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» The Supernatural. Answers from Beyond Reality from The Monk by Matthew Gregory Lewis

The Supernatural. Answers from Beyond Reality from The Monk by Matthew Gregory Lewis

The Supernatural. Answers from Beyond Reality from The Monk by Matthew Gregory Lewis

Supplementary text

'Follow me!' She said to the Monk in a low and solemn voice. 'All is ready!' His limbs trembled, while He obeyed her. She led him through various narrow passages; and on every side as they past along, the beams of the Lamp displayed none but the most revolting objects; Skulls, Bones, Graves, and Images whose eyes seemed to glare on them with horror and surprize. At length they reached a spacious Cavern, whose lofty roof the eye sought in vain to discover. A profound obscurity hovered through the void. Damp vapours struck cold to the Friar's heart; and He listened sadly to the blast while it howled along the lonely Vaults. Here Matilda stopped. She turned to Ambrosio. His cheeks and lips were pale with apprehension. By a glance of mingled scorn and anger She reproved his pusillanimity, but She spoke not. She placed the Lamp upon the ground, near the Basket. She motioned that Ambrosio should be silent, and began the mysterious rites. She drew a circle round him, another round herself, and then taking a small Phial from the Basket, poured a few drops upon the ground before her. She bent over the place, muttered some indistinct sentences, and immediately a pale sulphurous flame arose from the ground. It increased by degrees, and at length spread its waves over the whole surface, the circles alone excepted in which stood Matilda and the Monk. It then ascended the huge Columns of unhewn stone, glided along the roof, and formed the Cavern into an immense chamber totally covered with blue trembling fire. It emitted no heat. On the contrary, the extreme chillness of the place seemed to augment with every moment. Matilda continued her incantations. At intervals She took various articles from the Basket, the nature and name of most of which were unknown to the Friar. But among the few which He distinguished, He particularly observed three human fingers, and an Agnus Dei which She broke in pieces. She threw them all into the flames which burned before her, and they were instantly consumed.

The Monk beheld her with anxious curiosity. Suddenly She uttered a loud and piercing shriek. She appeared to be seized with an access of delirium; She tore her hair, beat her bosom, used the most frantic gestures, and drawing the poignard from her girdle plunged it into her left arm. The blood gushed out plentifully, and as She stood on the brink of the circle, She took care that it should fall on the outside. The flames retired from the spot on which the blood was pouring. A volume of dark clouds rose slowly from the ensanguined earth, and ascended gradually, till it reached the vault of the Cavern. At the same time a clap of thunder was heard: The echo pealed fearfully along the subterraneous passages, and the ground shook beneath the feet of the Enchantress. It was now that Ambrosio repented of his rashness. The solemn singularity of the charm had prepared him for something strange and horrible. He waited with fear for the Spirit's appearance, whose coming was announced by thunder and earthquakes. He looked wildly round him, expecting that some dreadful Apparition would meet his eyes, the sight of which would drive him mad. A cold shivering seized his body, and He sank upon one knee, unable to support himself. 'He comes!' exclaimed Matilda in a joyful accent.

Ambrosio started, and expected the Daemon with terror. What was his surprize, when the Thunder ceasing to roll, a full strain of melodious Music sounded in the air. At the same time the cloud dispersed, and He beheld a Figure more beautiful than Fancy's pencil ever drew. It was a Youth seemingly scarce eighteen, the perfection of whose form and face was unrivalled. He was perfectly naked: A bright Star sparkled upon his forehead; two crimson wings extended themselves from his shoulders; and his silken locks were confined by a band of many-coloured fires, which played round his head, formed themselves into a variety of figures, and shone with a brilliance far surpassing that of precious Stones. Circlets of Diamonds were fastened round his arms and ankles, and in his right hand He bore a silver branch, imitating Myrtle. His form shone with dazzling glory: He was surrounded by clouds of rose-coloured light, and at the moment that He appeared, a refreshing air breathed perfumes through the Cavern. Enchanted at a vision so contrary to his expectations, Ambrosio gazed upon the Spirit with delight and wonder. Yet however beautiful the Figure, He could not but remark a wildness in the Daemon's eyes, and a mysterious melancholy impressed upon his features, betraying the Fallen Angel, and inspiring the Spectators with secret awe.

The Music ceased. Matilda addressed herself to the Spirit: She spoke in a language unintelligible to the Monk, and was answered in the same. She seemed to insist upon something which the Daemon was unwilling to grant. He frequently darted upon Ambrosio angry glances, and at such times the Friar's heart sank within him. Matilda appeared to grow incensed. She spoke in a loud and commanding tone, and her gestures declared that She was threatening him with her vengeance. Her menaces had the desired effect: The Spirit sank upon his knee, and with a submissive air presented to her the branch of Myrtle. No sooner had She received it, than the Music was again heard. A thick cloud spread itself over the Apparition.

The blue flames disappeared, and total obscurity reigned through the Cave. The Abbot moved not from his place. His faculties were all bound up in pleasure, anxiety, and surprize. At length the darkness dispersing, He perceived Matilda standing near him in her religious habit, with the Myrtle in her hand. No traces of the incantation, and the Vaults were only illuminated by the faint rays of the sepulchral Lamp. 'I have succeeded,' said Matilda, 'though with more difficulty than I expected. Lucifer, whom I summoned to my assistance, was at first unwilling to obey my commands. To enforce his compliance I was constrained to have recourse to my strongest charms. They have produced the desired effect, but I have engaged never more to invoke his agency in your favour. Beware then, how you employ an opportunity which never will return. My magic arts will now be of no use to you. In future you can only hope for supernatural aid by invoking the Daemons yourself, and accepting the conditions of their service. This you will never do: You want strength of mind to force them to obedience, and unless you pay their established price, they will not be your voluntary Servants.


Reading comprehension and comments.

Enumerate and enlarge upon the most widely spread descriptions of daemons in folklore,

religious literature and fiction.

Discuss the reasons for the Faustian pact motif appearing as a cultural invariant.

Translate the fourth paragraph of the text into Romanian.

Grammar Module:

The Pronoun (Pronumele) (II)

5. The reflexive pronoun (Pronumele reflexive si de intarire)

myself ma, insumi, insami
yourself -
te, insuti, insati
himself -
se, insusi
herself -
se, insesi
itself -
se, insusi, insasi (neutru)
ourselves -
ne, insine, insene
- va, insiva, inseva
themselves -
se, insisi, insesi

I found myself very smart.
We did ourselves all the exercises.

We use a reflexive pronoun to talk about the same person or thing that we mentioned in the subject of the sentence:

I'm teaching myself Italian.

Idiomatic phrases:

to enjoy oneself = to have a good time

to help oneself to something = to take something

to behave oneself = not to be silly or naughty

6. The emphatic pronoun (Pronumele emfatic)

The emphatic pronouns have the same form as the reflexive pronouns, but they have an end position in the sentence or come after the noun phrase they refer to:

we ... ourselves / we ourselves

We, the students, we ourselves helped him. = we and no one else.

7. The reciprocal pronouns (Pronumele reciproce)

The reciprocal pronouns express reciprocal relationships between persons or things. They are: - each other (unul altuia, unul pe celalalt)

- one another (unii altora, unii pe altii)

They don't speak to each other any more.

(Ei nu-si mai vorbesc unul altuia.) - sunt doi

They don't speak to one another.

(Ei nu-si mai vorbesc unii cu altii.) - sunt mai multi

8. The indefinite pronoun and the indefinite adjective

(Pronumele nehotarat si adjectivul nehotarat)

some + body, one, thing
any + body, one, thing
no + body, one, thing

I want something from you.
She didn't find anything in the fridge.
There was no one in the room.

Any - (adjectiv sau pronume), inseamna "vreun", "niste" , intr-o fraza negativa, interogativa sau interogativ negativa:

I don't have any. (Nu am.)

Have you got any money? (Aveti vreun (niste) ban(i)?)

- intr-o fraza afirmativa inseamna "orice", "oricare", "oricine"

They are determined to win at any cost. (Sunt dispusi sa castige, oricare ar fi pretul.)

Any of you could do it. (Oricare (oricine) dintre voi poate s-o faca.)

- Any se foloseste cand asteptam raspunsul "nu", some cand asteptam raspunsul "da"

Do you want any sugar? (Doriti niste zahar?)

No, thank you. (Nu, multumesc.)

Do you want some sugar? (Doriti niste zahar?)

Yes, I do. (Da.)

- Any ca adverb avand sensul "deloc" se foloseste in fata unui compartiv.

Do you feel any better? (Nu va simtiti deloc mai bine?)

- intr-un stil mai familiar, este utilizat in expresii de genul:

It doesn't help me any. (Nu ma ajuta cu nimic (deloc).

9. The relative pronoun (Pronumele relative)

who care
whom/who -
pe care
whose -
al (a, ai, ale) carui, careia, carora
what -
ce, ceea ce
- care, pe care (pt. lucruri, obiecte )
that -

My brother, who is a doctor, lives in Bucharest.
Tom, whose car was stolen, bought another one last week.
I found a cat that was lost.
I didn't like what I saw.


1. Complete the following sentences with the reflexive pronoun.

1) I enjoyed ..... at the party
2) My father didn't buy the book for ....
3) The dog cut ..... while running in the street.
4) Help ..... with some fruit, John and Mary.
5) We saw ..... in the snow.

2. Complete the following sentences with the possessive pronoun.
1) This is my cat. It is ..... .
2) That is his lamp. It is ....
3) These are our maps. They are ...
4) Those are their shoes. They are ...... .
5) This is her shirt. It is ....... .

3. Choose the right pronoun.
1) I saw Mr. Thompson ..... is John's father. (that, who, which)
2) ....... did you meet last week, John or Steve? (which, who, whose)
3) Puffy, ..... is a big cat, is very lazy. (which, who, whose)
4) ..... are you doing? (whom, what, that)
5) ...... is going with you at the theatre? (who, that, whom)

4. Complete with some or any.

1) We haven't got ...... left.

2) They still have ......., but not much.

3) I can see you like it. Will you have ...... more?

4) This policy is not to be altered under ........ circumstamces.

5) We need ...... help we can get.

a. any  c. anyone

b. some  d. everyone

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