In ancheta lunara privind servicii de piata prestate pentru populatie sunt cuprinse activitatile: hoteluri si restaurante, activitati ale agentiilor de turism si asistenta turistica, jocuri de noroc si alte activitati recreative, spalatorii, curatatorii si vopsitorii, coafura si alte servicii pentru persoane fizice (intretinere corporala, agentii matrimoniale, servicii de parcare auto, pompe funebre etc.).

In vederea armonizarii metodologice cu sistemul statistic al Uniunii Europene, cercetarile lunare privind comertul cu amanuntul si serviciile de piata urmaresc ca indicator statistic cifra de afaceri totala realizata de intreprinderile in care acestea sunt activitati principale.

Cifra de afaceri totala reprezinta veniturile totale inregistrate de catre intreprindere in perioada respectiva, provenite atat din activitatea principala, cat si din activitatile secundare exercitate de aceasta. Cifra de afaceri nu include veniturile din vanzarea sau transferul de mijloace fixe. De asemenea, cifra de afaceri la servicii nu include valoarea obiectelor supuse reparatiilor si cea aferenta subventiilor de stat.

Indicii de volum ai cifrei de afaceri sunt calculati in conditii metodologice si de preturi comparabile. Pentru exprimarea valorilor din perioada curenta in preturile perioadei de referinta se utilizeaza indici de preturi deflatori. Acestia se calculeaza prin agregari succesive, pornindu-se de la indicii preturilor pentru marfurile si serviciile corespunzatoare fiecarei activitati, indici calculati pe baza cercetarii lunare a preturilor de consum.

Incepand cu luna ianuarie 2000, indicii de volum ai cifrei de afaceri se calculeaza fata de media anului 1999=100.

Indicii de volum ai cifrei de afaceri sunt provizorii si periodic se rectifica, pe baza corectiilor ce se efectueaza retroactiv de catre intreprinderile din esantion, asupra datelor completate anterior de catre acestea. In anul 2002, esantionul de tip panel cuprinde circa 6500 intreprinderi.

Pentru comertul cu amanuntul si reparatii de bunuri personale si gospodaresti, precum si pentru vanzarea, intretinerea si repararea autovehiculelor, datele lunare se obtin pe baza cercetarii selective a intreprinderilor care au aceste activitati principale si cifra de afaceri anuala mai mare de 100 milioane lei. Intreprinderile cu cifra de afaceri sub 100 milioane lei reprezinta cca 1% in totalul cifrei de afaceri a intreprinderilor cu activitate principala de comert cu amanuntul.



Pentru serviciile de piata prestate populatiei, datele lunare se obtin pe baza cercetarii selective a intreprinderilor cu activitate principala de servicii de piata pentru populatie (potrivit activitatilor precizate in sfera de cuprindere). Esantionul panel din anul 2002 cuprinde circa 2400 intreprinderi.

TRANSPORTURI

Statistica transporturilor cuprinde transportul public de pasageri in trafic national si international, realizat de operatorii de transport autorizati in acest sens si transportul de marfuri in cont propriu (fara plata) si/sau in contul altora (cu plata). Transportul de pasageri include si transportul urban realizat de grupurile de gospodarie comunala si locativa, transportul rutier turistic realizat cu autobuzele si autocarele agentiilor de turism, precum si transportul scolar.

Datele cu privire la transportul feroviar, fluvial, maritim, aerian, transportul de titei si produse petroliere prin conducte magistrale si transportul urban de pasageri se obtin prin observarea exhaustiva a unitatilor care desfasoara aceste activitati.

Transportul rutier interurban si international de pasageri se determina pe baza unei anchete statistice trimestriale, prin observarea totala a unitatilor, exclusiv a celor cu forma de proprietate integral privata cu un numar de pana la 20 de salariati pentru care s-a utilizat un esantion reprezentativ pe tara.

Transportul rutier de marfuri se stabileste, incepand cu trimestrul I 1998, pe baza unei cercetari statistice selective, in care unitatea de observare o reprezinta autovehiculul pentru transportul de marfuri cu o sarcina utila de cel putin 3,5 tone.

Traficul portuar reprezinta cantitatea de marfuri, exprimata in tone fizice, incarcata sau descarcata in porturile maritime si fluviale romanesti, prin operarea navelor sub pavilion romanesc sau strain.

Traficul de pasageri si marfuri (inclusiv posta) al aeroporturilor reprezinta totalitatea pasagerilor imbarcati/debarcati sau in tranzit direct si marfurile (inclusiv posta) incarcate/descarcate in aeroporturile din Romania, in/din aeronave inmatriculate in Romania sau in strainatate.

Cursele regulate reprezinta seria de zboruri care au urmatoarele caracteristici:

a)      sunt efectuate contra cost, cu aeronave pentru transport de pasageri, marfuri si posta, puse la dispozitia publicului, fie direct de transportorul aerian, fie prin agenti autorizati;

b)      sunt organizate intr-un mod care sa asigure legatura intre doua sau mai multe aeroporturi, conform unui orar publicat sau cu o regularitate care sa reprezinte o serie sistematica evidenta.

Cursele neregulate sunt zboruri platite, altele decat cele indicate la cursele regulate. Sunt incluse zborurile taxi, charter si alte zboruri neregulate.

Numarul de pasageri imbarcati/debarcati reprezinta toti pasagerii a caror calatorie incepe sau se termina pe aeroportul declarant. Sunt inclusi pasagerii in corespondenta (care isi continua calatoria cu o alta cursa), dar nu se cuprind pasagerii in tranzit direct.

Pasagerii in tranzit direct transportati de aeronave ce efectueaza zboruri comerciale reprezinta toti pasagerii in tranzit direct, adica pasagerii platitori care isi continua calatoria cu un zbor al carui numar este acelasi cu cel de la sosirea lor pe aeroport.

Marfuri (inclusiv posta) incarcate/descarcate cuprind toate bunurile (corespondenta) incarcate/descarcate pe aeroportul declarant, exclusiv proviziile de bord si bagajele pasagerilor.

Total miscari de aeronave pentru servicii comerciale reprezinta totalul decolarilor (plecarilor) si aterizarilor.

Total miscari de aeronave pentru servicii necomerciale reprezinta totalul decolarilor si aterizarilor de aeronave pentru zborurile, care efectueaza misiuni speciale, in principal, pentru agricultura, constructii, fotografii si efectuarea de relevari, zboruri de afaceri si toate celelalte zboruri necomerciale.

PRETURI

Indicele preturilor de consum (IPC) masoara evolutia de ansamblu a preturilor marfurilor cumparate si a tarifelor serviciilor utilizate de catre populatie intr-o anumita perioada (perioada curenta), fata de o perioada anterioara (perioada de baza sau de referinta). Indicele preturilor de consum se calculeaza numai pentru elementele care intra in consumul direct al populatiei, fiind excluse: consumul din resurse proprii, cheltuielile cu caracter de investitii si acumulare, dobanzile platite la credite, ratele de asigurare, amenzile, impozitele etc., precum si cheltuielile aferente platii muncii pentru productia agricola a gospodariilor individuale.

Sursele de date

Inregistrarea preturilor si tarifelor practicate de unitatile comerciale sau prestatoare de servicii se realizeaza printr-o cercetare selectiva organizata de INS. Colectarea datelor, asigurata de personal statistic specializat, se efectueaza pe baza unor caiete-chestionar corespunzatoare grupelor de marfuri (alimentare, nealimentare) si servicii. Cercetarea statistica asupra preturilor de consum utilizeaza urmatoarele esantioane:

i)     Esantionul de localitati - stabilit cu respectarea restrictiilor de reprezentativitate in functie de numarul de locuitori si de volumul desfacerilor de marfuri si al prestarilor de servicii. Acesta cuprinde 42 de localitati din mediul urban din care au fost selectate 68 de centre de cercetare.

ii)   Esantionul unitatilor de observare - cuprinde magazine si unitati prestatoare de servicii catre populatie din centrele de cercetare. Selectia s-a bazat pe necesitatea asigurarii reprezentativitatii din punct de vedere al volumului desfacerilor de marfuri si al prestarilor de servicii. Unitatile in care se inregistreaza preturile / tarifele sunt mentinute in esantion, pe cat posibil, o perioada mai mare pentru a asigura continuitatea si comparabilitatea in timp a seriilor de date. Esantionul cuprinde circa 6000 de unitati din care 80% sunt proprietate privata. Preturile / tarifele unice pe tara stabilite prin acte normative sau note de negociere (energie electrica si termica, gaz metan, transport pe calea ferata, aeriana si fluviala, servicii de corespondenta si curierat, abonamente radio-TV) sunt inregistrate pe baza informatiilor primite de la unitatile care le practica.

iii) Esantionul de marfuri si servicii - cuprinde sortimente care au o pondere semnificativa in consumul populatiei. Nomenclatorul utilizat este structurat pe 3 nivele de agregare grupe, posturi si sortimente, astfel

grupa marfurilor alimentare cuprinde 54 posturi cu 331 sortimente;

grupa marfurilor nealimentare cuprinde 112 posturi cu 808 sortimente;

grupa serviciilor cuprinde 48 posturi cu 393 sortimente.

Sortimentele se individualizeaza in teren prin varietati de marfuri si servicii.

Informatiile colectate prin aceasta cercetare sunt completate cu cele provenite din cercetarea privind preturile principalelor produse agricole vandute de producatorii particulari pe pietele agroalimentare, asigurandu-se astfel acoperirea principalelor surse de aprovizionare a populatiei.

Sistemul de ponderare

Ponderile utilizate pentru calculul indicilor preturilor de consum sunt obtinute din Ancheta Integrata in Gospodarii (AIG) si rezulta din structura cheltuielilor medii lunare efectuate de o gospodarie pentru cumpararea bunurilor si pentru plata serviciilor necesare satisfacerii nevoilor de trai. Periodic se analizeaza structura cheltuielilor efectuate de populatie, iar cand mutatiile intervenite sunt semnificative, ponderile se actualizeaza. Astfel, incepand din ianuarie 2002 in calculul IPC se utilizeaza ponderile rezultate din structura cheltuielilor medii efectuate de o gospodarie in anul 2000.

Metoda de calcul a IPC

IPC se calculeaza ca un indice de tip Laspeyres cu baza fixa. Incepand din ianuarie 2002, calculul indicilor lunari cu baza fixa se va face cu preturile medii din anul 2000 (anul 2000=100) si ponderile din acelasi an determinate pe baza cheltuielilor medii din Ancheta Integrata in Gospodarii.

Pentru asigurarea continuitatii seriilor de indici construiti cu baze diferite s-a utilizat un coeficient de racordare care permite legarea (racordarea) seriei de indici lunari din anul 2002 cu baza 2000=100 la seria de indici cu baza 1999=100. Coeficientul de racordare s-a determinat ca raport intre un indice de tip Laspeyres calculat pentru luna decembrie 2001 in vechea baza (1999=100) si un altul de acelasi tip si pentru aceeasi luna in noua baza (2000=100). Compararea a doi indici calculati in baze diferite se face raportand indicele de comparat in noua baza multiplicat cu coeficientul de racordare la indicele cu care se compara, calculat in vechea baza.

Rata lunara a inflatiei reprezinta cresterea preturilor de consum intr-o luna, fata de luna precedenta.

Rata medie lunara a inflatiei exprima media cresterilor lunare ale preturilor. Se calculeaza ca o medie geometrica a indicilor lunari ai preturilor de consum cu baza in lant din care se scade baza de comparatie egala cu 100.

Rata anuala a inflatiei reprezinta cresterea medie a preturilor de consum intr-un an fata de anul precedent.

Aceasta rata se calculeaza ca un raport, exprimat procentual, intre indicele mediu al preturilor dintr-un an si cel al anului precedent, din care se scade 100. La randul lor, indicii medii ai preturilor din cei doi ani se determina ca medii aritmetice simple ale indicilor lunari din fiecare an, calculati fata de aceeasi baza (octombrie 1990=100).

Rata inflatiei la sfarsitul anului reprezinta cresterea preturilor de consum in luna decembrie a unui an fata de aceeasi luna a anului precedent.

Rata se calculeaza pe baza produsului indicilor lunari cu baza in lant raportati la 100. Din acest produs exprimat in procente, se scade 100.

Indicele preturilor productiei industriale pentru piata interna

Indicele preturilor productiei industriale masoara evolutia de ansamblu a preturilor produselor/serviciilor industriale fabricate si livrate de producatorii interni intr-o anumita perioada (denumita perioada curenta) fata de o perioada anterioara (denumita perioada de baza sau de referinta), in primul stadiu de comercializare a produselor/serviciilor.

Sfera de cuprindere a indicelui preturilor productiei industriale este reprezentata de ansamblul produselor fabricate si comercializate (la intern) de catre intreprinderile industriale a caror activitate principala se inscrie in cadrul diviziunilor CAEN 10, 11, 13, 14, 15 - 37, 40 si 41.

Pentru construirea indicelui preturilor productiei industriale nu sunt luate in calcul decat tranzactiile corespunzatoare primului stadiu de comercializare a produselor, adica la iesirea acestora din intreprinderile producatoare.

Variabila observata este pretul asociat acestor tranzactii care va fi determinat in functie de vanzator (agentul economic), de specificul produsului supus tranzactionarii, de tipul de cumparator si de alte caracteristici ale tranzactiei.

Numarul mare de tranzactii efectuate de agentii economici industriali, in cadrul economiei nationale, face imposibila urmarirea lor in totalitate. De aceea, observarea si culegerea preturilor de vanzare a produselor industriale care intra in calculul indicelui preturilor productiei industriale se realizeaza pe un esantion de agenti economici reprezentativi in cadrul fiecarei clase de activitate CAEN, avand la baza un nomenclator unic de produse industriale.

Indicele preturilor productiei industriale acopera aproape in totalitate sectoarele industriilor extractiva si prelucratoare, precum si sectorul energetic.

In calculul indicelui nu se cuprind:

extractia si prepararea minereurilor radioactive;

productia de armament si munitie;

productia industriala cu ciclu lung de fabricatie;

productia de nave si aeronave;

productia de unicate din ramurile constructoare de masini;

productia fabricata si livrata in cadrul aceleiasi intreprinderi (consumul intern).

Produsele fabricate de agentii economici selectati in esantion sunt tratate in mod diferit in functie de principalele destinatii ale acestora, piata interna si export.

Principalele nomenclatoare utilizate in calculul indicelui preturilor productiei industriale sunt:

Clasificarea Activitatilor Economiei Nationale elaborata, pe de o parte, din necesitatea de reflectare a noilor relatii economice si pe de alta parte, pentru asigurarea alinierii cu Nomenclatorul Activitatilor din Comunitatea Europeana. Potrivit acestei clasificari, activitatile economico-sociale sunt structurate pe 5 trepte (sectiune, subsectiune, diviziune, grupa si clasa), constituite pe principiul omogenitatii, structuri de clasificare comparabile cu cele existente in statistica europeana (NACE) si cea mondiala (CITI/ISIC) utilizate in statisticile ONU.

Nomenclatorul de produse

Urmarirea si inregistrarea preturilor sortimentelor fabricate si livrate de agentii economici din esantion se va face pe baza unui nomenclator unic de produse industriale - PRODIND care cuprinde circa 2700 de produse fizice ce caracterizeaza activitatile D, E si F din CAEN. Produsul cuprins in nomenclator reprezinta primul nivel de agregare a sortimentelor componente ce caracterizeaza miscarea preturilor productiei industriale. El reprezinta, de fapt, o familie de sortimente omogene care poseda caracteristici tehnico-functionale si fizico-chimice comune.

Nomenclatorul de sortimente

Sortimentul este un bun material care rezulta dintr-un proces tehnologic de fabricatie bine definit, avand caracteristici tehnico-functionale specifice.

Sortimentul reprezinta nivelul elementar la care se urmareste pretul asociat tranzactiilor.

Nomenclatorul de sortimente nu este unic pe tara, el se realizeaza la nivelul fiecarui agent economic de catre specialistii statisticieni impreuna cu specialistii din intreprinderi.

Nomenclatorul agentilor economici

Principala sursa de date pentru construirea esantionului de agenti economici o constituie cercetarea statistica Ancheta Statistica Anuala (structurala) in intreprinderi (ASA) din anul 1998. Pe baza datelor din aceasta cercetare statistica, agentii economici sunt ordonati descrescator dupa cifra de afaceri in cadrul fiecarei clase de activitate CAEN, retinandu-se in esantion agentii economici a caror cifra de afaceri reprezinta cel putin 60% din totalul clasei CAEN.

Gradul de acoperire obtinut este cuprins intre 60% si 100%, iar pe total industrie acesta este de peste 76%.

Construirea sistemului de ponderare si algoritmul de calcul

Indicele preturilor productiei industriale este de tip Laspeyres, utilizandu-se un sistem de ponderi constante pentru agregarea succesiva a datelor aferente valorii productiei industriale tranzactionata, pe destinatii, din anul 1998.

Sistemul de ponderi utilizat in calculul indicelui preturilor productiei industriale se stabileste separat pe destinatii, dupa cum acesta serveste la calculul indicelui preturilor productiei industriale livrata pietei interne sau indicelui preturilor productiei industriale livrata la export. Valorile de ponderare pe destinatii pentru toate nivelele de agregare s-au determinat din Ancheta Statistica Anuala (structurala) in intreprinderi din anul 1998.

Incepand cu anul 2001, anul de referinta este anul 1998, cel mai apropiat an de momentul actual pentru care dispunem de elemente de ponderare.

Indicele publicat in acest buletin statistic este indicele preturilor productiei industriale livrata pietei interne.

Pentru asigurarea continuitatii seriilor de indici construiti in baze diferite, se va utiliza un 'coeficient de racordare' care permite legarea seriei de indici lunari din anii 2001 si 2002 cu baza 1998=100 la seria de indici cu baza 1996=100. Coeficientul de racordare se calculeaza ca un raport intre indicele de tip Laspeyres calculat ca medie lunara a anului 2000 in vechea baza (1996=100) fata de media lunara a anului 1999 in vechea baza (1996=100) si un altul pentru acelasi an 2000 in noua baza (1998=100) fata de media lunara a anului 1999 in noua baza (1998=100) pentru fiecare nivel de reprezentare in parte. Compararea a doi indici calculati in baze diferite se face utilizand coeficientul de racordare.

CASTIGURI SALARIALE. EFECTIVUL SALARIATILOR

Castigul salarial nominal brut cuprinde salariile, respectiv drepturile in bani si in natura cuvenite salariatilor pentru munca efectiv prestata (inclusiv pentru timpul lucrat suplimentar) potrivit formei de salarizare aplicata, sporurile si indemnizatiile acordate ca procent din salariu sau in sume fixe, alte adaosuri la salarii potrivit legii, sumele platite pentru timpul nelucrat (indemnizatiile pentru concediile de odihna si studii, zile de sarbatoare si alte zile libere, sumele platite din fondul de salarii pentru concediile medicale), premiile, primele de vacanta si alte sume platite din fondul de salarii conform actelor normative sau contractelor colective de munca, sumele platite din profitul net si alte surse.

Castigul salarial nominal net se obtine prin scaderea din castigul salarial nominal brut a: impozitului, contributiei salariatilor pentru asigurarile sociale de sanatate, contributiei individuale de asigurari sociale si a contributiei pentru protectia sociala a somerilor.

Castigul salarial mediu reprezinta raportul dintre sumele platite salariatilor de catre agentii economici in luna de referinta, indiferent pentru ce perioada se cuvin, si numarul mediu de salariati. Numarul mediu al salariatilor reprezinta o medie aritmetica simpla calculata pe baza efectivelor zilnice ale salariatilor din luna respectiva. In efectivul de salariati luat in calcul se includ numai persoanele care au fost platite pentru luna respectiva. Nu se iau in considerare: salariatii aflati in concediu fara plata, in greva, detasati la lucru in strainatate etc.

Efectivul salariatilor cuprinde persoanele cu contract de munca pe durata determinata sau nedeterminata (inclusiv managerii), existente in evidentele unitatilor economico-sociale la sfarsitul perioadei de referinta.

Datele lunare privind castigul salarial si efectivul de salariati sunt obtinute printr-o cercetare selectiva. Incepand cu luna ianuarie 2002, esantionul anchetei cuprinde 10000 unitati economico-sociale cu peste 3 salariati care acopera 68% din numarul total de salariati pe economie. La sfarsitul anului 2000, numarul salariatilor din unitatile excluse din cercetare

(0-3 salariati) reprezenta aproximativ 4,6% din numarul total al salariatilor din economie.

SOMAJ

Incepand cu 1 martie 2002 a intrat in vigoare Legea nr.76/2002 privind sistemul asigurarilor pentru somaj si stimularea ocuparii fortei de munca, fiind abrogata Legea nr.1/1991 cu toate modificarile si completarile ulterioare.

In sensul prevederilor noii legi, calitatea de somer inregistrat o are persoana care indeplineste cumulativ urmatoarele conditii:

a)      este in cautarea unui loc de munca de la varsta de minimum 16 ani si pana la indeplinirea conditiilor de pensionare;

b)      starea de sanatate si capacitatile fizice si psihice o fac apta pentru prestarea unei munci;

c)      nu are loc de munca, nu realizeaza venituri sau realizeaza din activitati autorizate potrivit legii venituri mai mici decat indemnizatia de somaj ce i s-ar cuveni potrivit prezentei legi;

d)      este disponibila sa inceapa lucrul in perioada imediat urmatoare daca s-ar gasi un loc de munca;

e)      este inregistrata la Agentia Nationala pentru Ocuparea Fortei de Munca sau la alt furnizor de servicii de ocupare, care functioneaza in conditiile prevazute de lege.

Asimilati somerilor sunt absolventii institutiilor de invatamant, in varsta de minimum 18 ani, care intr-o perioada de 60 de zile de la absolvire nu au reusit sa se incadreze in munca potrivit pregatirii profesionale ; absolventi ai scolilor speciale pentru persoane cu handicap sau absolventi ai institutiilor de invatamant, in varsta de 16 ani lipsiti de sustinatori legali sau ai caror sustinatori legali dovedesc ca sunt in imposibilitatea de a presta obligatia legala de intretinere datorata minorilor ; persoane care, inainte de efectuarea stagiului militar, nu au fost incadrate in munca si care, intr-o perioada de 30 de zile de la data lasarii la vatra nu s-au putut incadra in munca.

Indemnizatia de somaj este o compensatie partiala a veniturilor care se acorda persoanelor aflate in somaj ca urmare a pierderii locului de munca sau absolventilor institutiilor de invatamant si militarilor care au efectuat stagiul militar si care nu s-au putut incadra in munca.

Conform Legii nr. 76/2002, beneficiaza de indemnizatie de somaj :

somerii - Art.5 pct.IV, lit.c) si Art.17, alin.(1) - care indeplinesc cumulativ urmatoarele conditii : a) au stagiu de cotizare de minimum 12 luni in ultimele 24 de luni premergatoare datei inregistrarii cererii ; b) nu realizeaza venituri sau realizeaza din activitati autorizate potrivit legii venituri mai mici decat indemnizatia de somaj ; c) nu indeplinesc conditiile de pensionare conform legii ; d) sunt inregistrati la agentiile pentru ocuparea fortei de munca. Cuantumul indemnizatiei de somaj este o suma fixa, neimpozabila, lunara, reprezentand 75% din salariul de baza minim brut pe tara, in vigoare la data stabilirii acestuia.

Indemnizatia de somaj se acorda pe perioade diferentiate in functie de stagiul de cotizare astfel : 6 luni, pentru persoanele cu un stagiu de cotizare de pana la 5 ani, dar nu mai putin de 1 an ; 9 luni, pentru persoanele cu un stagiu de cotizare cuprins intre 5 si 10 ani ; 12 luni, pentru persoanele cu un stagiu de cotizare mai mare de 10 ani.

somerii asimilati - Art.17, alin.(2) - care indeplinesc cumulativ urmatoarele conditii : a) sunt inregistrati la agentiile pentru ocuparea fortei de munca ; b) nu realizeaza venituri sau realizeaza din activitati autorizate potrivit legii venituri mai mici decat indemnizatia de somaj ; c) nu indeplinesc conditiile de pensionare conform legii. Cuantumul indemnizatiei de somaj este o suma fixa, neimpozabila, lunara, reprezentand 50% din salariul de baza minim brut pe tara, in vigoare la data stabilirii acestuia si se acorda pe o perioada de 6 luni.

Conform art.120 din Legea 76/2002, ,,Persoanele care solicita dreptul la ajutor de somaj, ajutor de integrare profesionala sau alocatie de sprijin inainte de data intrarii in vigoare a prezentei legi beneficiaza de acest drept in cuantumul, pe durata si in conditiile stabilite de Legea nr.1/1991 republicata, cu modificarile ulterioare".

Ajutorul de somaj si ajutorul de integrare profesionala reprezinta sumele acordate, la cererea persoanelor indreptatite, pe o perioada de cel mult 270 de zile calendaristice. Cuantumul ajutorului de somaj s-a stabilit in procente diferentiate in functie de vechimea in munca, procente calculate din media salariului de baza brut, avut in ultimele trei luni lucrate, din care s- a dedus impozitul prevazut de lege, astfel: a) 50% pentru o vechime in munca de pana la 5 ani, dar nu mai putin de 20% din castigul salarial mediu net pe economie, la data stabilirii drepturilor; b) 55% pentru o vechime in munca cuprinsa intre 5 si 15 ani, dar nu mai putin de 22% din castigul salarial mediu net pe economie, la data stabilirii drepturilor; c) 60% pentru o vechime in munca de peste 15 ani, dar nu mai putin de 24% din castigul salarial mediu net pe economie, la data stabilirii drepturilor. Ajutorul de somaj calculat nu putea depasi 55% din castigul salarial mediu net pe economie la data stabilirii drepturilor.

Cuantumul ajutorului de integrare profesionala s- a stabilit in procente din castigul salarial mediu net pe economie, la data stabilirii drepturilor, astfel: 18% pentru beneficiarii proveniti din randul absolventilor institutiilor invatamantului preuniversitar, in varsta de minim 15 ani si 20% pentru beneficiarii proveniti din randul absolventilor institutiilor invatamantului superior.

Alocatia de sprijin reprezinta suma ce s-a acordat persoanelor care au beneficiat de ajutorul de somaj sau ajutorul de integrare profesionala si care nu s-au putut incadra in munca, dovedind ca nu au obtinut alte venituri si s-a acordat pentru o perioada de cel mult 18 luni, dupa expirarea celor 270 de zile. Cuantumul alocatiei de sprijin reprezenta 60% din ajutorul de somaj, respectiv din ajutorul de integrare profesionala avut anterior.

Rata somajului se determina prin raportarea numarului total de someri inregistrati, la populatia activa civila.

Sursa datelor pentru numarul somerilor inregistrati si rata somajului este Agentia Nationala pentru Ocuparea Fortei de Munca.

INVESTITIA STRAINA

Prin societate comerciala cu participare straina la capitalul social se intelege societatea comerciala constituita, partial sau integral, prin participarea unor persoane fizice sau juridice cu domiciliul stabil sau cu sediul social in afara Romaniei.

Investitor strain: persoana fizica sau juridica cu domiciliul stabil sau sediul social in afara Romaniei, care are calitatea de asociat/actionar intr-o societate comerciala cu sediul in Romania.

Capitalul social exprima valoarea totala a aporturilor, in numerar si in natura, subscrise de asociati la constituirea societatii, precum si la majorarea capitalului social in cursul vietii societatii comerciale.

Subscrierea la capitalul social din partea unui investitor strain, potrivit legislatiei in vigoare, poate fi efectuata in moneda nationala a Romaniei si/sau in valuta liber convertibila.

Inmatriculari

Comerciantii au obligatia ca, inainte de inceperea comertului, sa solicite inmatricularea in registrul comertului (Norme Metodologice nr. P/608-773/1998). Inmatricularile cuprind constituirile, in perioada de referinta, de societati comerciale noi cu statutul de comerciant cu participare straina la capitalul social.

Mentiuni

Societatile comerciale inmatriculate in registrul comertului, in cursul exercitarii comertului si la incetarea acestuia, au obligatia sa ceara inscrierea, in acelasi registru, a mentiunilor privind actele si faptele a caror inregistrare este prevazuta de Legea nr. 26/1990 privind registrul comertului, Legea nr. 31/1990 privind societatile comerciale sau de alte dispozitii legale (Norme Metodologice nr. P/608-773/1998).

In final, investitia straina de capital in Romania este egala cu subscrieri de capital la inmatriculari, plus subscrieri prin mentiuni de majorare a capitalului, minus capitalul social subscris la firmele radiate din registrul comertului.

Valoarea capitalului social subscris:

total, exprimat in moneda nationala: valoarea capitalului social obtinuta prin insumarea valorilor subscrise in moneda nationala (lei), cu valuta liber convertibila transformata in lei, la cursul comunicat de Banca Nationala a Romaniei, de la data actului constitutiv/modificator;



total, exprimat in echivalent valuta: valoarea capitalului social obtinuta prin insumarea si transformarea in USD a valutei liber convertibila si a monedei nationale (lei), la cursul comunicat de Banca Nationala a Romaniei, de la data actului constitutiv/modificator.

Methodological notes

l The data presented in the Monthly Statistical Bulletin, concerning the main economic and social indicators, are provisional and can be rectified afterwards. They are usually obtained by statistical sampling surveys, being relevant to estimate the trends of short-term economic and social evolution. Data are yearly finalised based on the enterprise structural survey as well as on some yearly surveys specific for social and economic indicators.

The sampling base, which assures the information necessary to build and review yearly the enterprise samples, is represented by the Statistical Register of Economic Units, which is correlated to the Fiscal Register and is updated based on the balance sheets sent to the Ministry of Public Finances.

l The Classification of Activities in the National Economy (CANE) is used to present data, being carried out by the National Institute of Statistics and being harmonised with the classification used within the European Union and at international level, the indicators being calculated according to the principle of prevalent/homogeneity, by sections, main industrial groups, divisions, groups and classes. The Classification of Activities in the National Economy (CANE) has been approved by the Decision of Romanian Government no. 656/1997.

l The ownership types which are used to structure data are divided into 8 types specific to current period, namely: state integral ownership (state integral social capital), state majority ownership (over 50% state social capital), private majority ownership (over 50% private social capital), private integral ownership (Romanian or Romanian and foreign private integral social capital), co-operative ownership, community ownership, foreign integral ownership, national and local interest public ownership. During the year, the ownership types are carried out according to the units' situation at the moment of the survey.

l The value data are expressed in current prices of each period.

l The volume indices are determined under comparable methodological conditions and in constant prices.

l For the foreign trade activity, the value indices are calculated based on the data expressed in USD.

l The Monthly Statistical Bulletin also presents several indicators coming for administrative sources, specified within the publication, the supplying institutions being directly responsible for the contents and the quality of the provided information.

Electric energy balance

Livestock of population households and situation of agricultural works

Foreign trade data

Number of registered unemployed and unemployment rate

State budget, local budgets and state social insurance budget

Monetary situation and exchange rate

Registrations of commercial companies with foreign participation in subscribed social capital

Main indicators of capital market

Indicators on the consumers protection activity

- National Company TRANSELECTRICA S.A. and Commercial Company Electrica S.A

- Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forests

- General Direction of Customs

- National Agency for Employment

- Ministry of Public Finances

-National Bank of Romania

-Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Romania and of Bucharest Municipality, National Office of Trade Register

-Stock Exchange Bucharest

-National Authority for the Consumers Protection

New registrations of road vehicles

- Ministry of Interior, General Direction of the Person Informational Evidence

l The methodologies used to calculate the statistical indicators pass through a continuous process of revision and improvement, in order to accurately reflect the changes taking place in the economy, to adapt them to the new informational requirements and to align them to the statistical system of the European Union, a significant condition of integration in this structure. Consequently, for several indicators, there have been updated the coverage, the surveying samples and the aggregation weights, in order to recalculate the previously issued data in order to assure the comparability.

INDUSTRY

The industrial production index (IPI), being a volume index, measures the evolution of industrial activities results from one period to another.

This Laspeyres type index uses some formula which need the periodical revision of the weighting system and the analysis of the representative series for the selected products.

Since 2001, 1998 represents the reference year used in the IPI calculation, being the closest year for which the elements of the weighting system have been calculated.

The industrial production indices measure its evolution per total industry, by sections (mining and quarrying, manufacturing and electric, thermal energy, gas and water), by main industrial groups and by CANE divisions (10, 11, 13, 14, 15-37, 40, 41). The coverage per total industry is 78.3%.

Since January 2001, 1621 products are used to calculate the industrial production indices, being registered quantitative data on the production.

The production carried out, the indicator used to evaluate the industrial activities according to this methodology, is measured by the quantity of goods produced (fabricated) in the analysed period, which are meant for sale to other users, to domestic consumption or are carried out on own interest (the production of fixed assets).

The production carried out for productive purpose contains those products, which are to be processed later on (in other sections of commercial company), in order to obtain finished products. The production carried out for own interest comprises products, which leave the industry field (not taking part in another process of industrial transformation) and enter the field of gross capital formation (creating new own fixed assets) or the population consumption (the products consumed in own canteens of the units).

The nomenclatures used to calculate the industrial production index are:

*The Classification of Activities in the National Economy (CANE) which has been built up on one side, due to the need to reflect the new economic affairs and on the other side, to assure the alignment to the Nomenclature of Activities in the European Community. According to this classification, the economic and social activities are divided into 5 levels (section, subsection, division, group and class), constituted according to the homogeneity principle, the classification structures comparable to the existent ones in the European statistics (NACE) and the world statistics (CITI/SIC) used in the UN statistics.

* The Nomenclature of Industrial Products (PRODIND) is mainly characterised by the fact that products are detailed on the basic principles of the CANE elaboration (raw material, technological processes, production organisation, nature of goods and services etc.). Another characteristic points out that all products are at the same level of nominalization, possible groups required for analysis and dissemination to be selected by processing, based on the structuring criteria used to define each position.

The Nomenclature of Industrial Products (PRODIND) contains about 2700 physical products as against 1030 existent in the previous nomenclature and characterises the industrial activities of the CANE sections D, E and F .

* The Nomenclature of Economic Units, providing monthly data on industrial physical production, comprises a representative sample of enterprises having industry as their main activity (CANE 1010-4100).

For a better representation of food industry, due to its specific, the sample of enterprises also includes commercial companies having agriculture as their main activity, but which have subunits specialised in the fabrication of agro-food products.

Building up the weighting system and the calculation algorithm

The primary indices of industrial physical production are aggregated by a system of successive weightings, using the average price of basic year (1998) for the aggregation at level of product (PRODIND), while for upper aggregation levels (CANE class, group, division or main industrial group), it is used the gross value added at the cost of factors (GVACF) of the basic year (1998).

Using a Laspeyres type formula, the first aggregated indices are those at the level of CANE class, the next aggregation levels being determined as a weighted arithmetic mean of the CANE classes, groups, divisions, sections indices, the main industrial groups with the corresponding GVACF of the basic year (1998).

The indices for the main industrial groups (intermediate goods industry, capital goods industry, durable goods industry, current use goods industry, energy industry) are obtained by the indices aggregation at level of the CANE component classes, weighted with the corresponding GVACF.

The industrial production indices per total industry are obtained by the indices aggregation at level of the CANE division or the main industrial group.

In order to reflect more accurately the monthly evolution of industrial production, according to international practice, besides indices in absolute volume of industrial production, there are also calculated adjusted indices according to the working days number of each period, these indices characterising the efficiency of the activity done in the respective period (month).

The correction coefficients, with which the indices in absolute volume are adjusted, being calculated at level of class, are determined as against the basic period (1998), separately for the products carried out during continuous working programme and separately for those carried out during full-time programme (the number of calendar days minus Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays).

The adjusted indices are obtained multiplying the indices in absolute volume, with the correction coefficients obtained for the products carried out during full-time programme and for those carried out during continuous working programme.

The industrial production indices are provisional and are periodically rectified based on the corrections retroactively done by the enterprises in the sample, concerning the data previously supplied.

In order to assure the continuity of the series of indices built up in different bases, it is used a "junction coefficient" allowing to link the monthly indices series of 2001 and 2002 with 1998=100 base to the indices series with 1995=100 base. The junction coefficient is calculated as the ratio between a Laspeyres type index calculated as monthly average of 2000 in former base (1995=100) as against monthly average of 1999 in former base (1995=100) and another index for the same year 2000 in the new base (1998=100) as against monthly average of 1999 in the new base (1998 = 100) for each representation level. The two indices calculated in different bases are compared using the junction coefficient.

The value of total industrial production - represents the value of physical production carried out in the analysed period, no matter of its destination.

The total of the production carried out per total and by main destinations (delivery, consumption for production purpose or stock) has been done based on the average prices registered each month. The average price has been obtained as a ratio between the value and the volume of the production delivered for each position in the nomenclature of industrial products "PRODIND".

Turnover represents total income registered by the enterprises in the respective period, coming both from the main activity and from the secondary activities. Turnover does not include VAT and income from sale or transfer of fixed assets.

The nomenclature of economic units (about 9000), providing monthly data on turnover in industry comprises economic units having industry as their main activity (CANE 1010-4100).

The statistical survey of selective type uses as sampling base the nomenclature of units used in the yearly structural survey in enterprises. General collectively of economic units has been divided into two sub-collectivises:

- exhaustively surveyed units;

- sampling surveyed units.

The exhaustive sub-collectively comprises the economic units of the sampling base having 20 employees and over, while the sampling surveyed sub-collectively contains economic units having less than 20 employees.

Turnover volume indices are calculated under methodological conditions and comparable prices. The deflator price indices are used for the values of current period in the prices of the reference period.

Since 2001, 1998 is the reference year used to calculate the turnover index of industrial units, being the closest year for which the elements of the weighting system have been calculated.

The primary indices have been aggregated by a system of successive weightings, using the base year (1998) turnover.

Using a Laspeyres type formula, the first aggregated indices are those at level of CANE class, the next aggregation levels being determined as a weighted arithmetic mean of CANE classes, divisions, sections indices, of main industrial groups for the new structures.

Turnover volume indices are provisional and are periodically rectified, based on the corrections retroactively carried out by the enterprises in the sample, concerning the data previously filled in.

In order to assure the continuity of series of indices built in different bases, it is used a "junction coefficient" which allows to link the monthly indices series of 2001 and 2002 with 1998=100 base to the indices series with 1995=100 base. The junction coefficient is calculated as the ratio between a Laspeyres type index calculated as the monthly average of 2000 in former base (1995=100) as against the monthly average of 1999 in former base (1995=100) and another one for the same year 2000 in the new base (1998=100) as against monthly average of 1999 in the new base (1998=100) for each representation level. The two indices calculated in different bases are compared using the junction coefficient.

ENERGY

The primary energy resources are determined during the year only for the main assortments, based on the quantities of intern production and imported. Data on the production are obtained by the exhaustive statistical survey of the units producing energy resources, while import data are supplied by the National Institute of Statistics specialised direction.

The transformation into conventional fuel is carried out according to the energy contribution of each primary energy carrier

Unite of measure is oil equivalent ton (o.e.t.) according with international publications in the field. By this convention it represents a fuel with calorific power of 41868 kj/kg (10000 kcal/kg). For electric energy, the transformation is based on the energy potential of it (0.086 o.e.t./kWh), excepting nuclear-electric energy, according to the new methodology adopted in order to harmonise it with the European energy statistics, this methodology being generically called 'the final energy system'. Nuclear-electric energy is changed into conventional fuel, based on the producing yield, according to the international methodology.

The electric energy from import comprises the quantity effectively entered the national territory based on the import contracts, transit fees and changes among interconnected national systems.

The electric energy balance is determined based on the data obtained by profile statistical surveys (production, consumption in the economy) and by those from the National Company TRANSELECTRICA S.A. and Commercial Company ELECTRICA S.A. (import, export, public lighting, population consumption and own technological consumption in the networks and stations).

FOREIGN TRADE

Foreign trade includes all the exchanges of goods between Romania and other countries having as object: import of goods directly for consumption, imported goods taken out of customs warehouses or free zones in order to be consumed, export of national products as well as export of imported goods declared for domestic consumption. There are also comprised: temporary imports of foreign goods for processing inside the country (active processing) and exports of goods compensatory after processing inside the country; temporary exports of goods for processing in other countries (passive processing) and imports of goods compensatory after processing outside the country and goods imported or exported in the system of financial leasing (at integral value of goods).

. Exports and imports do not include transit goods, temporary goods admitted/taken, out, inside/outside the country (excepting those for processing), goods purchased by international organisations for own uses in Romania and goods for repairs.  

. The goods objects of foreign trade are registered according to the Combined Nomenclature (CN), for the customs tariff. Statistical data presented according to the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC Rev.3) and to the Broad Economic Categories (BCE) are set up based on the conversion tables among these classifications.

. Value data are expressed in effective external prices FOB for exports and CIF for imports.

. The National Institute of Statistics (NIS) evaluates CIF imports in prices FOB based on a conversion coefficient CIF/FOB of 1.0834 set up by means of a survey carried out in the main profile commercial companies.

The price FOB represents the price at the border of exporting country, comprising both the value of commodity, all transport expenditure until the shipping point, as well as all the commodity fees for being loaded aboard.

The price CIF represents the price at the border of importing country, comprising both component elements of the price FOB and the insurance cost and international transport cost.

. The value indices of exports and imports are determined based on the data expressed in USD.

. The foreign trade with each partner country is determined based on the principal destination country (for export) and origin country (for import). "Destination country" is considered that country in which goods are to be consumed and "origin country" is considered that country in which the commodity has been produced or in which the commodity has suffered the last transformation.

. The economic groups of countries are those in the UN Monthly Bulletin and have the following components:

developed countries: United States of America, Canada, European Union countries, European Free Trade Association countries, Faroe Islands, Gibraltar, Malta, Monaco, Israel, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

transition countries: European Free Trade Association countries, Baltic countries, CIS countries, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Yugoslavia.

developing countries: specified countries not included in the first two groups.

other countries: include goods for which the customs declaration comprises the destination country for export and origin country for import .

European Union (EU): Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.

European Free Trade Association (EFTA): Island, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein.

Central European Free Trade Association (CEFTA): Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria.

Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Ecuador, United Arab Emirates, Gabon, Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Venezuela.

Data source:

The General Direction of Customs (GDC) which collects and processes the customs declarations for exports and import. NIS receives statistical forms for data collection for certain categories of goods transported by cable or pipes (electric energy, natural gas, etc.) and for some of crude oil import and sends them to GDC to be processed and to complete the data obtained from the customs declarations.

. The communicated current monthly data can be successively rectified by GDC as a result of changing or cancellation of some customs declarations drawn up previous months.

RETAIL TRADE. MARKET SERVICES

Retail trade and repair of personal and household goods include resale of goods to final consumers, generally in small quantities and as they were bought (or having minor transformations) as well as repair of personal and household goods, no matter if it is directly connected or not with retail trade. Retail trade does not comprise: sales of agro-food products on the peasant market; sales of products which are not consumer goods (cereals, seeds, crude oil, etc.); sales of food and beverages for consumption on the spot; rent of personal housing goods. It also excludes sale of motor vehicles and motorcycles, which, according to the Classification of Activities in the National Economy and to the recommendations of the Statistical Commission of European Commission, since January 1998, it is distinctly pointed out within the activities of sale, maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles, retail trade of fuels for motor vehicles.

Market services rendered to the population represent those activities for sale and purchase on the market - having the population as their main user - and are produced by the companies whose income (at least 50%) come from sale of own production, no matter of the prices (tariff, fee, selling price). The monthly survey on market services rendered to the population includes the following activities: hotels and restaurants, travel agencies and tourist assistance, gambling and recreation activities, laundry, cleaning and dyeing shops, hairdresser's and other services for natural persons (body building, matrimonial agencies, parking services, funeral furnishers, etc).

For a methodological harmonisation with the statistical system of the European Union, the monthly surveys on retail trade and market services are pursuing as statistical indicator, total turnover of enterprises having these main activities.

Total turnover represents total income of the enterprise in the respective period, coming both from main activity and from secondary activities. Turnover does not include income from sale or transfer of fixed assets. At the same time, turnover for services does not include the value of objects under repair and that related to the state subsidies.



Turnover volume indices are calculated under methodological conditions and comparable prices. Deflator price indices are used for the values of current period in the prices of the reference period. They are calculated by successive aggregations, starting from price indices for goods and services corresponding to each activity, these indices being calculated based on the monthly surveys of consumer prices.

Since January 2000, turnover volume indices are calculated as against the year average 1999=100.

Turnover volume indices are provisional and are periodically rectified, based on the retroactive corrections of enterprises in the sample, on the previously completed data. In 2002, the panel type sample includes about 6500 enterprises.

For retail trade and repair of personal and household goods, as well as for sale, maintenance and repair of motor vehicles, the monthly data are obtained based on the sampling survey of enterprises having these main activities and yearly turnover of over ROL 100 million. Enterprises with turnovers under ROL 100 million represent approximately 1% of enterprises' turnovers with retail trade as main activity.

For market services rendered to the population, monthly data are obtained based on the sampling survey of enterprises having as their main activity the market services for the population (according to the activities from the coverage). The sample panel of 2002 includes about 2400 enterprises.

TRANSPORT

Transport statistics contains public transport of passengers in national and international traffic, carried out by transport authorised operators and transport of goods on own account (without payment) and/or on others account (with payment). Transport of passengers also includes town transport performed by groups of communal and locative husbandry, as road transport of tourists by buses and coaches of travel agencies and school transport as well.

Data on rail, river, sea, air transport, crude oil and oil products transport by pipes and road transport of passengers are obtained by exhaustive observation of units performing these activities.

Inter-city and international road transport of passengers are determined based on a monthly statistical survey, by total observation of units, excluding those of integral private ownership having up to 20 employees for which it was used a sample representative per country.

Road transport of goods is established, since Q I 1998 based on a sampling statistical survey, in which the observation unit is represented by the motor vehicle for transport of goods having an useful load of at least 3.5 tons.

Harbour transport represents the quantity of goods, expressed in physical tons, loaded or unloaded into Romanian Sea and river harbours, operating the ships under Romanian or foreign flag.

Passengers and goods transport (including post) of the airports consist of the total number of passengers embarked/disembarked or in direct transit and goods (including post) loaded /unloaded in Romanian airports on/out aircrafts registered in Romanian abroad.

Regular flights are flights with subsequent features:

a)      are paid, with aircrafts used for passengers transport, goods and mail, being of public disposal, by air transport or by authorised agents;

b)      are organised in a way which assure relation between one or many airports, according on a published timetable or with a regularity which represents an obvious systematically programme.

Irregular flights are paid flights, others than the regular flights. Are included taxi, charter and other irregular flights.

All passengers of which journey begins or end on the declared airport represent the number of embarked/disembarked passengers. Are included passengers in correspondence (which continue their journey with another flight), but not included those in direct transit.

Passengers in direct transit transported by aircrafts, which effected commercial flights represent all, direct transit paying passengers, which continue their journey with a flight which number is the same with the flight on their arrival.

Embarked/disembarked goods (including mail) consist of all goods (mail) embarked/disembarked on declared airport, excluding board supplies and passengers' luggage.

Total aircrafts' moves for commercial services represent the totality of take-offs (departures) and landings.

Total aircrafts' moves for non -commercial services represent the totality of take-offs and landings for the flights in special missions, mainly for agriculture, construction, photographs taking and pointing out, business flights and all the others non commercial flights.

PRICES

The consumer price index (CPI) measures the evolution of prices for goods purchased and tariffs for services used by the population in a certain period (current period) as against a previous period (basic or reference period). The consumer price index is calculated only for the elements of the population direct consumption, excluding: the consumption from own resources, investment and accumulation expenditure, interests paid to credits, insurance rates, fines, taxes, etc., as well as expenditure for labour payment in agricultural production of individual households.

Data sources

1. Prices and tariffs practised by commercial units or by units providing services are registered by means of a sampling survey carried out by the NIS. Specialised statistical staff has assured data collection based on questionnaire-books corresponding to the groups of goods (food, non-food) and services. The statistical survey on consumer prices uses the following samples:

i)            Sample of localities - is set up observing the representation restrictions in keeping with the number of inhabitants and the volume of goods sale and provisions of services. It comprises 42 localities from urban area, of which 68 research centres have been selected.

ii)           Sample of observation units - comprise shops and units rendering services to the population of the research centres. The selection relied on the need to assure the representative volume of goods sale and provisions of services. The units registering prices/tariffs are kept in the sample as much as possible, a longer period in order to assure the continuity and comparability in time of data series. The sample includes about 6000 units of which 80% represent private ownership. Unique prices/tariffs per country, set up by normative documents or negotiation notes (electric and thermal energy, methane gas, rail, air and river transport, mail and courier services, radio and TV subscriptions) are registered based on the information received from the units practising them.

iii)         Sample of goods and services - comprises assortments having an important weight in the population consumption. The used nomenclature is divided into 3 aggregation levels: groups, positions and assortments as follows:

the group of food goods contains 54 positions with 331 assortments;

the group of non-food goods contains 112 positions with 808 assortments;

the group of services contains 48 positions with 393 assortments.

The assortments are individualised in the field by varieties of goods and services.

2. The information collected by means of this survey are completed by those from the survey on the prices of the main agricultural products sold by private producers in the agro-food markets, thus covering the main sources for the population supply.

Weighting system

The weights used for the calculation of the consumer price indices are obtained by means of the Household Integrated Survey (HIS) and come from the structure of average monthly expenditure of a household for purchasing goods and for paying the services of meeting the living necessary. The structure of the population expenditure is periodically analysed, when the mutations are significant, the weights are updated. Thus, since January 2002, the CPI calculation has used the weights resulted from the structure of average expenditure carried out by a household in 2000.

CPI calculation method

CPI is calculated as a Laspeyres type index with fixed base. Since January 2002, the monthly indices with fixed base have been calculated with the average prices of 2000 (2000 = 100) and the weights of the same year determined based on the average expenditure of the Household Integrated Survey.

With a view to assure the continuity of indices series built with different bases, a "junction coefficient" has been used, allowing linking (junction) the series of monthly indices of 2002 with base 2000 = 100 to the indices series with base 1999 = 100. The junction coefficient has been determined as a ratio between a Laspeyres type index for December 2001 with the former base (1999 = 100) and another one of the same type and for the same month in the new base (2000 = 100). The two indices calculated in different bases are compared by the ratio between the index to be compared, in the new base, multiplied by the junction coefficient, to the index with which it should be compared, calculated in the former basis.

The monthly inflation rate represents the rise of consumer prices in a month as against previous month.

The monthly average inflation rate expresses the average of the monthly price rises. It is calculated as a geometrical mean of the consumer price monthly indices with base in chain, of which the comparison basis, equal to 100, is subtracted.

The yearly inflation rate represents the average rise of consumer prices in a year as against previous year.

This rate is calculated as a percentage ratio between the average price index of a year and that of previous year, of which 100 is subtracted. At their turn, the price average indices of the two years are determined as simple arithmetic means of the monthly indices of each year, calculated as against the same base (October 1990=100).

The inflation rate at end of year represents the consumer price increase in December of a year as against the same month of previous year.

This rate is calculated based on the product of monthly indices with base in chain and per 100. 100 are subtracted of this product expressed in percentages.

Industrial production price index for domestic market

The industrial production price index measures the evolution of prices for industrial products/services manufactured and delivered by domestic producers in a certain period (called current period) as against previous period (called basic or reference period), in the first marketing stage of products/services.

The coverage of the industrial production price index is represented by all products manufactured and sold (on domestic market) by industrial enterprises whose main activity is among CANE divisions 10, 11, 13, 14, 15-37, 40 and 41.

In order to build up the industrial production price index, only the transactions corresponding to the first marketing stage of products are taken into account, namely their output from manufacturing enterprises.

The observed variable represents the price associated to these transactions, which is to be determined depending on the seller (economic unit), the specific product for transaction, and the type of buyer and other characteristics of the transaction.

The great number of transactions carried out by industrial economic units, within the national economy, makes impossible their pursuing as a whole. Therefore, pursuing and collecting the selling prices of industrial products used to calculate the industrial production price index are carried out on a sample of economic unit's representative for each CANE activity class, based on a unique nomenclature of industrial products.

The industrial production price index covers almost totally the mining and quarrying and manufacturing sectors, as well as the energy sector.

The index calculation does not include:

* radioactive ores extraction and preparation;

* weapons and ammunition production;

* long-cycle fabrication industrial production;

* ships and aircraft production;

* machine-building branches unique products;

* production manufactured and delivered within the same enterprise (domestic consumption).

The products manufactured by economic units selected in the sample are treated differently depending on their main destinations, domestic market and export.

The main nomenclatures used in the calculation of industrial production price index are:

The Classification of Activities in the National Economy is carried out on one side, in order to reflect the new economic affairs and on the other side, to assure the alignment to the Nomenclature of Activities in the European Community. According to this classification, economic and social activities are divided into 5 levels (section, subsection, division, group and class), built up on the homogeneity principle, classification structures, comparable with the existing ones in the European statistics (NACE) and in the world statistics (CITI/ISIC) used in UN statistics.

Nomenclature of products

Pursuing and registering the prices of the assortments manufactured and delivered by economic units in the sample rely on an unique nomenclature of industrial products - PRODIND which comprises 2700 physical products characterising the activity of CANE sections D, E and F. The product of the nomenclature represents the first aggregation level of component assortments characterising the movement of industrial production prices. It represents in fact a family of homogeneous assortments having common technical, functional and physical, chemical characteristics.

Nomenclature of assortments

The assortment is a material good resulting from a well-defined manufacturing technological process, having specific technical and functional characteristics.

The assortment represents the elementary level pursuing the price associated to the transactions.

The nomenclature of assortments is not unique per country, it is carried out at level of each economic unit by expert statisticians together with the specialists of the enterprises.

Nomenclature of economic units

The main data source for building up the sample of economic units is constituted by the Yearly Statistical (structural) Survey in enterprises (YSS) of 1998. Based on the data of this statistical survey, the economic units are downward arranged by turnover in each CANE activity class, being retained in the sample the economic units whose turnover represents at least 60% of total CANE class.

The obtained coverage is between 60% and 100%, while per total industry it is over 76%.

Building up the weighting system and the calculation algorithm

The industrial production price index is a Laspeyres type index, using a system of constant weightings for successive data aggregation of the transacted industrial production value, by destinations, in 1998.

The system of weights used in the calculation of the industrial production price index is set up separately by destinations, as it is used for the calculation of the industrial production price index, for domestic market or for export. The weighting values by destinations for all aggregation levels have been determined from the Yearly Statistical (structural) Survey in enterprises in 1998.

Since 2001, 1998 is the reference year, being the closest year to actual moment for which the weighting elements have been calculated.

The index issued in this statistical bulletin is the industrial production price index for the production delivered to domestic market.

In order to assure the continuity of indices series built in different bases, it is used a "junction coefficient" allowing linking the monthly indices series of 2001 and 2002 with base 1998 = 100 to the indices series with base 1996 = 100. The junction coefficient is calculated as a ratio between the Laspeyres type index calculated as monthly average of 2000 in the former base (1996 = 100) as against monthly average of 1999 in the former base (1996 = 100) and another one for the same year 2000 in the new base (1998 = 100) as against monthly average of 1999 in the new base (1998 = 100), for each level of representation. The two indices calculated in different bases are compared using the junction coefficient.

SALARY EARNINGS. NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

The gross nominal salary earning comprises salaries, respectively money rights and rights in kind of employees for the effectively done work (including the overtime work), according to the salary type applied, benefits and indemnities granted as salary percentage or in fixed amounts, other legal rises of salary, amounts paid for the non-worked time (indemnities for rest and study leaves, holidays, other days-off, amounts paid from salary fund for medical leaves), prizes, holidays bonuses and other amounts paid from salary fund according to normative documents or collective labour contracts, amounts paid from the net profit and other sources.

The net nominal salary earning is obtained subtracting from the gross nominal salary earning the following: the tax, the contribution of employees to the social health insurance, the contribution to the supplementary pension and the contribution to the social protection of unemployed.

The average salary earning represents the ratio between the amounts paid to the employees by economic agents in the reference month, no matter of the period and the average number of employees. Average number of employees' represents a simple arithmetic mean calculated based on daily numbers of employees in the respective month. The number of employees includes only persons paid for the respective month. There are not taken into consideration: the employees under leave without pay, in strike, temporarily transferred to work abroad etc.

The number of employees includes persons with labour contract of definite or indefinite duration (including managers), existent in the evidence of economic and social units at end of the reference period.

The monthly data regarding the salary earning and the number of employees are obtained by a sampling survey. Since January 2002, the survey sample has is made of 10000 economic and social units of over 3 employees, covering about 68% of total employees per economy. At end of 2000, the number of employees in the units excluded from the survey (0-3 employees) represented about 4.6% of total number of employees per economy.

UNEMPLOYMENT

Beginning with March 1, 2002, came into force The Law no. 76/2002 about employment insurance system and the stimulation of employment, being abrogated the Law no. 1/1991 with all the changes and suplementations.

According to the new law, registered unemployed person is the person who accomplish the following conditions:

a)      is searching for a job from the age 16 minimum, till the retirement conditions fulfilment;

b)      health state, physical and psychic abilities make her fit for work;

c)      hasn't have a job, doesn't achieve incomes or achieve incomes from authorised activities lower than unemployment indemnity which would be fit according present law;

d)      is available for work in the following period if any job appear;

e)      is registered at the National Agency for Employment or another supplier of employment services working in law conditions.

There are also included in the unemployed graduates from educational institutions aged minimum 18 who did not succeed to be employed during 60 days since graduation, according to their skills; graduates from special schools for handicapped persons or graduates from educational institutions aged 16 years without legal support persons proving that are in impossibility to legally support under-aged; persons who were not employed with labour contract before their length of military service and who could not be employed during 30 days after ending their military service.

Unemployment indemnity is a partial compensation of incomes for unemployed persons because of the job loss or graduates from educational institutions and persons who completed their military service and who could not be employed after ending it.

According to the Law no. 76/2002, benefit from unemployed indemnity:

unemployed - art. 5, pct. IV, lit.c) and art.17, alin.(1) - accomplishing the following conditions: a) they have subscription time of minimum 24 month before the application date; b) they do not achieve incomes or achieve incomes from authorised activities lower than unemployment indemnity; c) they do not accomplish the retirement conditions by the law; d) they are registered at employment agencies.

Unemployment indemnity quantum is a monthly, fixed, tax free amount of money and is 75% from the minimum gross basic salary earnings per country, into force at the date of its' establishment.

Unemployment indemnity is granted in different periods of time according to the subscription time: 6 month, for persons with subscription time up to 5 years, but not under 1 year; 9 month, for persons with a subscription time between 5 and 10 years; 12 month, for persons with a subscription time larger than 10 years.

also included in the unemployed - art. 17, alin.(2) - who accomplish the following conditions: a) they are registered at the employment agencies; b) they do not achieve incomes or achieve incomes from authorised activities lower than unemployment indemnity; c) they do not accomplish the retirement conditions by the law.

Unemployment indemnity quantum is a monthly, fixed, tax free amount of money and is 50% of minimum gross basic salary earnings per country, into force at the date of its' establishment and is granted for 6 month.

According to art. 120 from Law no. 76/2002, 'Persons who require the right to unemployment benefit, vocational integration allowance or support allowance before the coming into force of the present law, benefit of this right in quantum, time and conditions of the Law no. 1/1991, republished, with later on changes.

Unemployment benefit and vocational integration allowance is represented by the amounts of money granted by legal applications, in a period of time, at most 270 days. The quantum of unemployment benefit has been established in different percentage according to years of service, percentage calculated from gross basic salary earnings average from the last three month of activity substract the income tax by the law: a) 50% for years of service up to 5 years, but not less than 20% of the average net monthly salary earnings per economy by the date of application; b) 55% for years of service between 5 and 15 years, but not lower than 22% of the average net monthly salary earnings per economy by the date of application; c) 60% for years of service more than 15 years, but not lower than 24% from average net monthly salary earnings per economy by the date of application. Calculated unemployment benefit cannot overcome 55% of the average net monthly salary earnings per economy by the date of application.

The vocational integration allowance quantum has been established in percentage from average net monthly salary earnings per economy by the date of application: 18% for the beneficiaries graduated from pre-universitary educational institutions, aged minimum 15 years and 20% for the beneficiaries graduated from superior educational institutions.

Support allowance is the amount of money granted to persons who gain from unemployment benefit and vocational integration allowance and who did not succeed to be employed, proving that they do not obtained other incomes and had been granted for a period up to 18 month, after the expiry of the 270 days. Support allowance quantum represented 60% from previous unemployment benefit or vocational integration allowance.

The unemployment rate is determined by the ratio between total number of registered unemployed and active civil population.

The National Agency for Employment represents the data source for the number of registered unemployed and unemployment rate.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

The commercial company with foreign participation in the social capital means the commercial company constituted, partly or integrally, with the participation of natural or legal persons with stable domicile or with social residence outside Romania.

The foreign investor: natural or legal person with stable domicile or social residence outside Romania, having the quality of partner/shareholder within a commercial company with the premises in Romania.

The social capital represents total value of contributions, in cash and in kind subscribed by the associated persons in the company constitution, as well as in the rise of social capital during the commercial company lifetime.

The subscription to social capital of a foreign investor, according to the legislation in force, can be carried out in the national currency of Romania and/or in convertible currency.

Registrations

Dealers have the obligation that, before starting a deal, to ask for the registration in the trade register (Methodological Norms no. P/608-773/1998). Registrations comprise the constitutions of new commercial companies having dealer status with foreign participation in the social capital, in the reference period.

Mentions

Commercial companies registered in the trade register, when carrying out a deal and when it is ended, have the obligation to ask for the registration in the same register of the mentions regarding the documents and facts, whose registration is stipulated by the Law no.26/1990 on the trade register, by the Law no. 31/1990 on commercial companies or by other legal documents (Methodological Norms no. P/608-773/1998).

Finally, capital foreign investment in Romania is equal to capital underwrite when registering plus underwrite by mentions of capital rises, minus subscribed social capital in the companies erased from the trade register.

The value of subscribed social capital:

- total expressed in national currency: the value of social capital obtained comprising the values subscribed in national currency (ROL), with convertible currency changed into ROL, at the exchange rate communicated by the National Bank of Romania, since the date of constitutive/modified document;

- total, expressed in foreign currency equivalent: the value of social capital obtained comprising and changing into USD the convertible currency and the national currency (ROL), at the exchange rate communicated by the National Bank of Romania, since the date of constitutive/modified document.







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