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VORBIREA INDIRECTA in limba engleza


VORBIREA INDIRECTA in limba engleza


VORBIREA INDIRECTA

Daca verbul SAY sau TELL este la PRESENT sau PRESENT PERFECT TENSE, verbul care urmeaza dupa el nu isi schimba timpul:

"I am ill".

She says she is ill.

Daca verbul din propozitia principala (din vorbirea indirecta) este la PAST TENSE, urmatoarele pronume si adjective adverbiale se schimba astfel:



NOW devine THEN

HERE devine THERE

THIS devine THAT

THESE devine THOSE

AGO devine BEFORE

TODAY devine THAT DAY

TONIGHT devine THAT NIGHT

TOMORROW devine THE NEXT DAY

YESTERDAY devine THE DAY BEFORE / THE PREVIOUS DAY

LAST WEEK devine THE WEEK BEFORE

TWO DAYS AGO devine TWO DAYS BEFORE

NEXT WEEK devine THE NEXT WEEK / THE FOLLOWING WEEK

Daca verbul din propozitia principala (din vorbirea indirecta) este la PAST TENSE, vor avea loc urmatoarele schimbari ale timpurilor din propozitia subordonata:

PRESENT INDEFINITE devine PAST INDEFINITE:

I don't know what to say."

He said that he didn't know what to say.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS devine PAST CONTINUOUS:

"I am working hard."

He said he was working hard."

PRESENT PERFECT devine PAST PERFECT:

"The dog has stolen the meat."

He told me that the dog had stolen the meat.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS devine PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS:

"I have been waiting for you since early morning."

He said he had been waiting for me since early morning.

PAST INDEFINITE devine PAST PERFECT:

"We made it last week."

They told me that they had made it the previous week.

PAST INDEFINITE poate ramane tot PAST INDEFINITE:

"Albert Einstein was born in 1779."

He said Einstein was born in 1779, but he was born in 1879.

PAST CONTINUOUS devine PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS:

"You were running across the street when I saw you."

He said I had been running across the street when he had seen me.

FUTURE INDEFINITE devine FUTURE INDEFINITE IN-THE-PAST:

"I shall do it better."

He said he would do it better.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS devine FUTURE CONTINUOUS IN-THE-PAST:

"I shall be sleeping at 6 o'clock in the morning."

He said he would be sleeping at 6 o'clock in the morning.

FUTURE PERFECT devine FUTURE PERFECT IN-THE-PAST:

"I hope it will have stopped raining by tomorrow morning."

He said he hopped that it would have stopped raining by next morning.

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS devine FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS IN-THE-PAST:

"I shall have been doing this work for two hours when you come."

She said she would have been doing that work for two hours when I came.

Daca adresantul nu este mentionat, verbul TO SAY ramane neschimbat:

He said, "I forgot everything I knew."

He said he had forgotten everything he knew.

Daca adresantul este mentionat (deci cui i se spune), atunci verbul TO SAY devine TO TELL:

He said, "I forgot everything I knew."

He told me (adresantul este ME) he had forgotten everything he knew.





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