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Gramatica


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Verbul (the verb)


Verbul (the verb)


VERBUL (THE VERB)

Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprima o actiune, o activitate sau un proces si are urmatoarele categorii gramaticale: timp, aspect, numar, persoana, diateza si mod. Timpul verbului este categoria gramaticala prin care se precizeaza momentul desfasurarii actiunii. Exista trei timpuri de baza: prezent, trecut si viitor. Aspectul exprima gradul de indeplinire a actiunii. In limba engleza exista doua aspecte:



a) - aspectul comun, prin care se exprima o actiune generala, o actiune terminata sau o actiune de scurta durata.

I play tennis. = Eu joc tenis (in general sau de obicei).

b) - aspectul continuu, care exprima o actiune in desfasurare - deci o actiune neterminata.

I am playing tennis. = Joc tenis (acum).

Diateza realizeaza relatia dintre subiect si complementul direct. Exista trei diateze: activa, pasiva si reflexiva.

In cazul diatezei active actiunea subiectului se indreapta asupra complementului direct.;

The boy is reading the lesson. = Baiatul citeste lectia.

In cadrul diatezei pasive actiunea savarsita de subiectul logic se rasfrange asupra subiectului gramatical

The lesson is read by the boy. = Lectia este citita de baiat.

Din exemplul de mai sus se observa ca in limba engleza diateza pasiva se formeaza cu verbul auxiliar to be plus participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat (adica a III-a forma de baza a verbului de conjugat). Verbul to be se conjuga, iar verbul de conjugat la participiul trecut nu-si modifica forma.

La diateza reflexiva actiunea se rasfrange asupra autorului ei, adica asupra subiectului.

The cat washes itself. = Pisica se spala.

Modul este categoria gramaticala a verbului prin care se precizeaza felul actiunii si anume daca actiunea este reala, sigura, ireala, probabila, posibila, imposibila.

In limba engleza exista patru moduri personale (Finite Forms) si trei moduri nepersonale (Non - Finite Forms).

personale

Indicative - are toate timpurile

Subjunctive - prezent, past si past perfect

Conditional - prezent si perfect

Moduri

Imperative - prezent

nepersonale

Infinitive - prezent si perfect

Participle - prezent, past si perfect

Gerund - prezent si perfect

1. Clasificarea verbelor

infinitiv prezent

trecut

simplu

participiu

trecut

auxiliare

to be

was / were

been

= a fi

to have

had

had

= a avea

to do

did

done

= a face

shall

should

trebuie sa

will

would

-

= a vrea

to let

let

let

= a lasa

modale

can (to be able to)

could

-

= a putea, a sti

may (to be permitted / allowed to)

might

= a avea voie sa =

(a-i fi permis sa)

must (to have to) (to be obliged to)

(must)

trebuie,

(a trebui sa) =

(a fi obligat sa)

shall

should

= a trebui sa,

a se cuveni sa

will

would

= a dori, a vrea

ought to

(ought to)

= ar trebui sa

dare

= a indrazni

need

need

= obisnuia sa

to be to

was, were to

been to

= a urma sa

used to

= obisnuia sa

principale

regulate

to ask

asked

asked

= a intreba

to like

liked

liked

= a-i placea

to answer

answered

answered

= a raspunde

to use

used

used

= a intrebuinta

etc.

neregulate

to go

- went

- gone

= a merge

to see

- saw

- seen

= a vedea

etc.

4. auxiliar

- modale

shall
will
can

should
would
could
etc.

Verbele auxiliare ajuta celelalte verbe sa-si formeze aspectul continuu, diateza pasiva, timpurile compuse, unele moduri. Ele devin instrumente gramaticale pierzandu-si sensul lexical.

Eu am o carte = Eu posed o carte.

In exemplul de mai sus verbul am (a avea) in limba romana este verb principal, dar in exemplul: Eu am citit o carte, verbul am este auxiliar, caci ajuta verbul citit sa-si formeze timpul perfect compus. Este clar ca nu putem spune: Eu posed citit o carte, in care verbul a poseda sa fie sinonim cu verbul a avea.

Verbele modale dau verbelor principale impreuna cu care se folosesc nuante lexicale speciale. In exemplul I must go. = Eu trebuie sa merg, verbul must exprima obligatia efectuarii actiunii. Verbul can implica nuanta capabilitatii si permisiunii, iar verbul may ideea de permisiune si posibilitate.

He can speak English. = El stie/poate vorbi englezeste; He may come. = El poate veni. = Lui ii este permis sa vina.

Verbele modale se mai numesc defective caci nu au forme proprii fie pentru infinitiv prezent, fie pentru trecut, fie pentru participiul trecut, situatie in care se inlocuiesc cu sinonimele lor. Ele nu au particula infinitivala to si nu folosesc aceasta particula dupa ele (exceptii: used to, ought to). Ca si verbele auxiliare ele formeaza interogativul schimbandu-si locul cu subiectul propozitiei. Verbele auxiliare si modale din limba engleza au si forme prescurtate/contrase. Unii gramaticieni includ verbele auxiliare si modale intr-o singura categorie - aceea de verbe speciale. Ele formeaza negativul prin simpla adaugare a negatiei not dupa ele si interogativul schimbandu-si locul cu subiectul in propozitie

Verbele can, may, must, ought to, dare, need si used to sunt auxiliare in intrebarile disjunctive.

I am not at home. = Eu nu sunt acasa. I cannot go. = Eu nu pot merge.

Verbele auxiliare si modale contribuie la formarea intrebarilor disjunctive (Tag/Tail Questions), cele care se traduc in limba romana prin nu-i asa ?, asa-i ?

You are at home, aren't you ? = Esti acasa, nu-i asa ?

You are not at home, are you ? = Nu esti acasa, nu-i asa ?

He learns English, doesn't he ? = Invata englezeste, nu-i asa ?

Tot ele participa la formularea raspunsurilor scurte ale intrebarilor generale. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care pot primi raspunsuri scurte: da, nu.

'Are they at home ' ? 'Yes'; 'Yes, they are'. = Sunt ei acasa ? Da. ; Da, sunt.

Participa la completarea structurii and so

'They are in the park'.'And so are we'. = Ei sunt in parc. Si noi.

'Paul can speak English'.'And so can Alice'. 'And so can we'. = Paul stie sa vorbeasca englezeste. Si Alice (stie). Si noi (stim).

'Paul cannot ski'. 'Neither can we'. = 'We can't either'. = Paul nu stie sa schieze. Nici noi (nu stim).

'They saw the house'. 'But I didn't'. = Ei au vazut casa. Dar/insa eu nu. Dar eu n-am vazut-o.

Verbele auxiliare si cele modale, mult folosite in vorbire, se intalnesc si in limbajul care exprima o surpriza (mai ales neplacuta).

'He won't come with us'. = El nu va veni cu noi.

'Oh, he won't, won't he' ? = Zau (dom'le) ? = Chiar asa ?

'John can't give you the money today'. 'Oh, he can't, can't he' ?= John nu-ti poate da banii astazi.- Nu mai spune !; Cum asa ?; Zau dom'le ?

Verbele modale, ca si verbele auxiliare, nu primesc terminatia s la persoana a III-a singular si nu au aspectul continuu.

2. Modurile personale ale verbelor

2.1. Modul indicativ

Este modul actiunilor reale si cuprinde toate timpurile.

Timpul prezent (The Present Tense)

Este forma I de baza a verbelor. Exprima actiuni generale repetate, stari, un obicei prezent etc. Se foloseste si in propozitiile conditionale de tipul I. Normal timpul prezent coincide cu momentul vorbirii.

Uneori, prezentul simplu se poate referi la viitor: Tommorow is Ann's birthday. = Maine este ziua de nastere a Anei.

A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la indicativ prezent

TO BE = a fi

( A = afirmativ, N = negativ, I = interogativ )

A || I am = I'm= eu sunt = eu is

you are = you're = tu esti

he/she/it is = he's/she's/it's = el/ea este = el/ea e

we are = we're = noi suntem

you are= you're = voi sunteti

they are = they're = ei/ele sunt

N || I am not = I aren't = eu nu sunt

you are not = you aren't = tu nu esti

he/she/it is not= he/she/it isn't = el/ea nu este

we are not = we aren't = noi nu suntem

you are not = you aren't = voi nu sunteti

they are not = they aren't = ei /ele nu sunt

I ||

am I ? = eu sunt ? are we? = noi suntem ?

are you ? = tu esti ? are you? =voi sunteti ?

is he/she/it? = el/ea este ? are they? =ei/ele sunt ?

I - N

am I not ? = aren't I ? = nu sunt eu ?= eu nu-s ?

are you not ? = aren't you ? = nu esti tu ?

is he/she/it not ? = isn't he/she/it ? = nu este el/ea ?

are we not ? = aren't we ? = nu suntem noi ?

are you not ? = aren't you ? = nu sunteti voi ?

are they not ? = aren't they ? = nu sunt ei/ele ?

Functiile verbului TO BE

1. a) verb auxiliar pentru formarea aspectului continuu :     I am reading. = Eu citesc (acum).

b) verb auxiliar pentru formarea diatezei pasive I am seen. = Eu sunt vazut.

2. verb modal: to be to = a urma/trebui sa = a fi sa; I am to read. = Trebuie/urmeaza sa citesc.

verb principal - atunci cand este urmat de un adverb de loc; We are at home. = Noi suntem acasa.

They are in the park. = Ei/Ele sunt in parc.

TO HAVE = a avea

A || I have = I've = I have got [got] = I've got = eu am

you have = you've = you have got = you've got = tu ai

he/she/it has = he's/she's/it's = he/she/it has got = he's/she's/it's got = el/ea are

we have = we've = we have got = we've got = noi avem

you have = you've = you have got = you've got = voi aveti

they have = they've = they have got = they've got = ei/ele au

N || I have not (I haven't) = I have not (haven't) got = eu nu am

you have not (you haven't) = you have not (haven't) got = tu nu ai

he/she/it has not (he/she/it hasn't) = he/she/it has not (hasn't) got = el/ea nu are

we have not (we haven't) = we have not (haven't) got = noi nu avem

you have not (you haven't) = you have not (haven't) got = voi nu aveti

they have not (they haven't) = they have not (haven't) got = ei/ele nu au

sau

I do not have = I don't have = eu nu am

you do not have = you don't have = tu nu ai

he/she/it does not have = he/she/it doesn't have = el/ea nu are

we do not have = we don't have = noi nu avem

you do not have = you don't have = voi nu aveti

they do not have = they don't have = ei/ele nu au

I || have I? = have I got? = do I have? = eu am ? = am e ?

have you? = have you got? = do you have ? = tu ai ? = ai tu?

has he/she/it? = has he/she/it got? = does he/she/it have? = el/ea are?

have we? = have we got? = do we have? = noi avem? = avem noi?

have you? = have you got? = do you have? = voi aveti? = aveti voi?

have they? = have they got? = do they have? = ei/ele au? = au ei/ele?

I - N ||

have I not? = haven't I? = have I not (haven't I) got? = do I not (don't I) have? = eu nu am? = eu n-am ? = nu am eu ?

have you not? =haven't you? =have you not (haven't you) got? =do you not (don't you) have? = tu nu ai= tu n-ai? =nu ai tu ?

has he/she/it not ? = hasn't he/she/it? = has he/she/it not (hasn't he/she/it) got? = does he/she/it not (doesn't he/she/it) have ? = el/ea nu are ? = nu are el/ea ?

have we not? =haven't we? = have we not (haven't we) got? = do we not (don't we) have ? = noi nu avem ? = noi n-avem ? = nu avem noi ?

have you not ? = haven't you ? = have you not (haven't you) got ? = do you not (don't you) have ?= voi nu aveti ?= voi n-aveti ?= nu aveti voi ?

have they not ? = haven't they ? = have they not (haven't they) got ? = do they not (don't they) have ? = ei/ele nu au ? = nu au ei/ele ?

Functiile verbului TO HAVE

1. verb auxiliar pentru formarea timpurilor The Present Perfect si The Past Perfect

I have come for two hours. = Am venit de doua ore.

I had come for two hours. =Venisem de doua ore.

2. verb modal: to have to = must = trebuie

I must sing. = I have to sing. = Eu trebuie sa cant. = Eu am de cantat.

He had to learn every day. = El trebuia sa invete in fiecare zi.

3. verb principal: a) to have = to possess = a avea/poseda

We have a house. = We possess a house. = Avem o casa. = Posedam o casa.

They have had that house for ten years. = Ei au casa aceea de zece ani.

b) to have = a manca, a bea, a servi, a se distra etc.

We have breakfast at eight o'clock. = Servim micul dejun la ora opt.

TO DO = a face

A || I do= eu fac we do = noi facem

you do = tu faci you do = voi faceti

he/she/it does = el/ea face they do = ei/ele fac

N || I do not do (I don't do) = eu nu fac we do not do (we don't do) = noi nu facem

you do not do (you don't do) = tu nu faci you do not do (you don't do) = voi nu faceti

he/she/it does not do (doesn't do) = el/ea nu face they do not do (they don't do) = ei/ele nu fac

I || do I do ? = eu fac ?     do we do? = noi facem ?

do you do ? = tu faci ? do you do ? = voi faceti ?

does he/she/it do? =el/ea face ? do they do? = ei/ele

I - N || do I not do ? = don't I do ? = eu nu fac ? = nu fac eu ?

do you not do ? = don't you do ? = tu nu faci ? = nu faci tu ?

does he/she/it not do? = doesn't he/she/it do? = ea/el nu face? = nu face el/ea?

Ca verb auxiliar, verbul to do nu se traduce. Traducerea lui insa, ca si traducerea verbelor to be si to have s-a facut totusi pentru motive practice.

Functiile verbului TO DO

1. verb auxiliar

Do you understand ? = Intelegi ?

He does not understand. = El nu intelege.

2. verb de intarire (emfatic)

I do like grammar. = Imi place gramatica foarte mult.

3. verb principal

We did an exercise. = Noi am facut un exercitiu.

Well begun is half done. (prov.) = Lucrul bine inceput jumatate e facut.

B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la timpul prezent

La prezent, verbele modale au aceeasi forma pentru toate persoanele.

CAN = to be able to= a putea, a sti, a fi in stare sa

A|| I can (swim) = I am able to (swim) = eu pot/stiu/sunt in stare sa (inot) etc.

N || I cannot (swim) = I can't (swim) = I am not able to (swim) = I aren't able to (swim) = eu nu pot/stiu/sunt in stare sa (inot) etc.

I || Can I (swim) ? = Am I able to (swim) ? = pot/stiu eu sa (inot) ? = sunt eu in stare sa (inot) ? etc.

I - N || Can I not (swim) ? = Can't I (swim) ? = Am I not able to (swim) ? = Aren't I able to (swim) ? = eu nu stiu/pot sa (inot) ? = eu nu sunt in stare sa (inot) ? etc.

Verbul CAN exprima:

a) abilitatea sau capacitatea:

can = to be able to = to know how to = to have the ability/power/skill to = a putea/sti = a fi in stare sa = a sti cum sa

I can speak five languages. = Stiu sa vorbesc cinci limbi.

He cannot speak French. = El nu stie sa vorbeasca frantuzeste.

b) - posibilitatea - la afirmativ si interogativ

They can be in the park. = Ei pot fi in parc.

They can have been in the park. = Se poate/Este posibil ca ei sa fi fost in parc.

- imposibilitatea - la negativ:

They can't be in the park. = Ei nu pot fi in parc.

This story cannot be true. = Povestea aceasta nu poate fi adevarata.

She can't be under thirty. = Nu poate avea sub treizeci de ani.

He can't have said that. = El nu poate sa fi spus asta. = Nu se poate ca el sa fi spus asta.

c) o invitatie sau o rugaminte:

Can you shut the window, please? = Poti, te rog, sa inchizi fereastra ?

Can you possibly come to my birthday party ? = Poti cumva veni la petrecerea de ziua mea de nastere ?

How can you possibly ask such a thing ? = Cum poti intreba asa ceva ?

d) permisiunea (in limbajul colocvial) si devine sinonim cu may, dar pentru politete se prefera may.

can = may = to be free to = to have permission to = to be allowed/permitted to = a putea, a fi liber sa, a avea permisiunea sa

You can/may use my umbrella. = Poti folosi umbrela mea.

I can swim in that lake. = I am free to swim in that lake. = Pot inota in lacul acela. = Sunt liber sa inot in lacul acela.

- la negativ can exprima interdictia sau imposibilitatea - (can't = be forbidden/ prohibited to)

cannot = to be incapable/unable to = a fi incapabil sa

You can't go on the trip. = Nu poti merge in excursie.

It can't be six o'clock. = Nu poate fi ora sase.

MAY to be permitted/allowed to= a avea voie sa, a-i fi permis/ ingaduit sa

A || I may (go) = I am permitted/allowed to (go) = eu am voie/pot sa (merg) = mie imi este permis/ingaduit sa (merg) etc

N|| I may not (go) = I am not permitted/allowed to (go) = eu nu am voie sa (merg) = mie nu-mi este permis/ingaduit sa (merg) etc.

Forma mayn't este considerata desueta si, in consecinta, practic nefolosita.

I || May I (go)? = am I permitted/allowed to (go)?=eu am voie/pot sa (merg)? = mie imi este permis/ingaduit sa (merg) etc.

I-N || May I not (go) ? = am I not permitted/allowed to (go) ? = eu nu am voie/nu pot sa (merg) ? = mie nu-mi este permis/ ingaduit sa (merg)? etc.

Verbul MAY exprima:

a) - permisiunea in prezent -

'May I come in' ? = - Pot intra , Pot sa intru ?; 'Yes, you may.' = Da, poti; 'Yes, of course' =Da, desigur =Da, bineanteles.

'You may leave if you like,' John said. = Poti pleca daca doresti, zise el.

devine in vorbire indirecta:

John said that I might leave if I liked. = John said that I was allowed to leave if I liked. = John a zis ca pot pleca daca doresc. = John a zis ca-mi este ingaduit sa plec daca doresc.

interdictia se exprima prin may not:

You may not use my umbrella. = Nu poti folosi umbrela mea.

b) posibilitatea:

He may come late if the traffic's heavy. = El poate veni tarziu daca circulatia este intensa.

He may have come yesterday. = Este posibil ca el sa fi venit ieri.

She may be learning her lessons. = Ea poate isi invata lectiile.

He may not be able to pay his rent. = Poate ca el nu este in stare sa-si plateasca chiria.

c) probabilitatea / incertitudinea sau curiozitatea:

What may he be ? = Ce poate fi el ?

I may have left my umbrella on the train. = Probabil/Poate mi-am uitat umbrela in tren.

He may come . = Probably he comes. = El poate veni. = Probabil el vine.

Intrebarile referitoare la posibilitate se formuleaza cu ajutorul verbului can nu al lui may.

Can he have lost his way ? = Se poate ca el sa se fi ratacit ?= Este posibil ca el sa se fi ratacit ?

d) o urare:

May you live long ! = Sa traiesti !

May your dreams come true ! = Sa ti se implineasca visurile/dorintele !

MUST= to have to = trebuie

A || I must (speak) = eu trebuie sa (vorbesc) etc

N || I must not (speak) = I mustn't (speak) = eu nu trebuie sa (vorbesc) etc.

I || Must I (speak) ? = trebuie eu sa (vorbesc) ? etc.

I - N || Must I not (speak) ? = mustn't I (speak) ? = eu nu trebuie sa (vorbesc) ? etc.

Verbul MUST exprima:

a) obligatia / necesitatea:

You must learn permanently. = Tu trebuie sa inveti permanent.

You must learn. = You have to learn. = You have (you've) got to learn

Intre must si have to exista insa urmatoarea deosebire: must exprima o obligatie/necesitate pornita din partea subiectului (I must go to bed because I am very sleepy. = Trebuie sa merg la culcare pentru ca imi este foarte somn.) Have to exprima o obligatie impusa subiectului din afara, deci o obligatie externa (You have to be there at eight o'clock. = Tu trebuie sa fii acolo la ora opt.)

You must not cross now. = You are not allowed / permitted to cross now .= Tu nu trebuie sa traversezi acum = N-ai voie sa traversezi acum.

Must he go now? = Has he to go now?= Does he have to go now? = Trebuie el sa plece / mearga acum ?

- must not exprima interdictia:

'You must not interrupt me', he said. = Nu trebuie sa ma intrerupi, a zis el.

devine in vorbirea indirecta:

He said that I mustn't interrupt him. = El a zis ca nu trebuie sa-l intrerup. sau :

He said that I didn't have to interrupt him. = El a zis ca nu trebuie sa-l intrerup.

b) probabilitatea

He must know me. = Probabil / poate (ca ) ma cunoaste. = Trebuie sa ma stie.

Being late they must be at home. = Fiind tarziu probabil ca sunt acasa.

You must have paid a lot of money for this car.= Probabil ca ai platit multi bani pentru masina aceasta. = Trebuie sa fi platit multi bani pentru masina aceasta.

SHALL = se cade/cuvine/merita sa, trebuie sa

A || I shall (intervene) = eu se cade/cuvine sa (intervin)

You shall (intervene) = tu se cade/cuvine sa (intervii)

He/she shall (intervene) = el/ea se cade/cuvine sa (intervina)

We shall (intervene) = noi se cade/cuvine sa (intervenim)

You shall (intervene) = voi se cade/cuvine sa (interveniti)

They shall (intervene) = ei/ele se cade/cuvine sa (intervina)

N || I shall not (intervene) = I shan't (intervene) = eu nu se cade sa (intervin) = eu nu trebuie sa (intervin) etc.

I || Shall I (intervene) ? = se cade/trebuie sa (intervin) eu ? = sa (intervin) eu ? etc.

I - N || Shall I not (intervene) ? = Shan't I (intervene) ? = eu sa nu (intervin) ? = eu nu trebuie sa (intervin)? etc.

Prin shall se exprima:

a) permisiunea/invitatia

You shall stay here as long as you like. = Sa stai aici cat iti place. = Poti sa stai aici cat iti place.

b) promisiunea:

You shall have a holiday in the mountains if you work hard. = O sa ai o vacanta la munte daca o sa muncesti cum trebuie.

c) obligatia:

You shall do as he tells you. = Sa faci cum iti spune el.

You shall always be punctual. = Sa fii totdeauna punctual.

He shall never break his promise ! = Sa nu-si calce niciodata promisiunea !

What shall I do now ? = Ce sa fac acum ?

WILL = a vrea, a dori

A || I will (learn) = eu vreau sa (invat); You will (learn) = tu vrei sa (inveti)

He/she will (learn) = el/ea vrea sa (invete), etc.

N || I will not (learn) = I won't (learn) = eu nu vreau sa (invat) etc.

I || Will I (learn) ? = eu vreau sa (invat) ? = vreau eu sa (invat) ? etc.

I - N || Will I not (learn) ? = Won't I (learn) ? = eu nu vreau sa (invat) ? etc.

Prin verbul modal will se adreseaza o invitatie sau o dorinta.

Will you have a cup of tea ? = Doresti/Vrei o ceasca de ceai ?

You may come to see us if you will. = Poti veni pe la noi daca vrei.

OUGHT TO = ar trebui sa, s-ar cuveni sa (obligatie morala)

A || I ought to go = eu trebuie sa merg = eu se cuvine sa merg; You ought to go = tu ar trebui sa mergi = tu s-ar cuveni sa mergi; He/she ought to go = el/ea ar trebui sa mearga = el/ea se cuvine sa mearga etc.

N || I ought not to go = I oughtn't to go = eu nu ar trebui sa merg = eu n-ar trebui sa merg etc.

I || Ought I to go ? = ar trebui eu sa merg ? = s-ar cuveni eu sa merg ? etc.

I - N|| Ought I not (oughtn't I) to go ? = eu nu ar trebui sa merg ? = n-ar trebui eu sa merg ? etc.

You ought to tell her the truth. = Se cuvine sa-i spui adevarul.

You ought to have told her the truth. = S-ar fi cuvenit sa-i spui adevarul.

- ought to este sinonim cu should si exprima recomandarea, necesitatea sau obligatia morala.

You ought to help your parents if they are very old. = Se cuvine sa-ti ajuti parintii daca sunt foarte batrani.

You oughtn't to take his umbrella without asking for permission. = Tu nu trebuie sa-i iei umbrela fara sa ceri voie.

He knew he ought to help us. = Stia ca trebuie sa ne ajute.

DARE = a indrazni, a se incumeta

(exista insa si verbul principal to dare - dared/durst - dared = a indrazni)

A || La afirmativ verbul dare se conjuga in maniera verbelor principale: I dare = eu indraznesc; you dare = tu indraznesti

he/she/it dares = el/ea indrazneste etc.

N || I dare not go = I daren't go = I don't dare (to) go = eu nu indraznesc sa merg etc.

I || Dare I go ? = do I dare (to) go? = indraznesc eu sa merg ? = eu indraznesc sa merg ? etc

I-N || Dare I not go ? = don't I dare (to) go? = nu indraznesc eu sa merg ? = eu nu indraznesc sa merg? etc .

- dare (to) = to be brave enough to = a indrazni = a fi suficient de curajos pentru a

I dare go there alone. = Indraznesc sa merg acolo singur.

- dare = to take the risk of = a indrazni, a risca sa, a infrunta

They dare all the dangers. = Ei infrunta toate pericolele.

- dare = to provoke somebody into a demonstration of courage

Dare you jump over that fence ? = Indraznesti sa sari peste gardul acela ?

- dare + say Indraznesc sa spun

I dare say you can't swim across that lake. = Indraznesc sa spun ca nu poti traversa lacul acela inot.

NEED = a fi nevoie/necesar sa, a trebui sa

N || I need not go = I needn't go = eu nu este nevoie sa merg etc.

I || Need I go ? = este nevoie sa merg eu? etc.

I-N || Need I not (needn't I) go ? = nu este nevoie sa merg eu ?= eu nu este nevoie sa merg ? etc.

- necesitate/nevoie

La afirmativ need se foloseste cu adverbele hardly, scarcely, only:

I need hardly tell you something. = Simt o mare nevoie sa-ti spun ceva.

You need only be present. = Este nevoie sa fii doar prezent.

Verbul need la negativ presupune lipsa obligatiei sau necesitatii.

I needn't tell you everything. = Nu este nevoie sa-ti povestesc totul.

I needn't go yet. = Inca nu este nevoie sa plec.

- needn't - in vorbirea indirecta:

'You needn't come until I tell you', he said. = - Nu este nevoie sa vii pana nu-ti spun eu, a zis el. devine in vorbire indirecta:

He said that I needn't come until he told me. = El a zis ca nu este nevoie sa vin pana nu-mi spune el.

TO BE TO = a fi/trebui/urma sa

You are to be there at six o'clock. = Sa fii acolo la ora sase. = Trebuie/Urmeaza sa fii acolo la ora sase.

What am I to do now ? = Ce urmeaza/trebuie sa fac eu acum ?

What is to be done now ? = Ce este de facut acum ?

I should have told you if we had been to go there. = Ti-as fi spus daca noi ar fi fost sa mergem acolo.

TO HAVE GOT TO = trebuie (folosit mult in limbajul colocvial american)

I have got to go now. = Acum trebuie sa plec.

In exemplul I will learn the lesson (Vreau sa invat lectia) verbul will se pronunta accentuat, punandu-se astfel in evidenta valoarea sa semantica.

In exemplul You will learn the lesson (Tu vei invata lectia) verbul will este auxiliar si se pronunta fara accent. In schimb verbul learn care urmeaza dupa el se pronunta accentuat.

In exemplul He may never come (El poate sa nu vina niciodata) verbul may exprima o nuanta de posibilitate/indoiala: El poate veni, dar suntem lasati sa credem ca mai degraba nu va veni.

He may never come. = It is possible that he will never come.

Concluzie:Verbele can, may, must, shall, will, need, ought to se intalnesc urmate fie de infinitiv scurt prezent, fie de infinitiv scurt perfect.

He may have come. = E posibil ca el sa fi venit.

He must have been rich. = El trebuie sa fi fost bogat.

She can have gone on the trip. = Ea poate sa fi mers in excursie.

C. Conjugarea verbelor principale la prezent, aspectul comun, diateza activa

TO SEE = a vedea (dupa acest model se conjuga toate verbele principale)

A || I see = eu vad we see = noi vedem

you see = tu vezi you see = voi vedeti

he /she/it sees = el/ea vede they see = ei/ele vad

N || I do not see = I don't see = eu nu vad

you do not see = you don't see = tu nu vezi

he/she/it does not see = he/she/it doesn't see = el/ea nu vede

we do not see = we don't see = noi nu vedem

you do not see = you don't see = voi nu vedeti

they do not see = they don't see =ei/ele nu vad, dansii/dansele nu vad

I || do I see? = eu vad ? do we see? = noi vedem ?

do you see? = tu vezi ?     do you see? = voi vedeti ?

does he/she/it see? = el/ea vede ? do they see? = ei/ele vad ?

I - N || do I not see ? = don't I see ? = eu nu vad ? = nu vad eu ?

do you not see ? = don't you see ? = tu nu vezi ? = nu vezi tu ?

does he/she/it not see ? = doesn't he/she/it see ? = el/ea nu vede ? etc.

TO DARE = a indrazni, a provoca

A || I dare = eu indraznesc etc.

N || I do not (don't) dare = eu nu indraznesc etc.

I || Do I dare? = indraznesc eu? etc.

I - N || Do I not (don't I) dare ? = eu nu indraznesc ? = nu indraznesc eu ? etc.

He dares many perils. = El infrunta multe pericole.

They dare me to do it but I don't dare = Ei ma provoaca s-o fac, dar eu nu indraznesc.

I do not dare to break my promise = Eu nu indraznesc sa-mi calc promisiunea.

John does not dare to go there, does he ? = John nu indrazneste sa mearga/plece acolo, nu-i asa? = John nu are curaj sa mearga acolo, asa-i?

to need = a fi necesar/nevoie sa, a necesita/cere/presupune, a avea nevoie de etc.

This work needs much skill. = Aceasta treaba cere/presupune multa indemanare/ pricepere.

A || I need = eu am nevoie we need = noi avem nevoie

you need = tu ai nevoie you need = voi aveti nevoie

he/she/it needs = el/ea are nevoie they need = ei/ele au nevoie

N || I do not (I don't) need = eu nu am nevoie = mie nu imi trebuie etc.

I || Do I need ? = eu am nevoie ? = am eu nevoie ? = mie imi trebuie ? = imi trebuie mie ? etc.

I - N || Do I not need ? = don't I need ? = eu nu am nevoie ? = nu am eu nevoie ? = mie nu imi trebuie ? = nu imi trebuie mie ? etc.

They don't need our help, do they ? = Ei nu au nevoie de ajutorul nostru, nu-i asa?

Do they need any help ? = Au ei nevoie de vreun ajutor ?

Plants need rain. = Plantele au nevoie de ploaie.

I need much time. = Am nevoie de mult timp. = Imi trebuie multa vreme.

You needed such a book. = Tu ai avut nevoie de o astfel de carte.

I need to do something. = Trebuie sa fac ceva. = Simt nevoia sa fac ceva.

He does not need to work. = El nu este nevoit sa lucreze/munceasca.

Did they need anything ? = Le trebuia lor ceva ? = Aveau ei nevoie de ceva ?

D. Conjugarea verbelor la prezent - aspectul continuu - diateza activa

Aspectul continuu al verbului exprima actiuni de durata sau in desfasurare, deci actiuni neterminate. Se formeaza cu auxi-liarul to be plus participiul prezent al verbului de conjugat. Aspect continuu au numai verbele principale iar la prezent aceste acti-uni neterminate se efectueaza de regula in momentul vorbirii. Uneori momentul desfasurarii lor este imaginat coincizand cu prezentul

I am writing a letter. = Scriu o scrisoare (acum).

I am leaving tomorrow. = Plec maine.

TO SPEAK = a vorbi

A || I am speaking = eu vorbesc we are speaking = noi vorbim

you are speaking = tu vorbesti you are speaking = voi vorbiti

he/she is speaking = el/ea vorbeste they are speaking = ei/ele vorbesc

N || I am not speaking = I aren't speaking = eu nu vorbesc

you are not speaking = you aren't speaking = tu nu vorbesti

he /she is not speaking = he/she/it isn't speaking = el/ea nu vorbeste

we are not speaking = we aren't speaking = noi nu vorbim

you are not speaking = you aren't speaking = voi nu vorbiti

they are not speaking = they aren't speaking = ei/ele nu vorbesc

I || am I speaking ? = eu vorbesc ? are we speaking ? = noi vorbim ?

are you speaking ? = tu vorbesti? are you speaking ? = voi vorbiti ?

is he/she/it speaking ? = el/ea vorbeste? are they speaking? = ei/ele vorbesc?

I - N || am I not speaking ? = aren't I speaking ? = eu nu vorbesc ?

are you not speaking ? = aren't you speaking ? = tu nu vorbesti ?

is he/she not speaking ? = isn't he/she speaking ? = el/ea nu vorbeste ?

are we not speaking ? = aren't we speaking ? = noi nu vorbim ?

are you not speaking ? = aren't you speaking ? = voi nu vorbiti ?

are they not speaking ? = aren't they speaking ? = ei/ele nu vorbesc ?

to will

A || I am willing to (read) = eu vreau sa (citesc) etc.

N || I am not (I aren't) willing to (read) = eu nu vreau sa (citesc) etc.

I || Am I willing to (read)? = eu vreau sa (citesc)? = vreau eu sa (citesc) ? etc.

I - N || Am I not willing to (read)? = aren't I willing to (read)? = eu nu vreau sa (citesc)? = nu vreau eu sa (citesc) ? etc.

E. Conjugarea verbelor la prezent - diateza pasiva - aspectul comun

TO BE SEEN = a fi vazut

A ||

I am seen = eu sunt vazut(a)   

you are seen = tu esti vazut(a)    

he/she/it is seen = el/ea este vazut(a)    

we are seen = noi suntem vazuti/vazute

you are seen = voi sunteti vazuti/vazute

they are seen = ei/ele sunt vazuti/vazute

N || I am not seen = I aren't seen = eu nu sunt vazut(a)

You are not seen = you aren't seen = tu nu esti vazut(a)

He/she/it is not seen = he/she/it isn't seen = el/ea nu este vazut(a)

We are not seen = we aren't seen = noi nu suntem vazuti/vazute

You are not seen = you aren't seen = voi nu sunteti vazuti/vazute

They are not seen = they aren't seen = ei/ele nu sunt vazuti/vazute

I || Am I seen ? = eu sunt vazut(a) ? = sunt eu vazut(a) ?

Are you seen ? = tu esti vazut(a) ? = esti tu vazut(a) ?

Is he/she/it seen ? = el/ea este vazut(a) ? = este el/ea vazut(a) ?

Are we seen ? = noi suntem vazuti/vazute ? = suntem noi vazuti/vazute ?

Are you seen ? = voi sunteti vazuti/vazute ? = sunteti voi vazuti/vazute ?

Are they seen ? = ei/ele sunt vazuti/vazute ? = sunt ei/ele vazuti/vazute ?

I - N || Am I not seen ? = aren't I seen ? = eu nu sunt vazut/(a) ? = nu-s eu vazut/(a) ?

Are you not seen ? = aren't you seen ? = tu nu esti vazut/(a) ? = nu esti tu vazut/(a)?

Is he/she/it not seen ? = isn't he/she/it seen ? = el /ea nu este vazut(a) ? = nu-i el/ea vazut(a) ?

Are we not seen ? = aren't we seen ? = noi nu suntem vazuti/vazute ? = nu suntem noi vazuti/vazute?

Are you not seen ? = aren't you seen ? = voi nu sunteti vazuti/ ? = nu sunteti voi vazuti/vazute?

Are they not seen ? = aren't they seen ? = ei/ele nu sunt vazuti/vazute ? = nu-s ei/ele vazuti/vazute?

F. Conjugarea verbelor la prezent - diateza pasiva - aspectul continuu

TO BE BEING LOOKED AT = a fi privit(a)

A || I am being looked at = eu sunt privit(a)

You are being looked at = tu esti privit(a)

He/she/it is being looked at = el/ea este privit(a)

We are being looked at = noi suntem priviti/privite

You are being looked at = voi sunteti priviti/privite

They are being looked at = ei/ele sunt priviti/privite

N || I am not being looked at = I aren't being looked at = eu nu sunt privit(a)

You are not being looked at = you aren't being looked at = tu nu esti privit(a)

He/she/it is not being looked at = he/she/it isn't being looked at = el/ea nu este privit(a) etc.

I || Am I being looked at ? = sunt eu privit(a) ? etc

I-N || Am I not being looked at ?= aren't I being looked at ? = eu nu sunt privit(a) ? etc.

Today he is being a good boy. = Astazi/azi el este baiat cuminte.

G. Conjugarea verbelor reflexive la timpul prezent - aspectul comun

TO ENJOY ONESELF = a se distra/amuza

A || I enjoy myself = eu ma distrez we enjoy ourselves = noi ne distram

You enjoy yourself = tu te distrezi you enjoy yourselves = voi va distrati

He enjoys himself = el se distreaza     they enjoy themselves = ei/ele se distreaza

She enjoys herself = ea se distreaza

It enjoys itself = el/ea se distreaza

N || I do not enjoy myself = I don't enjoy myself = eu nu ma distrez etc.

I || Do I enjoy myself ? = eu ma distrez ? = ma distrez eu ? etc.

I - N || Do I not enjoy myself ? = don't I enjoy myself ? = eu nu ma distrez ? etc.

H. Conjugarea verbelor reflexive la timpul prezent - aspectul continuu

to BE enjoyING oneself = a se distra/amuza

A || I am enjoying myself = eu ma distrez/amuz (in acest moment, acum) etc.

N || I am not enjoying myself = eu nu ma distrez/amuz etc.

I || Am I enjoying myself ? = eu ma distrez/amuz ? = ma distrez/amuz eu ? etc.

I - N || Am I not enjoying myself ? = aren't I enjoying myself ? = eu nu ma distrez/amuz ? = nu ma distrez/amuz eu ? etc.

Recapitulare: Schema conjugarii verbelor la modul indicativ, timpul prezent, aspectul comun.

Afirmativ
(A)

Negativ
(N)

Interogativ

(I)

Interogativ-

Negativ (I-N)

Verbe auxiliare

I am = eu sunt etc.

I am not = eu nu sunt

Am I ? = eu sunt ?

Am I not ? = eu nu sunt ?

Verbe modale

I can (go) = eu pot sa (merg) etc.

I cannot (go) = I can't (go) = eu nu pot sa (merg) etc.

Can I (go) ? = pot eu sa (merg) ?etc.

Can I not (go)? = Can't I (go)? = eu nu pot sa (merg)? etc.

Verbe principale

I go = eu merg etc

I do not go = I don't go = eu nu merg etc.

Do I go ? = eu merg ? = etc.

Do I not go ? = Don't I go ? = eu nu merg ? etc.

Verbele principale/notionale se conjuga la negativ, interogativ, respectiv interogativ-negativ, cu ajutorul verbului to do.

The Present Perfect

Se traduce in limba romana prin prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus.

The Present Perfect se formeaza cu auxiliarul to have, care se conjuga la prezent plus participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat.

The Present Perfect exprima o actiune:

. trecuta terminata: I have seen them today. = I-am vazut astazi.

2. trecuta terminata in momentul vorbirii: Where have you been ? = Unde ai fost (pana acum) ?

3. trecuta neterminata: He has learned English for three years. = Invata englezeste de trei ani.

How long have you learned English? = De cat timp inveti tu englezeste?

Since when have you learned English ? = De cand inveti tu englezeste?

A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la timpul The Present Perfect

Verbele auxiliare nu se conjuga la Present Perfect . Verbele to be, to have si to do se pot conjuga la acest timp atunci cand ele sunt verbe principale, asa cum se vede mai jos:

TO BE = a fi

A || I have been = I've been = eu sunt = eu is

you have been = you've been = tu esti

he/she/it has been= he's/she's/it's been = el/ea este = el/ea ii/e

we have been = we've been = noi suntem

you have been = you've been = voi sunteti

they have been = they've been = ei/ele sunt

N || I have not been = I haven't been = eu nu sunt = eu nu-s

you have not been = you haven't been = tu nu esti

he /she/it has not been = he/she/it hasn't been = el/ea nu este = el/ea nu-i = el/ea nu e

we have not been = we haven't been = noi nu suntem

you have not been = you haven't been = voi nu sunteti

they have not been = they haven't been = ei/ele nu sunt = ei/ele nu-s

I ||

have I been? = eu sunt? = sunt eu?

have you been? = tu esti? = esti tu ?

has he/she/it been? = el/ea este/e/ii?

have we been?= noi suntem? = suntem noi?

have you been? = voi sunteti? = sunteti voi?

have they been? = ei/ele sunt? = sunt ei/ele?

I - N || have I not been? = haven't I been? = eu nu sunt? = nu sunt eu? = eu nu-s?

have you not been? = haven't you been? = tu nu esti? = nu esti tu?

has he/she/it not been? = hasn't he/she/it been? = el/ea nu este? = nu este el/ea?

have we not been ? = haven't we been? = noi nu suntem? = nu suntem noi?

have you not been ? = haven't you been? = voi nu sunteti? = nu sunteti voi?

have they not been? = haven't they been? = ei/ele nu sunt? = nu sunt ei/ele?

I have had = eu am ; eu am avut etc.

I have done = am facut etc.

B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la timpul The Present Perfect

Can - could - o - o = to be able to

A || I have been able to = pot sa = sunt in stare sa .etc.

N || I have not been able to . = nu pot sa . = nu sunt in stare sa .. etc.

I || Have I been able to .? = pot eu sa .? = sunt eu in stare sa ? etc.

I - N || Have I not been able to ? = nu pot eu sa ? = nu sunt eu in stare sa ? etc.

How long have you been able to speak English? = De cand stii/poti tu sa vorbesti englezeste ?

How long have you been allowed to drive a car? = De cat timp pot / ai voie tu sa conduci masina ?

C. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza activa, aspectul comun

TO COME = a veni

A || I have come = eu am venit

you have come = tu ai venit

he/she/it has come = el/ea a venit etc.

N || I have not come = I haven't come = eu nu am venit etc.

I || have I come ? = am venit eu ? = eu am venit ? etc.

I-N || have I not come ? = haven't I come ? = eu nu am venit ? etc.

I have come for two hours. = Am venit de doua ore.

How long have I come ? = De cat timp am venit eu ?

I have come since one o'clock. = Am venit de la ora unu.

Since when have I come ? = De cand am venit eu ?

He has known her since 1970. = El o cunoaste din 1970.

Since when has he known her ? = De cand o cunoaste el?

D. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza pasiva, aspectul comun

I have been seen. = Eu sunt vazut. etc.

E. Conjugarea verbelor reflexive - aspect continuu

I have been enjoying myself = eu ma distrez, etc.

Where have you been ? = Unde ai fost tu (pana acum) ?

I have just come. = Eu tocmai am venit.

I haven't had dinner yet. = Inca n-am servit cina.

I have seen them today. = Azi i-am vazut. = Eu i-am vazut azi.

He has been busy lately. = El a fost ocupat in ultimul timp.

We have learned English for one year. = Noi invatam englezeste de un an.

He has known her for a long time. = El o cunoaste de mult timp.

He has been avaricious all his life. = El a fost zgarcit toata viata lui.

We have been living in this city for twenty years. = Locuim/traim in acest oras de douazeci de ani.

We have been living here ever since then. =Locuim/traim aici chiar de atunci.

Have you bought a car yet ? = Ai cumparat deja o masina ?

How long have you been waiting for me ? = De cat timp ma astepti ?

I have been waiting for you for five minutes. = Te astept de cinci minute.

I have been waited for for five minutes. = Sunt asteptat de cinci minute.

Since when have you been waiting for me ?= De cand ma astepti ?

I have been waiting for you since ten o'clock. = Te astept de la ora zece.

I have never seen a live dinosaur, have you ? = N-am vazut niciodata un dinozaur viu, dar tu ?

Acest timp, The Present Perfect se foloseste mult in conversatii, scrisori, ziare si la radio deoarece faptele relatate au o legatura importanta cu prezentul. El apare in propozitiile in care se intalnesc adverbe de timp ca: just = tocmai/doar/ abia, yet = deja/inca, recently = de curand/recent, today = azi/astazi, lately = in ultimul timp, this week/month = saptamana/ luna aceasta, this year = anul acesta, since/from that hour = de la ora aceea, since /from that day = din ziua aceea, since/from that moment = din momentul acela, for a long time = de mult timp, de multa vreme, for long = de mult, for a few moments = de cateva clipe, for a few minutes = de cateva minute, since/from Sunday = de duminica, since/from 1989 = din 1989 etc.

They have been friends since recently. = Ei sunt prieteni de curand.

I have lived in this town till now/today. = Am locuit in acest oras pana acum/azi.

F. The Present Perfect - aspectul continuu

Exprima o actiune trecuta neterminata care se poate termina sau nu in prezent

We have been playing tennis for ten minutes. = Jucam tenis de zece minute.

How long have we been playing tennis ? = De cat timp jucam noi tenis ?

I have been living in Craiova since 1970. = Eu locuiesc/traiesc in Craiova din 1970.

We have been playing tennis since five o'clock. =Jucam tenis de la ora cinci.

Since when have we been playing tennis ? = De cand jucam noi tenis ?

The book has been being read for two hours. = Cartea este citita de doua ore.

The match has been being watched for thirty minutes. = Meciul este privit de treizeci de minute.

The matter has been being discussed for fifteen minutes. = Problema se discuta de cincisprezece minute.

TO PLAY = a se juca

A || I have been playing [pleiiN] = eu (ma) joc

You have been playing = tu (te) joci

He/she/it has been playing = el/ea (se) joaca etc.

N || I have not been playing = I haven't been playing = eu nu (ma) joc etc.

I || Have I been playing? = eu (ma) joc? etc.

I - N || Have I not been playing ? = haven't I been playing ? = eu nu (ma) joc ? etc.

How long have you been reading the letter ? = De cat timp citesti scrisoarea ?

I know what he has been doing today. = Eu stiu ce a facut el azi/astazi.

The Past Tense

Se traduce prin imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus si exprima o actiune trecuta terminata

I saw her yesterday. = Am vazut-o ieri.

Este a doua forma de baza a verbului (vezi lista de baza a verbelor!).

Verbele principale sunt 1) regulate si 2) neregulate.

1. regulate la forma a II-a si a III-a de baza primesc terminatia -ed.

Terminatia -ed se citeste:

- [ t ] cand este precedata de o consoana nesonora/surda; asked [`Askt], looked [lukt]

- [ d ] cand este precedata de o consoana sonora; received [ri`sIvd] , proved [`prUvd]

- [ id ] cand este precedata de literele t sau d ; added [`Edid],    wanted [`wontid

2. neregulate (vezi lista la sfarsitul cartii)

A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la Past Tense

TO BE - was/were - been

A || I was = eu am fost, eu eram we were = noi am fost, noi eram

you were = tu ai fost, tu erai you were = voi/dv. ati fost, voi/dv. erati

he/she/it was = el/ea era/a fost they were = ei/ele au fost, ei/ele erau

N || I was not = I wasn't = eu nu am fost = eu nu eram

you were not = you weren't = tu nu ai fost = tu nu erai

he/she/it was not = he/she/it wasn't = el/ea nu a fost = el/ea nu era etc.

I || was I ? = eu am fost? = eu eram ?

were you ? = tu ai fost? = tu erai ?

was he/she/it ? = el/ea a fost ? = el/ea era ? etc.

I - N || was I not ? = wasn't I ? = eu nu am fost ? = eu nu eram ?

were you not ? = weren't you ? = tu nu ai fost ? = tu nu erai ?

was he/she/it not ? = wasn't he/she/it ? = el/ea nu a fost ? = el/ea nu era? etc.

TO HAVE - had - had

A || I had = eu am avut, eu aveam

you had = tu ai avut, tu aveai

he /she/it had = el/ea a avut, el/ea avea

we had = noi am avut, noi aveam

you had = voi/dv. ati avut, voi/dv. aveati

they had = ei/ele au avut, ei/ele aveau

N || I had not = I hadn't = eu nu am avut = eu n-am avut = eu nu aveam etc

I || had I? = eu am avut?, eu aveam? etc.

I - N || had I not ? = hadn't I ? = eu nu am avut ? = eu nu aveam ? etc.

TO DO - did - done

A || I did = eu am facut, eu faceam     we did = noi am facut, noi faceam

you did = tu ai facut, tu faceai     you did = voi/dv. ati facut, voi / dv. faceati

he/she/it did = el / ea a facut, el/ea facea     they did = ei/ele au facut, ei / ele faceau

N || I did not do = I didn't do = eu nu am facut, eu nu faceam etc.

I || Did I do? = eu am facut ?, eu faceam ? etc.

I - N || Did I not do? = didn't I do? = eu nu am facut ?, eu nu faceam ? etc.

should este auxiliar pentru The Future in the Past, persoana I singular si plural, precum si pentru formarea modului conditional (prezent si perfect)

would este auxiliar pentru The Future in the Past pers. II - III si conditional. El il poate inlocui pe should la pers. I sg. si pl. atat la timpul The Future in the Past cat si la modul conditional.

B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la Past Tense

could

A || I could (go) = I was able to (go) = eu puteam/eram in stare sa (merg)

You could (go) = you were able to (go) = tu puteai/erai in stare sa (mergi)

He/she/it could (go) = he/she/it was able to (go) = el/ea putea/era in stare sa (mearga) etc.

N || I could not (go) = I couldn't (go) = I was not able to (go) = I wasn't able to (go) = eu nu puteam (merge) = eu nu eram in stare sa (merg) etc.

I || could I (go) ? = was I able to (go) ? = eu puteam sa (merg)? = puteam eu sa (merg)? = eu eram in stare sa (merg)? = eram eu in stare sa (merg)? etc.

I - N || could I not (go)? = couldn't I (go)? = was I not able to (go)? = wasn't I able to (go)? = eu nu puteam (merge)? = eu nu eram in stare sa (merg)? etc.

Verbul could exprima:

abilitatea in trecut;

I could speak German last year = I was able to speak German last year = Stiam sa vorbesc germana anul trecut.

b) o invitatie sau o rugaminte (conditional prezent)

Could you (possibly) come to my birthday party? = Ai putea ( puteai ) veni la petrecerea de ziua mea de nastere?

Could you lend me your umbrella? = Ai putea sa-mi imprumuti umbrela ta ?

c) permisiunea / posibilitatea in trecut

They could go on a trip. = Ei puteau merge in excursie.

might

Verbul might, adica a II a forma de baza a verbului may care la timpul prezent printre altele exprima si permisiunea, poate exprima permisiunea la trecut atunci cand may devine might transformat din vorbire directa in vorbire indirecta.

'May I go on the trip', asked Mary. = - Pot merge in excursie, intreba Mary.

devine in vorbirea indirecta:

Mary asked if she might go on the trip. = Mary asked if she was allowed to go on the trip. = Mary a intrebat daca poate sa mearga in excursie. = Mary a intrebat daca ii este ingaduit sa mearga in excursie.

Verbul might exprima:

a) posibilitatea in prezent might fiind auxiliar modal la conditional prezent He might be there. = Ar putea fi acolo.

Might he still be there ? = Ar putea fi acolo inca ? = Ar putea fi tot acolo ?

b) posibilitatea in trecut : You might have succeeded if you had tried. = Tu ai fi putut reusi daca ai fi incercat. = S-ar fi putut sa reusesti daca ai fi incercat. I knew he might be late. = Stiam ca este posibil sa intarzie.

c) interdictia in trecut: She said that we might not go on that trip. = She said that we were not allowed to go on that trip. = Ea a zis ca noi nu putem merge in excursia aceea. = Ea a zis ca noua nu ne este ingaduit / permis sa mergem in excursia aceea.

d) o maniera politicoasa de a cere permisiunea : (folosit la conditional prezent)

Might I ask you something ? = As putea sa te/va intreb ceva ? Might I use your phone ? = As putea folosi telefonul tau ?

had to = A TREBUI SA

A || I had to (go) = eu trebuia sa (merg)

you had to (go) = tu trebuia sa (mergi)

he/she/it had to (go) = el/ea trebuia sa (mearga) etc

N || I had not to (go) = I hadn't to (go) = I did not (didn't) have to (go) = eu nu trebuia sa (merg) = eu nu a (n-a) trebuit sa (merg) etc.

I || had I to (go) ? = did I have to (go) ? = eu trebuia sa (merg) ? etc

I-N || had I not to (go) ? = did I not have to (go) ? = eu nu trebuia sa (merg) ? etc.

SHOULD = trebuia, se cuvenea sa

Should este a doua forma de baza (adica Past Tense) a verbului shall si exprima o obligatie, sau o recomandare in trecut.

We should learn. = Trebuia sa invatam. = Se cuvenea sa invatam.

In aceasta situatie should este sinonim cu ought to.

A || I should (go) = eu trebuia sa (merg) (se cuvenea sa merg)

you should (go) = tu trebuia sa (mergi)

he /she/it should (go) = el/ea trebuia sa (mearga) etc

N || I should not (go) = I shouldn't (go) = eu nu trebuia sa (merg) etc.

I || should I (go) ? = trebuia eu sa (merg) ? etc.

I-N || should I not (go) ? = shouldn't I (go) ? = nu trebuia eu sa (merg) ? etc.

Should + infinitiv perfect = obligatie in trecut

You should have told us the truth. = You ought to have told us the truth. = Ar fi trebuit sa ne spui adevarul.

You shouldn't have refused their help. = N-ar fi trebuit sa le fi refuzat ajutorul.

would a voi

A || I would (see) = eu voiam sa (vad) ; eu vedeam, obisnuiam sa (vad)

you would (see) = tu voiai sa (vezi) ; tu vedeai, obisnuiai sa (vezi)

he/she/it would (see) = el/ea voia sa (vada) ; el/ea vedea, obisnuia sa (vada) etc

N || I would not (see) = I wouldn't (see) = eu nu voiam sa (vad); eu nu vedeam etc.

I || would I (see) ? = voiam eu sa (vad) ? ; obisnuiam eu sa (vad) ?, vedeam eu ? eu vedeam? etc.

I - N || would I not (see) ? = wouldn't I (see) ? = eu nu voiam sa (vad) ? = nu voiam eu sa (vad)?; eu nu obisnuiam     sa (vad)? etc.

Would este a II-a forma de baza a verbului will.

I understood he would not see them. = Am inteles ca nu voia sa-i vada .

Verbul would exprima:

a) - actiune repetata in trecut (would = used to)

He would go swimming with other boys. = He used to go swimming with other boys . = El obisnuia sa inoate cu alti baieti.

b) - dorinta in trecut He would go on the trip. = El dorea sa mearga in excursie.

need

Se foloseste la negativ si interogativ urmat de infinitiv fara particula to. Needn't urmat de infinitiv perfect exprima ca s-a petrecut ceva nenecesar.

You needn't have gone there. = Nu era necesar/nevoie sa fi mers acolo.

I knew I need not repeat the question. = Stiam ca nu e nevoie sa repet intrebarea.

You needn't have cooked our dinner because we are going to dine out with friends tonight. = Nu era necesar sa fi pregatit cina pentru ca vom cina cu prietenii in oras diseara.

He didn't need to get up so early. = It was not necessary for him to get up so early. = Nu era necesar/nevoie ca el sa se scoale asa devreme.

N || I need not (go) = I needn't (go) = eu nu era nevoie sa (merg) etc.

I || Need I (go) ? = eu era nevoie/necesar sa merg ? = era necesar sa (merg)? etc.

I - N || Need I not (go)? =needn't I (go)? = eu nu era necesar/nevoie sa (merg)? = n-aveam eu nevoie sa (merg) ?

used to = would

A nu se confunda acest verb cu verbul principal regulat to use - used - used = a intrebuinta, a folosi. Se traduce in limba romana prin timpul imperfect, iar sensul ii este dat de verbul principal pe langa care functioneaza in propozitie.

A || I used to (play) = I would (play) = eu jucam = eu obisnuiam sa (joc)

You used to (play) = you would (play) = tu jucai = tu obisnuiai sa (joci)

He/she used to (play) = he/she would (play) = el/ea juca = el/ea obisnuia sa (joace) etc

N || I use(d)n't to (play) = I wouldn't (play) = eu nu obisnuiam sa (joc) etc

I || Use(d) I to (play) ? = would I (play) ? = obisnuiam eu sa (joc) ? etc

I-N || Use(d)n't I to (play) ? = wouldn't I (play) ? = eu nu obisnuiam sa (joc) ? etc

- to be used to = a fi obisnuit/invatat cu/sa

He was used to their dogs. = El era obisnuit/invatat cu cainii lor.

He was used to catch fish. = El era invatat/obisnuit sa prinda peste.

to get used to = a se invata/obisnui cu

We got used to these working conditions. = Trebuia sa ne obisnuim cu aceste conditii de munca.

There used to be some tents on this ground last summer, use(d)n't there ? = Erau niste corturi pe terenul acesta vara trecuta, nu-i asa ?

- didn't use to - este forma colocviala; use(d)n't to este forma literara

Alte structuri modale:

had better = mai bine sa

We had better arrived there earlier than later. = Mai bine sa ajungem acolo mai devreme decat mai tarziu.

would rather than= as prefera sa decat sa

I would rather walk than take a taxi. = As prefera sa merg pe jos decat sa iau un taxi.

C. Conjugarea verbelor principale - aspectul comun, diateza activa

TO SEE - SAW - SEEN (verb principal neregulat)

A ||

I saw= eu am vazut, eu vedeam

you saw = tu ai vazut, tu vedeai

he/she/it saw = el/ea a vazut, el/ea vedea

we saw = noi am vazut, noi vedeam

you saw = voi ati vazut, voi vedeati

they saw = ei/ele au vazut, ei/ele vedeau

N || I did not see = I didn't see = eu nu am vazut

you did not see = you didn't see = tu nu ai vazut

he/she/it did not see = he/she/it didn't see = el/ea nu a vazut etc.

I || did I see ? = eu am vazut ? = am vazut eu ? etc.

I - N || did I not see ? = didn't I see ? = eu nu am (n-am) vazut ? etc.

TO ANSWER - ANSWERED - ANSWERED = a raspunde (verb regulat)

A || I answered = eu am raspuns we answered = noi am raspuns

you answered = tu ai raspuns you answered = voi ati raspuns

he/she/it answered = el/ea a raspuns they answered = ei/ele au raspuns

N || I did not answer = I didn't answer = eu nu am raspuns

you did not answer = you didn't answer = tu nu ai raspuns

he/she/it did not answer = he/she/it didn't answer = el/ea nu a raspuns etc.

I || did I answer ? = eu am raspuns ? = am raspuns eu ? etc.

I - N || did I not answer ? = didn't I answer ? = eu nu am raspuns ? etc.

to dare - dared - dared = a indrazni,a provoca

A || I dared = eu am indraznit we dared = noi am indraznit

you dared = tu ai indraznit you dared = voi ati indraznit

he/she/it dared = el/ea a indraznit they dared = ei/ele au indraznit

N || I did not dare = I didn't dare = eu nu am (n-am) indraznit etc.

I || did I dare ? = eu am indraznit ? = am indraznit eu ? etc.

I - N || did I not dare ? = didn't I dare ? = eu nu am indraznit ? = n-am indraznit eu ? etc.

They dared me to do it but I didn't dare. = Ei m-au provocat s-o fac, dar eu n-am avut curajul.

I did not dare to break my promise/word. = Nu am indraznit sa-mi calc promisiunea/cuvantul.

John did not dare to go there, did he ? = John n-a indraznit sa mearga/plece acolo, nu-i asa ? = John nu a avut curaj sa plece acolo, asa-i ?

to need - needed - needed= a necesita, a solicita

This work needed much skill. = Treaba aceasta a necesitat/ solicitat/ presupus multa indemanare/ pricepere.

A || I needed = eu am avut nevoie = mie mi-a trebuit

you needed = tu ai avut nevoie = tie ti-a trebuit

he/she/it needed = el/ea a avut nevoie = lui/ei i-a trebuit

we needed = noi am avut nevoie = noua ne-a trebuit

you needed = voi ati avut nevoie = voua v-a trebuit

they needed = ei/ele au avut nevoie = lor le-a trebuit

N || I did not need = I didn't need = eu nu am avut nevoie = mie nu mi-a trebuit etc.

I || did I need ? = eu am avut nevoie ? = am avut eu nevoie ? = mi-a trebuit mie ? = mie mi-a trebuit? etc.

I - N || did I not need ? = didn't I need ? = eu nu am avut nevoie ? = n-am avut eu nevoie? = mie nu mi-a trebuit ? =     nu mi-a trebuit mie ? etc.

They didn't need our help, did they?=Ei nu au avut nevoie de ajutorul nostru, nu-i asa?=Lor nu le-a trebuit ajutorul nostru, asa-i ?

Did they need any help ? = Au avut ei nevoie de vreun ajutor ? = Le-a trebuit lor vreun ajutor ?

Plants and animals needed rain. = Plantele si animalele aveau nevoie de ploaie.

We neded a lot of time = Am avut nevoie de mult timp. = Ne-a trebuit multa vreme.

D. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza activa, aspectul continuu

TO SPEAK - SPOKE - SPOKEN = a vorbi

A ||

I was speaking = eu vorbeam

you were speaking = tu vorbeai

he/she was speaking = el/ea vorbea

we were speaking = noi vorbeam

you were speaking = voi vorbeati

they were speaking = ei/ele vorbeau

N || I was not (wasn't) speaking = eu nu vorbeam etc.

I || was I speaking ? = vorbeam/am vorbit eu ? etc.

I-N || was I not (wasn't I ) speaking ? = nu vorbeam eu ? etc.

E. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza pasiva, aspectul comun

TO SEE - SAW- SEEN

A ||

I was seen = eu am fost vazut(a)    

you were seen = tu ai fost vazut(a)

he/she/it was seen = el/ea a fost vazut(a)

we were seen = noi am fost vazuti/vazute

you were seen = voi ati fost vazuti/vazute

they were seen = ei/ele au fost vazuti/vazute

N || I was not seen = I wasn't seen = eu nu am fost vazut(a) etc.

I || was I seen? = eu am fost vazut? = am fost eu vazut(a)? etc.

I - N || was I not seen? = wasn't I seen? = eu nu am fost vazut(a)? etc.

F. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza pasiva, aspectul continuu

TO BE BEING LOOKED AT (by smb.) = a fi privit (de cineva)

A ||

I was being looked at = eu eram privit(a)

you were being looked at = tu erai rivit(a)

he/she/it was being looked at = el/ea era privit(a)

we were being looked at = noi eram priviti/privite

you were being looked at = voi erati priviti/privite

they were being looked at = ei erau priviti/privite

N || I was not being looked at = I wasn't being looked at = eu nu eram privit(a) etc.

I || was I being looked at ? = eram eu privit(a)? etc.

I-N || was I not being looked at ? = wasn't I being looked at ? = eu nu eram privit(a)? etc.

G. Conjugarea verbelor reflexive - aspectul comun

to enjoy - enjoyed - enjoyed ONESELF = a se distra

A || I enjoyed myself = eu m-am distrat/amuzat

you enjoyed yourself = tu te-ai distrat/amuzat

he/she/it enjoyed himself/herself/itself = el/ea s-a distrat/amuzat

we enjoyed ourselves = noi ne-am distrat/amuzat

you enjoyed yourselves = voi v-ati distrat/amuzat

they enjoyed themselves = ei/ele s-au distrat/amuzat

N || I did not enjoy myself = I didn't enjoy myself = eu nu m-am distrat etc.

I || did I enjoy myself ? = eu m-am distrat ? = m-am distrat eu ? etc.

I - N || did I not enjoy myself ? = didn't I enjoy myself ? = eu nu m-am distrat ? etc.

H. Conjugarea verbelor reflexive - aspectul continuu

TO ENJOY ONESELF = a se distra

A || I was enjoying myself = eu ma distram/amuzam

you were enjoying yourself = tu te distrai/amuzai

he was enjoying himself = el se distra/amuza

she was enjoying herself = ea se distra/amuza

it was enjoying itself = el/ea se distra/amuza

we were enjoying ourselves = noi ne distram/amuzam

you were enjoying yourselves = voi va distrati/amuzati

they were enjoying themselves = ei/ele se distrau/amuzau

N || I was not (wasn't) enjoying myself = eu nu ma distram etc.

I || was I enjoying myself ? = eu ma distram? = ma distram eu ? etc.

I - N || was I not (wasn't I) enjoying myself ? = eu nu ma distram ? etc.

I saw him a moment ago. = L-am vazut acum o clipa. = L-am vazut mai inainte.

The boys always played tennis in the afternoon. = Baietii jucau totdeauna tenis dupa amiaza/masa.

I met them on Sunday afternoon. = I-am intalnit duminica dupa amiaza/masa.

I entered the house as soon as it began to rain. = Am intrat in casa de indata ce a inceput sa ploua.

They ate lunch together every day. = Ei au servit pranzul impreuna in fiecare zi.

The Past Tense apare in propozitiile in care se intalnesc adverbe de timp ca: yesterday = ieri, the day before yesterday = alaltaieri, two days/weeks/months/ ago = acum doua zile/ saptamani/ luni, last time = ultima data/oara, last week/ month = saptamana/luna trecuta, last year = anul trecut etc.

Did you see John earlier this week? = L-ai vazut pe John mai pe la inceputul saptamanii acesteia?

De retinut urmatoarele perechi de exemple corecte :

I saw John today. = I have seen John today. = L-am vazut pe John azi.

I saw John this week/month. = I have seen John this week/month. = L-am vazut pe John saptamana/luna aceasta.

I saw John recently. = I have seen John recently. = L-am vazut pe John recent.

Mai mult ca perfect (The Past Perfect)

Exprima o actiune trecuta terminata anterioara altei actiuni trecute terminate. Se formeaza cu had plus participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat

It had begun to rain (1)/when I entered the house (2). = Incepuse sa ploua cand am intrat in casa.

A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la The Past Perfect

to be - was/were - been

A || I had been = eu fusesem     we had been = noi fusesem

you had been = tu fusesei you had been = voi fuseseti

he/she/it had been = el/ea fusese they had been = ei/ele fusesera

N || I had not been = I hadn't been = eu nu fusesem etc.

I || had I been? = eu fusesem? = fusesem eu? etc.

I - N || had I not been? = hadn't I been? = eu nu fusesem? = nu fusesem eu? etc.

to have - had - had

A || I had had = eu avusesem we had had = noi avusesem

you had had = tu avusesei you had had = voi avuseseti

he/she/it had had = el/ea avusese they had had = ei/ele avusesera

N || I had not had = I hadn't had = eu nu avusesem etc.

I || had I had ? = eu avusesem ? = avusesem eu ? etc.

I - N || had I not had ? = hadn't I had ? = eu nu avusesem ? = nu avusesem eu ? etc.

to do - did - done

A || I had done = eu facusem we had done = noi facusem

you had done = tu facusei you had done = voi facuseti

he/she/it had done = el/ea facuse they had done = ei/ele facusera

N || I had not done = I hadn't done = eu nu facusem etc.

I || had I done ? = eu facusem ? = facusem eu ? etc.

I - N || had I not done ? = hadn't I done ? = eu nu facusem ? = nu facusem eu ? etc.

B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la timpul The Past Perfect

can - could - 0 = to be able to

A || I had been able to (play) = eu putusem/stiusem/fusesem in stare sa (joc)

you had been able to (play) = tu putusei/stiusei/fusesei in stare sa (joci)

he/she/it had been able to (play) = el/ea putuse/stiuse/fusese in stare sa (joace)

we had been able to (play) = noi putusem/stiusem/fusesem in stare sa (jucam)

you had been able to (play) = voi putuseti/stiuseti/fuseseti in stare sa (jucati)

they had been able to (play) = ei/ele putusera/stiusera/fusesera in stare sa (joace)

N || I hadn't been able to (play) = eu nu putusem/stiusem/fusesem in stare sa (joc) etc.

I || had I been able to (play) ? = eu putusem/stiusem/fusesem in stare sa (joc) ? etc.

I - N || had I not been able to (play) ? = hadn't I been able to (play) ? = eu nu putusem/ stiusem sa (joc) ? = eu nu fusesem in stare s a (joc) ? etc.

may - might - 0 = to be permited/allowed to

A || I had been permitted/allowed to (play) = eu avusesem voie/ putusem sa (joc) = mie imi fusese permis     ingaduit sa (joc)

you had been permitted/allowed to (play) = tu avusesei voie/ putusei sa (joci) = tie iti fusese permis/ingaduit     sa (joci)

he/she/it had been permitted/allowed to (play) = el/ea avusese voie sa (joace) = el/ea putuse sa (joace) = lui/ei ii fusese permis/ingaduit sa (joace)

we had been permitted/allowed to (play) = noi avusesem voie sa (jucam) = noi putusem sa (jucam) = noua     ne fusese permis/ingaduit sa (jucam)

you had been permitted/allowed to (play) = voi avuseseti voie sa (jucati) = voi putuseti sa (jucati) = voua va fusese permis/ingaduit sa (jucati)

they had been permitted/allowed to (play) = ei/ele avusesera voie sa (joace) = ei/ele putusera sa (joace) = lor le fusese permis/ingaduit sa (joace)

N || I had not been permitted/allowed to (play) = I hadn't been permitted/allowed to (play) = eu nu avusesem voie sa (joc) = nu putusem sa (joc) = mie nu-mi fusese permis/ingaduit sa (joc) etc.

I || Had I been permitted/allowed to (play) ? = avusesem eu voie sa (joc) ? = putusem eu sa (joc)? = imi fusese     mie permis/ingaduit sa (joc) ? etc.

I - N || had I not been permitted/allowed to (play) ? = hadn't I been permitted/ allowed to (play) ? = eu nu     avusesem voie sa (joc) ? = eu nu putusem sa (joc) ? = nu-mi fusese mie permis/ingaduit sa (joc) ? etc.

must - 0 - 0 = to have to

A || I had had to (play) = eu trebuise sa (joc)

you had had to (play) = tu trebuise sa (joci)

he/she/it had had to (play) = el/ea trebuise sa (joace)

we had had to (play) = noi trebuise sa (jucam)

you had had to (play) = voi trebuise sa (jucati)

they had had to (play) = ei/ele trebuise sa (joace)

N || I had not had to (play) = I hadn't had to (play) = eu nu trebuise sa (joc) etc.

I || had I had to (play) ? = trebuise eu sa (joc) ? etc.

I - N || had I not had to (play) ? = hadn't I had to (play) ? = eu nu trebuise sa (joc) ? = nu trebuise eu sa (joc) ? etc.

C. Conjugarea verbelor principale - aspectul comun, diateza activa

to speak - spoke - spoken

A || I had spoken = eu vorbisem we had spoken = noi vorbisem

you had spoken = tu vorbisei you had spoken = voi vorbiseti

he/she had spoken = el/ea vorbise they had spoken = ei/ele vorbisera

N || I had not spoken = I hadn't spoken = eu nu vorbisem etc.

I || had I spoken ? = eu vorbisem ? = vorbisem eu ? etc.

I - N || had I not spoken? = hadn't I spoken? = eu nu vorbisem? = nu vorbisem eu? etc.

D. Conjugarea verbelor principale - aspectul continuu, diateza activa

TO SPEAK - SPOKE-SPOKEN

A ||

I had been speaking = eu vorbisem

you had been speaking = tu vorbisei

he/she had been speaking = el/ea vorbise

we had been speaking = noi vorbisem

you had been speaking = voi vorbiseti

they had been speaking = ei/ele vorbisera

N || I had not been speaking = I hadn't been speaking = eu nu vorbisem etc.

I || had I been speaking ? = eu vorbisem ? = vorbisem eu ? etc.

I - N || had I not been speaking ? = hadn't I been speaking ? = eu nu vorbisem ? = nu vorbisem eu ? etc.

E. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza pasiva, aspectul comun

TO BE ASKED = a fi intrebat

A || I had been asked = eu fusesem intrebat

you had been asked = tu fusesei intrebat

he/she had been asked = el/ea fusese intrebat(a)

we had been asked = noi fusesem intrebati

you had been asked = voi fuseseti intrebati

they had been asked = ei/ele fusesera intrebati/intrebate

N || I had not been asked = I hadn't been asked = eu nu fusesem intrebat etc.

I || had I been asked ? = eu fusesem intrebat ? = fusesem eu intrebat ? etc.

I - N || had I not been asked ? = hadn't I been asked ? = eu nu fusesem intrebat ? = nu fusesem eu intrebat ? etc.

Exista cazuri cand The Past Perfect se traduce prin The Past Tense.

I was at home when he had come to see me. = Eram acasa cand a venit el pe la mine.

In exemplul : El a zis ca ne asteapta de cinci minute. - verbul asteapta din limba romana, care este la prezent se traduce in limba engleza prin Past Perfect: He said that he had been waiting for us for five minutes.

Viitorul simplu (The Simple Future)

Exprima o actiune posterioara timpului prezent (adica momentului vorbirii).

Se formeaza cu auxiliarele shall /will la persoana I singular si plural, si will la celelalte persoane, plus infinitivul scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat.

A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la viitor simplu

to be = a fi

A || I shall/will be = I'll be = eu voi fi = eu o sa fiu

you will be = you'll be = tu vei fi = tu o sa fii

he/she/it will be = he'll/she'll/it'll be = el/ea o sa fie

we shall/will be = we'll be = noi vom fi = o sa fim

you will be = you'll be = voi veti fi = voi o sa fiti

they will be = they'll be = ei/ele vor fi = ei/ele o sa fie

N || I shall/will not be = I shan't be = eu nu voi fi = eu n-o sa fiu

you will not be = you won't be = tu nu vei fi = tu n-o sa fii

he/she/it will not be = he/she/it won't be = el/ea nu va fi = el/ea n-o sa fie etc.

I || shall/will I be ? = eu voi fi ? = eu o sa fiu ? = voi fi eu ? = o sa fiu eu ? etc.

I - N || shall/will I not be ? = shan't/won't I be ? = eu nu voi fi ? = nu voi fi eu ? = eu n-o sa fiu ? etc.

to have

A || I shall/will have = I'll have = eu voi avea = eu o sa am

you will have = you'll have = tu vei avea = tu o sa ai

he/she/it will have = he'll/she'll/it'll have = el/ea va avea = el/ea o sa aiba

we shall/will have = we'll have = noi vom avea = noi o sa avem

you will have = you'll have = voi veti avea = voi o sa aveti

they will have = they'll have = ei/ele vor avea = ei/ele o sa aiba

N || I shall/will not have = I shan't/won't have = eu nu voi avea = n-o sa am

you will not have = you won't have = tu nu vei avea = tu n-o sa ai

he/she/it will not have = he/she/it won't have = el/ea nu va avea = n-o sa aiba etc.

I || shall/will I have ? = eu voi avea ? = voi avea eu ? = eu o sa am ? etc.

I - N || shall/will I not have ? = shan't/won't I have ? = eu nu voi avea ? = nu voi avea eu ? = eu n-o sa am ? = n-o sa am eu ? etc.

to do

A || I shall/will do = I'll do = eu voi face = eu o sa fac

you will do= you'll do = tu vei face = tu o sa faci

he/she/it will do = he'll/she'll/it'll do = el/ea o sa faca

we shall/will do= we'll do]=noi vom face=o sa facem

they will do = they'll do = ei/ele vor face=ei/ele o sa faca

N || I shall/will not do = I shan't/won't do = eu nu voi face = eu n-o sa fac

you will not do = you won't do = tu nu vei face = tu n-o sa faci

he/she/it will not do = he/she/it won't do = el/ea nu va face = el/ea n-o sa faca etc.

I || shall/will I do ? = eu voi face ? = voi face eu ? = eu o sa fac ? = o sa fac eu ? etc.

I - N || shall/will I not do ? = shan't/ won't I do ? = eu nu voi face ? = nu voi face eu ? = eu n-o sa fac ? = n-o sa fac     eu ? etc.

B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la timpul viitor simplu

can - could - 0 = to be able to

A ||

I shall/will be able to (swim) = I'll be able to (swim) = eu voi putea/sti sa (inot) = eu fi voi in stare sa (inot)

you will be able to (swim) = you'll be able to (swim) = tu vei putea/sti sa (inoti) = tu vei fi in stare sa (inoti)

he/she/it will be able to (swim) = he'll/she'll/it'll be able to (swim) = el/ea va putea/sti sa (inoate) = el/ea va fi in stare sa (inoate)

we shall/will be able to (swim) = we'll be able to (swim) = noi vom putea/sti sa (inotam) = noi vom fi in stare sa (inotam)

you will be able to (swim) = you'll be able to (swim) = voi veti putea/sti sa (inotati) = voi veti fi in stare sa (inotati)

they will be able to (swim) = they'll be able to (swim) = ei/ele vor putea/sti sa (inoate) = ei/ele vor fi in stare sa (inoate)

N ||

I shall/will not be able to (swim) = I shan't/won't be able to (swim) = eu nu voi putea/sti sa (inot) = eu nu voi fi in stare sa (inot)

you will not be able to (swim) = you won't be able to (swim) = tu nu vei putea/sti sa (inoti) = tu nu vei fi in stare sa (inoti)

he/she/it will not be able to (swim) = he/she/it won't be able to (swim) = el/ea nu va putea/sti sa (inoate) = el/ea nu va fi in stare sa (inoate) etc.

I ||

shall/will I be able to (swim) ? = eu voi putea/sti sa (inot) ? = eu voi fi in stare sa (inot) ? etc.

I-N ||

shall/will I not be able to (swim) ? = shan't/won't I be able to (swim) ? = eu nu voi putea/sti sa (inot) ? = eu nu voi fi in stare sa (inot) ? = eu n-o sa fiu in stare sa (inot) ? etc.

may-might - 0 = to be permitted/allowed to

A ||

I shall/will be permitted/allowed to (go) = eu voi avea voie sa (merg) = eu voi putea sa (merg) = mie imi va fi permis/ingaduit sa (merg) = eu o sa pot sa (merg)

you will be permitted/allowed to (go) = tu vei avea voie sa (mergi) = tu vei putea sa (mergi) = tie iti va fi permis/ingaduit sa (mergi) = tu o sa poti sa (mergi)

he/she/it will be permitted/allowed to (go) = el/ea va avea voie sa (mearga) = el/ea va putea sa (mearga) = lui/ei ii va fi permis/ingaduit sa (mearga) = el/ea o sa poata sa (mearga)

we shall/will be permitted/allowed to (go) = noi vom avea voie sa (mergem) = noi vom putea sa (mergem) = noua ne va fi permis/ingadui sa (mergem) = noi o sa putem sa (mergem)

you will be permitted/allowed to (go) = voi veti avea voie sa (mergeti) = voi veti putea sa (mergeti) = voua va va fi permis/ingaduit sa (mergeti) = voi o sa puteti sa (mergeti)

they will be permitted/allowed to (go) = ei/ele vor avea voie sa (mearga) = ei/ele vor putea sa (mearga) = lor le va fi permis/ingaduit sa (mearga) = ei/ele o sa poata sa (mearga)

N ||

I shall/will not be permitted/allowed to (go) = I shan't/won't be permitted/ allowed to (go) = eu nu voi avea voie sa (merg) = eu nu voi putea sa (merg) = mie nu-mi va fi permis/ingaduit sa (merg) = eu n-o sa am voie sa (merg)

you will not be permitted/allowed to (go) = you won't be permitted/allowed to (go) = tu nu vei avea voie sa (mergi) = tu nu vei putea sa (mergi) = tie nu-ti va fi permis/ingaduit sa (mergi) = tu n-o sa ai voie sa (mergi)

he/she/it will not be permitted/allowed to (go) = he/she/it won't be permitted/ allowed to (go) = el/ea nu va avea voie sa (mearga) = el/ea nu va putea sa (mearga) = lui/ei nu-i va fi permis/ingaduit sa (mearga) = el/ea n-o sa aiba voie sa (mearga) etc.

I ||

shall/will I be permitted/allowed to (go) ? = eu voi avea voie sa (merg) ? = voi avea eu voie sa (merg) ? = imi va fi mie permis/ingaduit sa (merg) ? =eu o sa pot (merge) ? etc.

I-N ||

shall/will I not be permitted/allowed to (go) ? = shan't/won't I be permitted/ allowed to (go) ? = eu nu voi avea voie sa (merg) ? = eu nu voi putea sa (merg) ? = eu nu voi putea (merge) ? = mie nu-mi va fi permis/ingaduit sa (merg) ? etc.

must - MUST - 0 = to have to

A ||

I shall/will have to (go) = I'll have to (go) = eu va trebui sa (merg) = eu o sa trebuiasca sa (merg)

you will have to (go) = you'll have to (go) = tu va trebui sa (mergi) = tu o sa trebuiasca sa (mergi)

he/she/it will have to (go) = he'll/she'll/it'll have to (go) = el/ea va trebui sa (mearga) = el/ea o sa trebuiasca sa (mearga)

we shall/will have to (go) = we'll have to (go) = noi va trebui sa (mergem) = noi o sa trebuiasca sa (mergem)

you will have to (go) = you'll have to (go) = voi va trebui sa (mergeti) = voi o sa trebuiasca sa (mergeti)

they will have to (go) = they'll have to (go) = ei/ele va trebui sa (mearga) = ei/ele o sa trebuiasca sa (mearga)

N ||

I shall/will not have to (go) = I shan't/won't have to (go) = eu nu va trebui sa (merg) = eu n-o sa trebuiasca sa (merg)

you will not have to (go) = you won't have to (go) = tu nu va trebui sa (mergi) = tu n-o sa trebuiasca sa (mergi)

he/she/it will not have to (go) = he/she/it won't have to (go) = el/ea nu va trebui sa (mearga) = el/ea n-o sa trebuiasca sa (mearga) etc.

I ||

shall/will I have to (go) ? = eu va trebui sa (merg) ? = va trebui eu sa (merg) ? etc.

I - N ||

shall/will I not have to (go) ? = shan't/won't I have to (go) ? = eu nu va trebui sa (merg) ? = nu va trebui eu sa (merg) ? = eu n-o sa trebuiasca sa (merg) ? etc.

C. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza activa, aspectul comun

to speak

A || I shall/will speak = I'll speak = eu voi vorbi = eu o sa vorbesc

you will speak = you'll speak = tu vei vorbi = tu o sa vorbesti

he/she will speak = he'll/she'll speak = el/ea va vorbi = el/ea o sa vorbeasca

we shall/will speak = we'll speak = noi vom vorbi = noi o sa vorbim

you will speak = you'll speak = voi veti vorbi = voi o sa vorbiti

they will speak = they'll speak = ei/ele vor vorbi = ei/ele o sa vorbeasca

N || I shall/will not speak = I shan't/won't speak = eu nu voi vorbi = eu n-o sa vorbesc

you will not speak = you won't speak = tu nu vei vorbi = tu n-o sa vorbesti

he/she will not speak = he/she won't speak = el/ea nu va vorbi = el/ea n-o sa vorbeasca etc.

I || shall/will I speak ? = eu voi vorbi ? = voi vorbi eu ? = eu o sa vorbesc ? etc.

I-N || shall/will I not speak ? = shan't/won't I speak ? = eu nu voi vorbi ? = nu voi vorbi eu ? = eu n-o sa vorbesc ? = n-o sa vorbesc eu ? etc.

to dare - dared - dared

A || I shall/will dare = I'll dare = eu voi indrazni = eu o sa indraznesc

you will dare = you'll dare = tu vei indrazni = tu o sa indraznesti

he/she/it will dare = he'll/she'll/it'll dare= el/ea va indrazni = el/ea o sa indraz- neasca

we shall/will dare = we'll dare = noi vom indrazni = noi o sa indraznim

you will dare = you'll dare = voi veti indrazni = voi o sa indrazniti

they will dare = they'll dare = ei/ele vor indrazni = ei/ele o sa indrazneasca

N || I shall/will not dare = I shan't/won't dare = eu nu voi indrazni = eu n-o sa indraznesc etc.

I || shall/will I dare ? = eu voi indrazni ? = voi indrazni eu? = o sa indraznesc eu? etc.

I-N || shall/will/will I not dare ? = shan't/won't I dare ? = eu nu voi indrazni ? = nu voi indrazni eu ? = eu n-o sa     indraznesc ? = n-o sa indraznesc eu ? etc.

They will not dare to break their word. = Ei nu vor indrazni sa-si calce cuvantul.

I shall/will not dare to go there alone. = Eu nu voi indrazni sa merg acolo singur(a). = Eu nu voi avea curaj sa plec/merg acolo singur(a).

to need - needed - needed

A ||

I shall/will need = I'll need = eu voi avea nevoie = mie imi va trebui = eu o sa am nevoie = mie o sa-mi trebuiasca

you will need = you'll need = tu vei avea nevoie = tie iti va trebui = tu o sa ai nevoie = tie o sa-ti trebuiasca

he/she/it will need = he'll/she'll/it'll need = el/ea va avea nevoie = lui/ei ii va trebui = el/ea o sa aiba nevoie = lui/ei o sa-i trebuiasca

we shall/will need = we'll need = noi vom avea nevoie = noua ne va trebui = noi o sa avem nevoie = noua o sa ne trebuiasca

you will need = you'll need = voi veti avea nevoie = voua va va trebui = voi o sa aveti nevoie = voua o sa va trebuiasca

they will need = they'll need = ei/ele vor avea nevoie = lor le va trebui = ei/ele o sa aiba nevoie = lor o sa le trebuiasca

N ||

I shall/will not need = I shan't/won't need = eu nu voi avea nevoie = mie nu-mi va trebui = eu n-o sa am nevoie = mie n-o sa-mi trebuiasca etc.

I ||

shall/will I need ? = eu voi avea nevoie ? = voi avea eu nevoie ? = eu o sa am nevoie ? = o sa am eu nevoie ? = mie imi va trebui ? = imi va trebui mie ? = mie o sa-mi trebuiasca ? = o sa-mi trebuiasca mie ? etc.

I-N ||

shall/will I not need ? = shan't/won't I need ? = eu nu voi avea nevoie ? = nu voi avea eu nevoie ? = eu n-o sa am nevoie ? = n-o sa am eu nevoie ? = mie nu-mi va trebui ? = nu-mi va trebui mie ? = mie n-o sa-mi trebuiasca ? = n-o sa-mi trebu-iasca mie ? etc.

Plants and animals will always need rain. = Plantele si animalele vor avea totdeauna nevoie de ploaie.

Will you need any help ? = Vei avea tu nevoie de vreun ajutor ?

What will you need ? = De ce veti avea nevoie ? = Ce va va trebui ?

D. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza activa, aspectul continuu

TO SPEAK

A || I shall/will be speaking = I'll be speaking = eu voi vorbi = eu o sa vorbesc

you will be speaking = you'll be speaking = tu vei vorbi = tu o sa vorbesti

he/she will be speaking = he'll/she'll be speaking = el/ea va vorbi = el/ea o sa vorbeasca

we shall/will be speaking = we'll be speaking = noi vom vorbi = noi o sa vorbim

you will be speaking = you'll be speaking = voi veti vorbi = voi o sa vorbiti

they will be speaking = they'll be speaking = ei/ele vor vorbi = ei/ele o sa vorbeasca

N || I shall/will not be speaking = I shan't/won't be speaking = eu nu voi vorbi = eu n-o sa vorbesc etc.

I || shall/will I be speaking ? = eu voi vorbi ? = voi vorbi eu ? = eu o sa vorbesc? etc.

I-N || shall/will I not be speaking ? = shan't/won't I be speaking ? = eu nu voi vorbi ? etc.

E. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza pasiva

to be admired

A || I shall/will be admired = I'll be admired = eu voi fi admirat = eu o sa fiu admirat

you will be admired = you'll be admired = tu vei fi admirat = tu o sa fii admirat

he/she/it will be admired = he'll/she'll/it'll be admired = el/ea va fi admirat(a) = el/ea o sa fie admirat(a)

we shall/will be admired = we'll be admired = noi vom fi admirati = noi o sa fim admirati

you will be admired = you'll be admired = voi veti fi admirati = voi o sa fiti admirati

they will be admired = they'll be admired = ei/ele vor fi admirati/admirate = ei/ele o sa fie admirati/admirate

N || I shall/will not be admired = I shan't/won't be admired = eu nu voi fi admirat = eu n-o sa fiu admirat etc.

I || shall/will I be admired? = eu voi fi admirat? = voi fi eu admirat? = eu o sa fiu admirat? = o sa fiu eu admirat?

I-N || shall/will I not be admired ? = shan't/won't I be admired ? = eu nu voi fi admirat ? = nu voi fi eu admirat ? = eu n-o sa fiu admirat ? = n-o sa fiu eu admirat ? etc.

Viitorul anterior (The Future Perfect)

Exprima o actiune viitoare care se petrece inaintea altei actiuni viitoare. Se formeaza cu auxiliarele shall/will plus infinitivul scurt perfect al verbului de conjugat

By five o'clock, when you come, I shall have written the letter. = Pana la (cel tarziu) ora cinci, cand vei veni tu, eu voi fi scris scrisoarea.

I shall/will have been = eu voi fi fost

I shall/will not have been = eu nu voi fi fost

Shall/Will I have been ? = voi fi fost eu ? = eu voi fi fost ?

Shall/Will I not have been ? = eu nu voi fi fost ? = nu voi fi fost eu ?

I shall/will have had to = eu va fi trebuit sa etc.

Conjugarea verbelor principale la viitor anterior

TO COME = a veni

A ||

I shall/will have come = eu voi fi venit

you will have come = tu vei fi venit

he/she/it will have come = el/ea va fi venit

we shall/will have come = noi vom fi venit

you will have come = voi veti fi venit

they will have come = ei/ele vor fi venit

N || I shall/will not have come = I shan't/won't have come = eu nu voi fi venit etc.

I || shall/will I have come ? = eu voi fi venit ? = voi fi venit eu ? etc.

I-N || shall/will I not have come ? = shan't/won't I have come ? = eu nu voi fi venit ? etc.

Viitor in trecut (The Future in the Past)

Exprima o actiune viitoare comunicata intr-un moment trecut si se foloseste in fraze. Se traduce in limba romana prin timpul viitor simplu.

Se formeaza cu auxiliarele should/would la persoana I singular si plural si would la celelalte persoane plus infinitivul scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat

You told me (1) that you would come (2). = Mi-ai spus ca vei veni.

Did I tell you that I should/would come ? = Ti-am spus eu ca voi veni ?

TO COME = a veni

A || I should/would come = eu voi veni we should/would come = noi vom veni

you would come = tu vei veni you would come = voi veti veni

he/she/it would come = el/ea va veni they would come = ei/ele vor veni

N || I should/would not come = I shouldn't/wouldn't come = eu nu voi veni

you would not come = you wouldn't come = tu nu vei veni = tu n-o sa vii

he/she/it would not come = he/she/it wouldn't come = el/ea nu va veni = el/ea n-o sa vina etc.

I || should/would I come ? = eu voi veni ? etc.

I-N || should/would I not come ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I come ? = eu nu voi veni ? etc.

Viitorul apropiat (THE NEAR FUTURE = THE FUTURE oF INTENTION)

Se formeaza cu constructia to be going to (a avea de gand sa = a intentiona sa) din care verbul to be se conjuga la pre-zent, Past Tense si Past Perfect, impreuna cu infinitivul scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat. Aceasta constructie exprima o actiune ce urmeaza sa aiba loc la scurt timp dupa ce a fost anuntata. Se traduce si prin viitor.

1) I am going to play tennis. = Am de gand sa joc tenis.= voi juca tenis.

2) I was going to play tennis. = Aveam de gand sa joc tenis.

3) I had been going to play tennis. = Avusesem de gand sa joc tenis.

Alte modalitati de exprimare a viitorului:

a) prin intermediul adverbelor de timp care contin ideea de viitor

They are coming tomorrow, not tonight. = Ei vin (vor veni) maine, nu diseara.

b) cu ajutorul verbului to be to = a urma sa

When are they to be married ? = Cand urmeaza ei sa se casatoreasca ?

They are to be married in August. = Ei urmeaza sa se casatoreasca in august.

What are you to do after that ? = Ce vei face dupa aceea ?

What was I to do ? = Ce era sa fac ? = Ce aveam de facut ? = Ce trebuia sa fac ?

I did not know what they were to do. = Eu nu am stiut ce urma sa faca ei.

We are to pay the cost of the ticket. = Urmeaza sa platim costul biletului.

c) cu constructia/structura to be about to = a fi pe punctul de a, a fi gata sa

They are about to leave. = Ei sunt gata sa plece. = Sunt gata de plecare. = Sunt pe punctul de plecare. = Ei stau sa plece.

d) cu ajutorul structurii to be going to = a avea de gand sa, a intentiona sa :

He is going to be 25 years old next year. = El va avea 25 de ani anul urmator.

Do you think it is going to rain ? = Crezi ca va ploua ?

I suppose this house is going to be expensive. = Presupun ca aceasta casa va fi scumpa.

Modul subjonctiv (THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)

Se foloseste in propozitii cu sensuri negative. Exprima :

a) o conditie ireala, care se poate realiza sau nu

If I were there, I should help you. = Daca as fi acolo, te-as ajuta.

b) o concesie probabila:

He wouldn't find me even if he came earlier. = Nu m-ar gasi chiar daca ar veni mai devreme.

c) o dorinta:

He wished he had more friends .= Ar dori sa aiba mai multi prieteni.

I wish I were there. = As dori sa fiu acolo.

Se intrebuinteaza:

Dupa conjunctii ca : if = daca, if only = numai daca, even if = chiar daca, as if = ca si cand/cum, de parca, as though = ca si cum, lest = ca sa nu, however = oricat de, however (little) = oricat de (putin), however (much) = oricat de (mult), however (few) = oricat de (putini), however (many) = oricat de (multi), however (late) = oricat de (tarziu), whatever = orice, indiferent care, oricare, if need be = daca e nevoie/necesar etc.

Dupa verbul wish sau expresiile it's time (or it's high time) = este timpul sa, it is necessary = este necesar, it is probable/likely = este probabil, it is possible = este posibil, it is right = este drept/corect, it is wrong = este gresit/nedrept etc.

It was ordered that computers be used. = S-a ordonat sa se foloseasca /intrebuinteze calculatoarele.

'Come what may', he said. = - Sa se intample ce s-o intampla, a zis el. Fie ce-o fi, a zis el.

'So be it', Mary repeated. = - Asa sa fie, a repetat Mary.

'If need be, we send you a coach', he said.= - Daca este necesar, va trimitem un autocar, a zis el.

Iata o subdiviziune a subjonctivului din punct de vedere formal:

1) Subjonctiv prezent (The Present Subjunctive or Subjunctive I) Se traduce prin conjunctiv prezent sau conditional-optativ prezent. Ca forma coincide cu infinitiv scurt prezent - toate persoanele avand aceeasi forma. Exemplu

It is vital that you go there now. = Este vital ca tu sa mergi acolo acum.

So be it. = Asa sa fie.

if need be = daca este nevoie

2) Subjonctiv trecut (The Simple Past Subjunctive or Subjunctive II)

It's time we went home. = E timpul sa mergem acasa.

I wish I were there .= As vrea sa fiu acolo.

3) Subjonctiv perfect ( The Past Perfect Subjunctive or Subjunctive III)

If I had bought the book I should have read it. = Daca as fi cumparat cartea as fi citit-o.

Comparati cele doua moduri :

subjonctiv     indicativ

if I were here = daca as fi aici     if I was here = daca eu eram aici

f you were here = daca tu ai fi aici if you were here = daca tu erai aici

if he/she/it were here=daca el/ea ar fi aici if he/she/it was here = daca el/ea era aici if we were here = daca noi am fi aici if we were here = daca noi eram aici

if you were here = daca voi ati fi aici if you were here = daca voi erati aici

if they were here = daca ei/ele ar fi aici     if they were here = daca ei/ele erau aici

He does not remember if/whether I was there. = El nu-si aminteste daca eu eram acolo.

If I were there I should/would play tennis. = Daca as fi acolo as juca tenis.

If need be I would come earlier. = If it were necesary I would come earlier. = Daca ar fi necesar as veni mai devreme.

Subjonctivul II (The Subjunctive II)

In limba romana se traduce prin conditional optativ prezent si exprima un fapt ireal. (ex. If I had money I would buy a car. = Daca as avea bani as cumpara o masina. Se intelege din acest exemplu ca nu pot cumpara masina pentru ca nu am bani.)

A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la Subjunctive II

to be = a fi

A || if I were = daca eu as fi if we were = daca noi am fi

if you were = daca tu ai fi if you were = daca voi ati fi

if he/she/it were = daca el/ea ar fi if they were = daca ei/ele ar fi

I || were I = sa fiu eu, de-as fi eu were we = sa fim noi, de-am fi noi

were you = sa fiti voi, de-ati fi voi were you = sa fii tu, de-ai fi tu

were they = sa fie ei/ele, de-ar fi ei/ele were he/she/it = sa fie el/ea, de-ar fi el/ea

N || if I were not = if I weren't = daca eu nu as fi = daca eu n-as fi etc.

I-N || were I not = weren't I = sa nu fiu eu = de n-as fi eu etc.

to have = a avea

A || if I had = daca eu as avea if we had = daca noi am avea

if you had = daca tu ai avea if you had = daca voi ati avea

if he/she/it had = daca el/ea ar avea     if they had = daca ei/ele ar avea

I ||

had I = sa am eu = de-as avea eu

had you = sa ai tu = de-ai avea tu

had he/she/it = sa aiba el/ea, de-ar avea el/ea

had we = sa avem noi = de-am avea noi

had you = sa aveti voi = de-ati avea voi

had they = sa aiba ei/ele = de-ar avea ei/ele

N || if I had not = if I hadn't = daca eu nu as avea = daca eu n-as avea etc.

I-N || had I not = hadn't I = sa n-am eu = de n-as avea eu etc.

to do = a face

A || if I did = daca eu as face     if we did = daca noi am face

if you did = daca tu ai face if you did = daca voi ati face

if he/she/it did = daca el/ea ar face     if they did = daca ei/ele ar face

I || did I do = sa fac eu = de-as face eu etc.

N || if I did not do = if I didn't do = daca eu nu as face = daca eu n-as face etc.

I-N || did I not do = didn't I do = sa nu fac eu = de n-as face eu etc.

B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la Subjunctive II

can - could - 0 = to be able to

A || if I could (go) = if I were able to (go) = daca eu as putea (merge) = daca eu as fi in stare sa (merg)

you could (go) = if you were able to (go) = daca tu ai putea (merge) = daca tu ai fi in stare sa (mergi)

he/she/it could (go) = if he/she/it were able to (go) = daca el/ea ar putea (merge) = daca el/ea ar fi in stare sa

if we could (go) = if we were able to (go) = daca noi am putea (merge) = daca noi am fi in stare sa (mergem)

if you could (go) = if you were able to (go) = daca voi ati putea (merge) = daca voi ati fi in stare sa (mergeti)

if they could (go) = if they were able to (go) = daca ei/ele ar putea (merge) = daca ei/ele ar fi in stare sa

I || could I (go) = were I able to (go) = sa pot eu (merge) = sa pot eu sa (merg) = de-as putea eu (merge)

could you (go) = were you able to (go) = sa poti tu (merge)

could he/she/it (go) = were he/she/it able to (go) = sa poata el/ea (merge)

could we (go) = were we able to (go) = sa putem noi (merge)

could you (go) = were you able to (go) = sa puteti voi (merge)

could they (go) = were they able to (go) = sa poata ei/ele (merge)

N || if I could not (go) = if I couldn't (go) = if I were not able to go = if I weren't able to (go) = daca eu n-as putea sa (merg) = daca n-as fi in stare sa (merg) etc.

I-N || could I not (go) = couldn't I (go) = were I not able to (go) = weren't I able to (go) = sa nu pot eu sa (merg)     = de n-as putea eu sa (merg) etc.

may - might - 0 = to be permitted/allowed tO

A || if I might (go) = if I were permitted/allowed to (go) = daca eu as avea voie sa (merg) = daca mie mi-ar fi     permis/ingaduit sa

if you might (go) = if you were permitted/allowed to (go) = daca tu ai avea voie sa (mergi) = daca tie ti-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa

if he/she/it might (go) = if he/she/it were permitted/allowed to (go) = daca el/ea ar avea voie sa (mearga) = daca lui/ei i-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (mearga)

if we might (go) = if we were permitted/allowed to (go) = daca noi am avea voie sa (mergem) = daca noua ne-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (mergem)

if you might (go) = if you were permitted/allowed to (go) = daca voi ati avea voie sa (mergeti) = daca voua v- ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (mergeti)

if they might (go) = if they were permitted/allowed to (go) = daca ei/ele ar avea voie sa (mearga) = daca lor le-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (mearga)

I || might I (go) = were I permitted/allowed to (go) = sa am eu voie sa (merg) = de mi-ar fi mie permis/ingaduit sa (merg)

might you (go) = were you permitted/allowed to (go) = sa ai tu voie sa (mergi) = de ti-ar fi tie     permis/ingaduit sa (mergi)

might he/she/it (go) = were he/she/it permitted/allowed to (go)=sa aiba el/ea voie sa (mearga)=de i-ar fi lui/ei permis / ingaduit sa (mearga)

might we (go) = were we permitted/allowed to (go) = sa avem noi voie sa (mergem) = de ne-ar fi noua ingaduit sa

might you (go) = were you permitted/allowed to (go) = sa aveti voi voie sa (mergeti) = de v-ar fi voua     is/ingaduit sa

might they (go) = were they permitted/allowed to (go) = sa aiba ei/ele voie sa (mearga) = de le-ar fi lor permis/ingaduit sa

N || if I might not (go) = if I mightn't (go) = if I were not permitted/allowed to (go) = if I weren't permitted/allowed to (go) = daca eu n-as avea voie sa (merg) = daca mie nu mi-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (merg)

I-N || might I not (go) = mightn't I (go) = were I not permitted/allowed to (go) = weren't I permitted/allowed to (go) = sa nu am eu voie sa (merg) = sa nu-mi fie mie permis/ingaduit sa (merg) = de n-as avea eu voie sa     (merg) = de nu mi-ar fi mie permis/ingaduit sa (merg ) etc.

must - 0 - 0 = to have to

A || if I had to (go) = daca eu ar trebui sa (merg)

if you had to (go) = daca tu ar trebui sa (mergi)

if he/she/it had to (go) = daca el/ea ar trebui sa (mearga)

if we had to (go) = daca noi ar trebui sa (mergem)

if you had to (go) = daca voi ar trebui sa (mergeti)

if they had to (go) = daca ei/ele ar trebui sa (mearga)

I || had I to (go) = sa trebuiasca eu sa (merg) = de-ar trebui eu sa (merg)

had you to (go) = sa trebuiasca tu sa (mergi) = de-ar trebui tu sa (mergi)

had he/she/it to (go) = sa trebuiasca el/ea sa (mearga) = de-ar trebui el/ea sa (mearga)

had we to (go) = sa trebuiasca noi sa (mergem) = de-ar trebui noi sa (mergem)

had you to (go) = sa trebuiasca voi sa (mergeti) = de-ar trebui voi sa (mergeti)

had they to (go) = sa trebuiasca ei/ele sa (mearga) = de-ar trebui ei/ele sa (mearga)

N || if I had not to (go) = if I hadn't to (go) = daca eu nu ar trebui sa (merg) = daca eu n-ar trebui sa (merg) etc.

I-N || had I not to (go) = hadn't I to (go) = sa nu trebuiasca eu sa (merg) = de n-ar trebui eu sa (merg) etc.

shall - should - 0

A || if I should (go) = daca eu ar trebui sa (merg) ; daca s-ar intampla sa (merg) eu

if you should (go) = daca tu ar trebui sa (mergi) ; daca s-ar intampla sa (mergi) tu

if he/she/it should (go) = daca el/ea ar trebui sa (mearga) ; daca s-ar intampla sa (mearga) el/ea etc.

I || should I (go) = sa trebuiasca eu sa (merg) = de-ar trebui eu sa (merg)

should you (go) = sa trebuiasca tu sa (mergi) = de-ar trebui tu sa (mergi)

should he/she/it (go) = sa trebuiasca el/ea sa (mearga) = de-ar trebui el/ea sa (mearga) etc.

N || if I should not (go) = if I shouldn't (go) = daca eu n-ar trebui sa (merg) etc.

I-N || should I not (go) = shouldn't I (go) = sa nu trebuiasca eu sa (merg) = de n-ar trebui eu sa (merg) etc.

will - would - 0

A ||

if I would (go) = daca eu as vrea sa (merg)

if you would (go) = daca tu ai vrea sa (mergi)

if he/she/it would (go) = daca el/ea ar vrea sa

I ||

if we would (go) = daca noi am vrea sa (mergem)

if you would (go) = daca voi ati vrea sa (mergeti)

if they would (go) = daca ei/ele ar vrea sa (mearga)

would I (go) = sa vreau eu sa (merg) = de-as vrea eu sa (merg)

would you (go) = sa vrei tu sa (mergi) = de-ai vrea tu sa (mergi)

would he/she/it (go) = sa vrea el/ea sa (mearga) = de-ar vrea el/ea sa (mearga)

would we (go) = sa vrem noi sa (mergem) = de-am vrea noi sa (mergem)

would you (go) = sa vreti voi sa (mergeti) = de-ati vrea voi sa (mergeti)

would they (go) = sa vrea ei/ele sa (mearga) = de-ar vrea ei/ele sa (mearga)

N || if I would not (go) = if I wouldn't (go) = daca eu nu as vrea sa (merg) = daca eu n-as vrea sa (merg) etc.

I-N || would I not (go) = wouldn't I (go) = sa nu vreau eu sa (merg) etc.

to be - was /were - been to

A || if I were to (go) = daca eu ar fi/urma sa (merg)

if you were to (go) = daca tu ar fi/urma sa (mergi)

if he/she/it were to (go) = daca el/ea ar fi/urma sa (mearga)

if we were to (go) = daca noi ar fi/urma sa (mergem)

if you were to (go) = daca voi ar fi/urma sa (mergeti)

if they were to (go) = daca ei/ele ar fi/urma sa (mearga)

I || were I to (go) = sa fie eu sa (merg) = de-ar fi sa (merg) eu

were you to (go) = sa fie tu sa (mergi) = de-ar fi sa (mergi) tu

were he/she/it to (go) = sa fie el/ea sa (mearga) = de-ar fi sa (mearga) el/ea

were we to (go) = sa fie noi sa (mergem) = de-ar fi sa (mergem) noi

were you to (go) = sa fie voi sa (mergeti) = de-ar fi sa (mergeti) voi

were they to (go) = sa fie ei/ele sa (mearga) = de-ar fi sa (mearga) ei/ele

N || if I were not to (go) = if I weren't to (go) = daca eu nu ar fi sa (merg) = daca eu n-ar fi sa (merg) etc.

I-N || were I not to (go) = weren't I to (go) = sa nu fie eu sa (merg/plec) = de n-ar fi sa (merg/plec) eu etc.

C. Conjugarea verbelor principale la Subjunctive II - aspectul comun, diateza activa

to see - saw - seen

A || if I saw = daca eu as vedea if we saw = daca noi am vedea

if you saw = daca tu ai vedea if you saw = daca voi ati vedea

if he/she/it saw = daca el/ea ar vedea if they saw = daca ei/ele ar vedea

N || if I did not see = if I didn't see = daca eu nu as vedea = daca eu n-as vedea etc.

D. Conjugarea verbelor principale la Subjunctive II- aspectul continuu, diateza activa

TO SING

A ||

if I were singing = daca eu as canta

if you were singing = daca tu ai canta

if he/she/it were singing = daca el/ea ar canta

if we were singing = daca noi am canta

if you were singing = daca voi ati canta

if they were singing = daca ei/ele ar canta

I || were I singing = de-as canta eu = sa cant eu

were you singing = de-ai canta tu = sa canti tu

were he/she/it singing = de-ar canta el/ea = sa cante el/ea

were we singing = de-am canta noi = sa cantam noi

were you singing = de-ati canta voi = sa cantati voi

were they singing = de-ar canta ei/ele = sa cante ei/ele

N || if I were not singing = if I weren't singing = daca eu nu as canta = daca eu n-as canta etc.

I-N || were I not singing = weren't I singing = de n-as canta eu = sa nu cant eu etc.

Subjonctivul perfect (The Past Perfect Subjunctive or Subjunctive III)

Se traduce prin conjunctiv /conditional perfect.

If I had gone home. = Daca eu as fi mers acasa.

Had I gone home. = Sa fi mers eu acasa. = De-as fi mers eu acasa.

Subjonctivul perfect exprima o presupunere sau un fapt care nu concorda cu realitatea. Se foloseste in subordonata conditionala de tipul III.

A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la Subjunctive III

to be - was/were - been

A || if I had been = daca eu as fi fost     if we had been = daca noi am fi fost

if you had been = daca tu ai fi fost if you had been = daca voi ati fi fost

if he/she/it had been= daca el/ea ar fi fost if they had been = daca ei/ele ar fi fost

I || had I been = sa fi fost eu = de-as fi fost eu had we been = sa fi fost noi = de-am fi fost noi

had you been = sa fi fost tu = de-ai fi fost tu    had you been = sa fi fost voi = de-ati fi fost voi

had he/she/it been = sa fi fost el/ea = de-ar fi fost el/ea had they been = sa fi fost ei/ele = de-ar fi fost e

N || if I had not been = if I hadn't been = daca eu nu as fi fost = daca eu n-as fi fost etc.

I-N || had I not been = hadn't I been = sa nu fi fost eu = de n-as fi fost eu etc.

to have - had - had

A || if I had had = daca eu as fi avut    if we had had = daca noi am fi avut

if you had had = daca tu ai fi avut if you had had = daca voi ati fi avut

if he/she/it had had = daca el/ea ar fi avut if they had had = daca ei/ele ar fi avut

I || had I had = sa fi avut eu = de-as fi avut eu    had we had = sa fi avut noi = de-am fi avut noi

had you had = sa fi avut tu = de-ai fi avut tu    had you had = sa fi avut voi = de-ati fi avut voi

had he/she/ had = sa fi avut el/ea = de-ar fi avut el/ea    had they had = sa fi avut ei/ele = de-ar fi avut ei/ele

N || if I had not had = if I hadn't had = daca eu nu as fi avut = daca eu n-as fi avut etc.

I-N || had I not had = hadn't I had = sa nu fi avut eu = de n-as fi avut eu etc.

to do - did - done

A || if I had done = daca eu as fi facut if we had done = daca noi am fi facut

if you had done = daca tu ai fi facut    if you had done = daca voi ati fi facut

if he/she/it had done = daca el/ea ar fi facut     if they had done = daca ei/ele ar fi facut

I || had I done = sa fi facut eu = de-as fi facut eu had we done = sa fi facut noi = de-am fi facut noi

had you done = sa fi facut tu = de-ai fi facut tu had you done = sa fi facut voi = de-ati fi facut voi

had he done = sa fi facut el/ea = de-ar fi facut el/ea had they done = sa fi facut ei/ele = de-ar fi facut ei/ele

N || if I had not done = if I hadn't done = daca eu nu as fi facut = daca eu n-as fi facut etc.

I-N || had I not done = hadn't I done = sa nu fi facut eu = de n-as fi facut eu etc.

B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la Subjunctive III

can - could - 0 = to be able to

A || if I had been able to (go) = daca eu as fi putut sa (merg) = daca eu as fi fost in stare sa (merg)

if you had been able to (go) = daca tu ai fi putut sa (mergi) = daca tu ai fi fost in stare sa (mergi)

if he/she/it had been able to (go) = daca el/ea ar fi putut sa (mearga) = daca el/ea ar fi fost in stare sa (mearga)

if we had been able to (go) = daca noi am fi putut sa (mergem) = daca noi am fi fost in stare sa (mergem)

if you had been able to (go) = daca voi ati fi putut sa (mergeti) = daca voi ati fi fost in stare sa (mergeti)

if they had been able to (go) = daca ei/ele ar fi putut sa (mearga) = daca ei/ele ar fi fost in stare sa (mearga)

I || had I been able to (go) = sa fi fost eu in stare sa (merg) = de-as fi putut eu sa (merg) = sa fi putut eu sa (merg) = de-as fi fost eu in stare sa (merg)

had you been able to (go) = sa fi fost tu in stare sa (mergi) = de-ai fi putut tu sa (mergi) = sa fi putut tu sa (mergi) = de-ai fi fost tu in stare sa (mergi)

had he/she/it been able to (go) = sa fi fost el/ea in stare sa (mearga) = de-ar fi putut el/ea sa (mearga) = sa fi putut el/ea sa (mearga) = de-ar fi fost el/ea in stare sa (mearga)

had we been able to (go) = sa fi fost noi in stare sa (mergem) = de-am fi putut noi sa (mergem) = sa fi putut noi sa (mergem) = de-am fi fost noi in stare sa (mergem)

had you been able to (go) = sa fi fost voi in stare sa (mergeti) = de-ati fi putut voi sa (mergeti) = sa fi putut voi sa (mergeti) = de-ati fi fost voi in stare sa (mergeti)

had they been able to (go) = sa fi fost ei/ele in stare sa (mearga) = de-ar fi putut ei/ele sa (mearga) = sa fi putut     ei/ele sa (mearga) = de-ar fi fost ei/ele in stare sa (mearga)

N || if I had not been able to (go) = if I hadn't been able to (go) = daca eu nu as (n-as) fi putut sa (merg) = daca eu nu as (n-as) fi fost in stare sa (merg) etc.

I-N || had I not been able to (go) = hadn't I been able to (go) = sa nu fi fost eu in stare sa (merg) = de n-as fi putut eu sa (merg) = sa nu fi putut eu sa (merg) = de n-as fi fost eu in stare sa (merg) etc.

may - might = to be permitted/allowed to

A || if I had been permitted/allowed to (go) = daca eu as fi avut voie sa (merg) = daca eu as fi putut sa (merg) = daca mie mi-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (merg)

if you had been permitted/allowed to (go) = daca tu ai fi avut voie sa (mergi) = daca tu ai fi putut sa (mergi) =     daca tie ti-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (mergi)

if he/she/it had been permitted/allowed to (go) = daca el/ea ar fi avut voie sa (mearga ) = daca el/ea ar fi     putut sa (mearga) = daca lui/ei i-ar fi fost permis/ ingaduit sa (mearga)

if we had been permitted/allowed to (go) = daca noi am fi avut voie sa (mergem) = daca noi am fi putut sa (mergem) = daca noua ne-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (mergem)

if you had been permitted/allowed to (go) = daca voi ati fi avut voie sa (mergeti) = daca voi ati fi putut sa (mergeti) = daca voua v-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (mergeti)

if they had been permitted/allowed to (go) = daca ei/ele ar fi avut voie sa (mearga) = daca ei/ele ar fi putut sa     (mearga) = daca lor le-ar fi fost permis/inga- duit sa (mearga)

I || had I been permitted/allowed to (go) = sa fi avut eu voie sa (merg) = sa fi putut eu sa (merg) = sa-mi fi fost     mie permis/ingaduit sa (merg) = de-as fi avut eu voie sa (merg) = de-as fi putut eu sa merg = de mi-ar fi fost mie permis/ingaduit sa (merg)

had you been permitted/allowed to (go) = sa fi avut tu voie sa (mergi) = sa fi putut tu sa (mergi) = sa-ti fi fost tie permis/ingaduit sa (mergi) = de-ai fi avut tu voie sa (mergi) = de-ai fi putut tu sa (mergi) = de ti-ar fi fost tie permis/ingaduit sa (mergi)

had he/she/it been permitted/allowed to (go) = sa fi avut el/ea voie sa (mearga) = sa fi putut el/ea sa (mearga) = sa-i fi fost lui/ei permis/ingaduit sa (mearga) = de-ar fi avut el/ea voie sa (mearga) = de-ar fi putut el/ea sa (mearga) = de i-ar fi fost lui/ei permis/ingaduit sa (mearga)

had we been permitted/allowed to (go) = sa fi avut noi voie sa (mergem) = sa fi putut noi sa (mergem) = sa     ne fi fost noua permis/ingaduit sa (mergem) = de-am fi avut noi voie sa (mergem) = de-am fi putut noi sa (mergem) = de ne-ar fi fost noua permis/ingaduit sa (mergem)

had you been permitted/allowed to (go) = sa fi avut voi voie sa (mergeti) = sa fi putut voi sa (mergeti) = sa va fi fost voua permis/ingaduit sa (mergeti) = de-ati fi avut voi voie sa (mergeti) = de-ati fi putut voi sa mergeti= de v-ar fi fost voua permis/ingaduit sa (mergeti)

had they been permitted/allowed to (go) = sa fi avut ei/ele voie sa (mearga) = sa fi putut ei/ele sa (mearga) = sa le fi fost lor permis/ingaduit sa (mearga) = de-ar fi avut ei/ele voie sa (mearga) = de-ar fi putut ei/ele sa mearga = de le-ar fi fost lor permis/ingaduit sa (mearga)

N || if I had not been permitted/allowed to (go) = if I hadn't been permitted/ allowed to (go) = daca eu nu as (n-as) fi avut voie sa merg = daca eu nu as (n-as) fi putut sa (merg) = daca mie nu mi-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (merg) etc.

I-N || had I not been permitted/allowed to (go) = hadn't I been permitted/allowed to (go) = sa nu fi avut eu voie sa (merg) = sa nu fi putut eu sa (merg) = sa nu-mi fi fost mie permis/ingaduit sa (merg) = de n-as fi avut eu voie sa (merg) = de n-as fi putut eu sa (merg) = de nu mi-ar fi fost mie permis/ingaduit sa (merg) etc.

must - 0 - 0 = to have to

A || if I had had to (go) = daca eu ar fi trebuit sa (merg)

if you had had to (go) = daca tu ar fi trebuit sa (mergi)

if he/she/it had had to (go) = daca el/ea ar fi trebuit sa (mearga)

if we had had to (go) = daca noi ar fi trebuit sa (mergem)

if you had had to (go) = daca voi ar fi trebuit sa (mergeti)

if they had had to (go) = daca ei/ele ar fi trebuit sa (mearga)

I || had I had to (go) = sa fi trebuit eu sa (merg) = de-ar fi trebuit eu sa (merg)

had you had to (go) = sa fi trebuit tu sa (mergi) = de-ar fi trebuit tu sa (mergi)

had he/she/it had to (go) = sa fi trebuit el/ea sa (mearga) = de-ar fi trebuit el/ea sa (mearga)

had we had to (go) = sa fi trebuit noi sa (mergem) = de-ar fi trebuit noi sa (mergem)

had you had to (go) = sa fi trebuit voi sa (mergeti) = de-ar fi trebuit voi sa (mergeti)

had they had to (go) = sa fi trebuit ei/ele sa (mearga) = de-ar fi trebuit ei/ele sa (mearga)

N || if I had not had to (go) = if I hadn't had to (go) = daca eu nu ar (n-ar) fi trebuit sa (merg) etc.

I-N || had I not had to (go) = hadn't I had to (go) = sa nu fi trebuit eu sa (merg) = de n-ar fi trebuit eu sa (merg) etc.

C. Conjugarea verbelor principale la Subjunctive III - aspectul comun, diateza activa

to see - saw - seen

A || if I had seen = daca eu as fi vazut if we had seen = daca noi am fi vazut

if you had seen = daca tu ai fi vazut    if you had seen = daca voi ati fi vazut

if he/she/it had seen = daca el/ea ar fi vazut if they had seen = daca ei/ele ar fi vazut

I || had I seen = sa fi vazut eu = de-as fi vazut eu

had you seen = sa fi vazut tu = de-ai fi vazut tu

had he/she/it seen = sa fi vazut el/ea = de-ar fi vazut el/ea

had we seen = sa fi vazut noi = de-am fi vazut noi

had you seen = sa fi vazut voi = de-ati fi vazut voi

had they seen = sa fi vazut ei/ele = de-ar fi vazut ei/ele

N || if I had not seen = if I hadn't seen = daca eu nu as (n-as) fi vazut etc.

I-N || had I not seen = hadn't I seen = sa nu fi vazut eu = de n-as fi vazut eu etc.

D. Conjugarea verbelor principale la Subjunctive III - diateza activa, aspectul continuu

TO SING = a canta

A || if I had been singing = daca eu as fi cantat

if you had been singing = daca tu ai fi cantat

if he/she/it had been singing = daca el/ea ar fi cantat

if we had been singing = daca noi am fi cantat

if you had been singing = daca voi ati fi cantat

if they had been singing = daca ei/ele ar fi cantat

I || had I been singing = sa fi cantat eu = de-as fi cantat eu

had you been singing = sa fi cantat tu = de-ai fi cantat tu

had he/she/it been singing = sa fi cantat el/ea = de-ar fi cantat el/ea

had we been singing = sa fi cantat noi = de-am fi cantat noi

had you been singing = sa fi cantat voi = de-ati fi cantat voi

had they been singing = sa fi cantat ei/ele = de-ar fi cantat ei/ele

N || if I had not been singing = if I hadn't been singing = daca eu nu as (n-as) fi cantat etc.

I-N || had I not been singing = hadn't I been singing = sa nu fi cantat eu = de n-as fi cantat eu etc.

You would have found us at home if you had come to see us. = Ne-ai/ati fi gasit acasa daca ai/ati fi venit pe la noi.

Modul subjonctiv apare dupa verbe care exprima sugestii, propuneri, comenzi sau ordine:

I suggest that he begin(s) to learn his lessons. = Sugerez ca el sa-si invete lectiile.

I suggest(ed) that he should (ought to) go tomorrow. = Sugerez (Am sugerat) ca el sa plece maine.

I suggested that they come/came/should come at six o'clock. = Am sugerat ca ei sa vina la ora sase.

It was necessary (that) he be/was/should be there. = Era necesar ca el sa fie acolo.

Subjunctive II si Subjunctive III se folosesc dupa verbul wish si dupa if only.

I wish you had much money. = As vrea ca tu sa ai bani multi.

I wish you had had much money. = As vrea ca tu sa fi avut bani multi.

If only you had much money. = Macar daca ai avea bani multi.

If only you were with us here now. = Macar daca ai fi cu noi aici.

Modul conditional (The Conditional Mood)

Conditionalul prezent (The Present Conditional)

Se formeaza cu auxiliarele should (pentru persoana I singular si plural) si would (pentru celelalte persoane) plus infinitivul scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat. Se traduce in limba romana prin optativ prezent.

In zilele noastre auxiliarul would se foloseste la toate persoanele inlocuindu-l astfel pe should si exprima o optiune, o dorinta sau o invitatie la timpul prezent.

A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la conditional prezent

to be = a fi

A || I should/would be = I'd be = eu as fi we should/would be = we'd be = noi am fi

you would be = you'd be = tu ai fi you would be = you'd be = voi ati fi

he/she/it would be = he'd/she'd/it'd be = el/ea ar fi     they would be = they'd be = ei/ele ar fi

N || I should/would not be = I shouldn't/wouldn't be = eu nu as fi = eu n-as fi etc.

I || should/would I be ? = eu as fi ? = as fi eu ? etc.

I-N || should/would I not be ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I be ? = eu nu as (n-as) fi ? = nu as (n-as) fi eu ? etc.

to have = a avea

A || I should/would have = I'd have = eu as avea

you would have = you'd have = tu ai avea

he/she/it would have = he'd/she'd/it'd have = el/ea ar avea

we should/would have = we'd have = noi am avea

you would have = you'd have = voi ati avea

they would have = they'd have = ei/ele ar avea

N || I should/would not have = I shouldn't/wouldn't have = eu nu as (n-as) avea etc.

I || should/would I have ? = eu as avea ? = as avea eu ? etc.

I-N || should/would I not have ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have ? = eu nu as (n-as) avea? etc.

to do = a face

A || I should/would do = I'd do = eu as face we should/would do = we'd do = noi am face

you would do = you'd do = tu ai face you would do = you'd do = voi ati face

he/she/it would do = he'd/she'd/it'd do = el/ea ar face    they would do = they'd do = ei/ele ar face

N || I should/would not do = I shouldn't/wouldn't do = eu nu as (n-as) face etc.

I || should/would I do ? = eu as face ? = as face eu ? etc.

I-N || should/would I not do ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I do ? = eu nu as (n-as) face ? = nu as (n-as) face eu ? etc.

B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la conditional prezent

can - could - 0 = to be able to

A || I could (go)=I should/would be able to (go)=eu as putea sa (merg)=eu as putea (merge)=eu as fi in stare sa

you could (go) = you would be able to (go) = tu ai putea sa (mergi) = tu ai putea (merge) = tu ai fi in stare sa

he/she/it could (go) = he/she/it would be able to (go) = el/ea ar putea sa (mearga) = el/ea ar putea (merge) = el/ea ar fi in stare sa (mearga)

we could (go) = we should/would be able to (go) = noi am putea sa (mergem) = noi am putea (merge) = noi am fi in stare sa (mergem)

you could (go) = you would be able to (go) = voi ati putea sa (mergeti) = voi ati putea (merge) = voi ati fi in stare sa (mergeti)

they could (go) = they would be able to (go) = ei/ele ar putea sa (mearga) = ei/ele ar putea (merge) = ei/ele ar     fi in stare sa (mearga)

N || I could not (go) = I couldn't (go) = I should/would not be able to (go) = I shouldn't/wouldn't be able to (go) = eu nu as (n-as) putea sa (merg) = eu nu as fi in stare sa (merg) etc.

I || could I (go) ? = should/would I be able to (go) ? = as putea eu sa (merg) ? = as putea eu (merge) ? = as fi eu     in stare sa (merg) ? etc.

I-N || could I not (go) ? = couldn't I (go) ? = should/would I not be able to (go) ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I be able to (go) ? = eu nu as putea sa (merg) ? = n-as putea sa (merg) eu ? = eu nu as fi in stare sa (merg) ? = n-as fi eu in stare sa (merg) ? etc.

In exemplul : I could go verbul could exprima si permisiunea, nu numai capabilitatea. In acest caz could = might. In limbajul colocvial can il inlocuieste des pe may.

may - might - 0 = to be permitted/allowed to

A || I might (go) = I should/would be permitted/allowed to (go) = eu as avea voie sa (merg) = eu as putea sa (merg) = mie mi-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (merg)

you might (go) = you would be permitted/allowed to (go) = tu ai avea voie sa (mergi) = tu ai putea sa (mergi)     = tie ti-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (mergi)

he/she/it might (go) = he/she/it would be permitted/allowed to (go) = el/ea ar avea voie sa (mearga) = el/ea ar putea sa (mearga) = lui/ei i-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (mearga)

we might (go) = we should/would be permitted/allowed to (go) = noi am avea voie sa (mergem) = noi am putea sa (mergem) = noua ne-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (mergem)

you might (go) = you would be permitted/allowed to (go) = voi ati avea voie sa (mergeti) = voi ati putea sa (mergeti) = voua v-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (mergeti)

they might (go) = they would be permitted/allowed to (go) = ei/ele ar avea voie sa (mearga) = ei/ele ar putea     sa (mearga) = lor le-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (mearga)

N || I might not (go) = I mightn't (go) = I should/would not be permitted/allowed to (go) = I shouldn't / wouldn't be permitted/allowed to (go) = eu nu as avea voie sa (merg) = eu nu as putea sa (merg) = mie nu     mi-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (merg) etc.

I || might I (go) ? = should/would I be permitted/allowed to (go) ? = as avea eu voie sa (merg) ? = as putea eu sa (merg) ? = as putea eu (merge) ? = mi-ar fi mie permis/ingaduit sa (merg) ? etc.

I-N || might I not (go) ? = mightn't I (go) ? = should/would I not be permitted/ allowed to (go) ? = shouldn't/ wouldn't I be permitted/allowed to (go) ? = nu as (n-as) avea eu voie sa (merg) ? = nu as (n-as) putea eu sa (merg) ? = nu mi-ar fi mie permis/ingaduit sa (merg) ? = mie nu mi-ar fi permis/ingaduit sa (merg) ? etc.

must - 0 - 0 = to have to

A || I should/would have to (go) = I'd have to (go) = eu ar trebui sa (merg)

you would have to (go) = you'd have to (go) = tu ar trebui sa (mergi)

he/she/it would have to (go) = he'd/she'd/it'd have to (go) = el/ea ar trebui sa (mearga)

we should/would have to (go) = we'd have to (go) = noi ar trebui sa (mergem)

you would have to (go) = you'd have to (go) = voi ar trebui sa (mergeti)

they would have to (go) = they'd have to (go) = ei/ele ar trebui sa (mearga)

N || I should/would not have to (go) = I shouldn't/wouldn't have to (go) = eu nu ar trebui sa (merg) etc.

I || should/would I have to (go) ? = eu ar trebui sa (merg) ? = ar trebui eu sa (merg) ? etc.

I-N || should/would I not have to (go) ? = eu nu ar trebui sa (merg) ? = n-ar trebui eu sa (merg) ? etc.

shall - should a trebui sa, a se cuveni/cadea sa . . .

A || I should (go) = eu ar trebui sa (merg)

you should (go) = tu ar trebui sa (mergi)

he/she/it should (go) = el/ea ar trebui sa (mearga)

we should go = noi ar trebui sa (mergem)

you should (go) = voi ar trebui sa (mergeti)

they should (go) = ei/ele ar trebui sa (mearga)

N || I should not (go) = I shouldn't (go) = eu nu ar trebui sa (merg) = eu n-ar trebui sa (merg), etc.

I || should I (go) ? = ar trebui eu sa (merg) ?, etc.

I-N || should I not (go) ? = shouldn't I (go) ? = eu nu ar trebui sa (merg) ? = n-ar trebui eu sa (merg) ? etc.

Verbul should se foloseste dupa how , why si when.

How should they know ? = De unde sa stie ei ?

Verbul should exprima:

a) - probabilitatea They should be in the mountains. = Ar trebui sa fie la munte. = Probabil sunt la munte.

If he should come tell him I've bought the tickets. = Daca cumva vine spune-i ca am cumparat biletele.= Daca se intampla sa vina spune-i ca am cumparat biletele.

b) - necesitatea sau sfatul: You should go to the dentist now. = Ar trebui sa te duci la dentist acum.

You shouldn't waste your time. = N-ar trebui sa-ti irosesti timpul.

will - would - 0 = a vrea

A || I would (go) = eu as vrea sa (merg) we would (go) = noi am vrea sa (mergem)

you would (go) = tu ai vrea sa (mergi)     you would (go) = voi ati vrea sa (mergeti)

he/she/it would (go) = el/ea ar vrea sa (mearga) they would (go) = ei/ele ar vrea sa (mearga)

N || I would not (go) = I wouldn't (go) = eu nu as vrea sa (merg) = eu n-as vrea sa (merg) etc.

I || would I (go) ? = as vrea eu sa (merg) ? = eu as vrea sa (merg) ? etc.

I-N || would I not (go) ? = wouldn't I (go) ? = eu nu as vrea sa (merg) ? = n-as vrea eu sa (merg) ? etc.

Verbul would exprima:

a) - dorinta in prezent: He would go on the trip. = El ar vrea sa mearga in excursie.

b) - comenzi politicoase: Would you open that door, please ? = Ati vrea sa deschideti usa aceea, va rog ?

- Would + mind:

Would you mind opening that door, please ? = V-ar deranja/supara daca ati deschide usa aceea, va rog ?

Would you mind my smoking ? = Va deranjeaza daca fumez ?

I should/would go home = as merge acasa = conditional prezent; aici should/ would este auxiliar

I should/would go home = ar trebui sa merg acasa; aici should/would este auxiliar modal, modul conditional

I should/would go home = trebuia sa merg acasa; aici should/would este modal, modul indicativ

if I should/would go home = daca ar trebui sa merg acasa; aici should/would este auxiliar modal, modul subjonctiv prezent

if I should/would go home = daca trebuia sa merg acasa; should/would este modal, modul indicativ

if I should/would go home = daca s-ar intampla sa merg; should/would este auxiliar modal, conditional prezent

I would go home = as vrea sa merg acasa; would aici este auxiliar modal, modul conditional

I would go home = obisnuiam sa merg acasa = mergeam acasa; would este aici modal, modul indicativ

I would go home = voiam sa merg acasa; la fel would este modal, modul indicativ, Past Tense

if I would go home = daca as vrea sa merg acasa; would este auxiliar modal

if I would go home = daca voiam sa merg acasa; would este modal, modul indicativ, Past Tense

if I would go home = daca obisnuiam sa merg acasa = daca mergeam acasa = la fel would este modal, modul indicativ, Past Tense

I might go home = as avea voie sa merg acasa; aici might este auxiliar modal, modul conditional

I might go home = aveam voie sa merg acasa; might este modal, Past Tense

ought to - 0 - 0

A || I ought to (go) = eu ar trebui sa (merg/plec) = eu s-ar cuveni/cadea sa (merg/plec)

you ought to (go) = tu ar trebui sa (mergi/pleci) = tu s-ar cuveni/cadea sa (mergi/ pleci)

he/she/it ought to (go) = el/ea ar trebui sa (mearga/plece) = el/ea s-ar cuveni/ cadea sa (mearga/plece)

we ought to (go) = noi ar trebui sa (mergem/plecam) = noi s-ar cuveni/cadea sa (mergem/plecam)

you ought to (go) = voi ar trebui sa (mergeti/plecati) = voi s-ar cuveni/cadea sa (mergeti/plecati)

they ought to (go) = ei/ele ar trebui sa (mearga/plece) = ei/ele s-ar cuveni/cadea sa (mearga/plece)

N || I ought not to (go) = I oughtn't to (go) = eu nu ar trebui sa (merg/plec) = eu nu s-ar cuveni/cadea sa (merg)

I || ought I to (go) ? = eu ar trebui sa (merg/plec) ? = eu s-ar cuveni/cadea sa (merg/plec) ? = s-ar cuveni eu sa

I-N || ought I not to (go) ? = oughtn't I to (go) ? = eu nu ar trebui sa (merg/plec) ? = eu nu s-ar cuveni sa (merg ) ?

C. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza activa, aspectul comun

to see = a vedea

La conditional si la viitorul in trecut, la persoana I-a singular si plural se foloseste atat auxiliarul should [~ud] cat si would [wud], iar la persoanele a II-a si a III-a se foloseste doar would.

A || I should /would see = I'd see = eu as vedea

he/she/it would see = he'd/she'd/it'd see = el/ea ar vedea

you would see = you'd see = tu ai vedea

we should/would see = we'd see = noi am vedea

you would see = you'd see = voi ati vedea

they would see = they'd see = ei/ele ar vedea

N || I should/would not see = I shouldn't/wouldn't see = eu nu as vedea etc.

I || should/would I see ? = eu as vedea ? = as vedea eu ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not see ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I see ? = eu nu as (n-as) vedea ? etc.

D. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza activa, aspectul continuu

to play = a (se) juca

A || I should/would be playing = eu as juca we should/would be playing = noi am juca

you would be playing = tu ai juca you would be playing = voi ati juca

he/she/it would be playing = el/ea ar juca they would be playing = ei/ele ar juca

N || I should/would not be playing = I shouldn't/wouldn't be playing = eu nu as (n-as) juca etc.

I || should/would I be playing ? = as juca eu ? = eu as juca ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not be playing ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I be playing ? = eu nu as (n-as) juca ? etc.

to dare = a indrazni

A || I should/would dare = I'd dare = eu as indrazni = eu m-as incumeta

you would dare = you'd dare = tu ai indrazni = tu te-ai incumeta

he/she would dare = he'd/she'd dare = el/ea ar indrazni = el/ea s-ar incumeta

we should/would dare = we'd dare = noi am indrazni = noi ne-am incumeta

you would dare = you'd dare = voi ati indrazni = voi v-ati incumeta

they would dare = they'd dare = ei/ele ar indrazni = ei/ele s-ar incumeta

N || I should/would not dare = I shouldn't/wouldn't dare = eu nu as (n-as) indrazni = eu nu m-as incumeta etc.

I || should/would I dare ? = as indrazni eu ? = eu as indrazni ? = eu m-as incumeta ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not dare ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I dare ? = eu nu as (n-as) indrazni ? = eu nu m-as incumeta

to need = a avea nevoie

A || I should/would need = I'd need = eu as avea nevoie = mie mi-ar trebui

you would need = you'd need = tu ai avea nevoie = tie ti-ar trebui

he/she/it would need = he'd/she'd/it'd need = el/ea ar avea nevoie = lui/ei i-ar trebui

we should/would need = we'd need = noi am avea nevoie = noua ne-ar trebui

you would need = you'd need = voi ati avea nevoie = voua v-ar trebui

they would need = they'd need = ei/ele ar avea nevoie = lor le-ar trebui

N || I should/would not need = I shouldn't/wouldn't need = eu nu as avea nevoie = mie nu mi-ar trebui = mie nu     mi-ar fi necesar etc.

I || should/would I need ? = eu as avea nevoie ? = as avea eu nevoie ? = mie mi-ar trebui ? = mi-ar trebui mie ? = mie mi-ar fi necesar ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not need ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I need ? = eu nu as (n-as) avea nevoie ? = nu as (n-as) avea eu nevoie ? = mie nu mi-ar trebui ? etc.

E. Conjugarea verbelor principale - diateza pasiva

to be seen = a fi vazut; (to be invited = a fi invitat etc.)

A || I should/would be seen = I'd be seen = eu as fi vazut(a)

you would be seen = you'd be seen = tu ai fi vazut(a)

he/she/it would be seen = he'd/she'd/it'd be seen = el/ea ar fi vazut(a)

we should/would be seen = we'd be seen = noi am fi vazuti/vazute

you would be seen = you'd be seen = voi ati fi vazuti/vazute

they would be seen = they'd be seen = ei/ele ar fi vazuti/vazute

N || I should/would not be seen = I shouldn't/wouldn't be seen = eu nu as (n-as) fi vazut(a) etc.

I || should/would I be seen ? = eu as fi vazut(a) ? = as fi eu vazut(a) ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not be seen ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I be seen ? = eu nu as (n-as) fi vazut(a) ? etc.

F. Conjugarea verbelor reflexive - aspectul comun

to enjoy oneSELF = a se distra

A || I should/would enjoy myself = I'd enjoy myself = eu m-as distra

you would enjoy yourself = you'd enjoy yourself = tu te-ai distra

he would enjoy himself = he'd enjoy himself = el s-ar distra

she would enjoy herself = she'd enjoy herself = ea s-ar distra

it would enjoy itself = it'd enjoy itself = el/ea s-ar distra

we should/would enjoy ourselves = we'd enjoy ourselves = noi ne-am distra

you would enjoy yourselves = you'd enjoy yourselves = voi v-ati distra

they would enjoy themselves = they'd enjoy themselves = ei/ele s-ar distra

N || I should/would not enjoy myself = I shouldn't/wouldn't enjoy myself = eu nu m-as distra etc.

I || should/would I enjoy myself ? = eu m-as distra ? = m-as distra eu ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not enjoy myself ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I enjoy myself ? = eu nu m-as distra ? etc.

G. Conjugarea verbelor reflexive - aspectul continuu

to enjoy oneself a se distra

A || I should/would be enjoying myself = I'd be enjoying myself = eu m-as distra

you would be enjoying yourself = you'd be enjoying yourself = tu te-ai distra

he would be enjoying himself = he'd be enjoying himself = el s-ar distra

she would be enjoying herself = she'd be enjoying herself = ea s-ar distra

we should/would be enjoying ourselves = we'd be enjoying ourselves = noi ne-am distra

you would be enjoying yourselves = you'd be enjoying yourselves = voi v-ati distra

they would be enjoying themselves = they'd be enjoying themselves =ei/ele s-ar distra

N || I should/would not be enjoying myself = I shouldn't/wouldn't be enjoying myself = eu nu m-as distra etc.

I || should/would I be enjoying myself ? = eu m-as distra ? = m-as distra eu ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not be enjoying myself ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I be enjoying myself ? = eu nu m-as distra ?

2.3.2. Conditionalul perfect (The Perfect Conditional)

Se formeaza cu auxiliarele should/would (pers. I singular si plural) si would (pers. a II-a si a III-a singular si plural) plus infinitivul perfect al verbului de conjugat si se traduce prin optativ perfect in limba romana.

A. Conjugarea verbelor auxiliare la conditional perfect

to be - was - been = a fi

A || I should/would have been = eu as fi fost     we should/would have been = noi am fi fost

you would have been = tu ai fi fost you would have been = voi ati fi fost

he/she/it would have been = el/ea ar fi fost they would have been = ei/ele ar fi fost

N || I should/would not have been = I shouldn't/wouldn't have been = eu nu as (n-as) fi fost etc.

I || should/would I have been ? = eu as fi fost ? = as fi fost eu ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not have been ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have been ? = eu nu as (n-as) fi fost ? = nu as (n-as)     fi fost eu ? etc.

to have - had - had = a avea

A || I should/would have had = eu as fi avut we should/would have had = noi am fi avut

you would have had = tu ai fi avut you would have had = voi ati fi avut

he/she/it would have had = el/ea ar fi avut     they would have had = ei/ele ar fi avut

N || I should/would not have had = I shouldn't/wouldn't have had = eu nu as (n-as) fi avut etc.

I || should/would I have had ? = eu as fi avut ? = as fi avut eu ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not have had ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have had ? = eu nu as (n-as) fi avut ? = nu as (n-as) fi avut eu ? etc.

to do - did - done = a face

A || I should/would have done = eu as fi facut     we should/would have done = noi am fi facut

you would have done = tu ai fi facut     you would have done = voi ati fi facut

he/she/it would have done = el/ea ar fi facut they would have done = ei/ele ar fi facut

N || I should/would not have done = I shouldn't/wouldn't have done = eu nu as (n-as) fi facut etc.

I || should/would I have done ? = eu as fi facut ? = as fi facut eu ?

I-N || should/would I not have done ? = shoulnd't/wouldn't I have done ? = eu n-as fi facut ? = nu as fi facut eu ?

B. Conjugarea verbelor modale la conditional perfect

can - could - o = to be able to

A || I should/would have been able to (go) = eu as fi fost in stare sa (merg)

you would have been able to (go) = tu ai fi fost in stare sa (mergi)

he/she/it would have been able to (go) = el/ea ar fi fost in stare sa (mearga)

we should/would have been able to (go) = noi am fi fost in stare sa (mergem)

you would have been able to (go) = voi ati fi fost in stare sa (mergeti)

they would have been able to (go) = ei/ele ar fi fost in stare sa (mearga)

I could have gone = eu puteam sa fi mers we could have gone = noi puteam sa fi mers

you could have gone = tu puteai sa fi mers     you could have gone = voi puteati sa fi mers

he/she/it could have gone = el/ea putea sa fi mers     they could have gone = ei/ele puteau sa fi mers

N || I should/would not have been able to (go) = I shouldn't/wouldn't have been able to (go) = eu nu as (n-as) fi fost in stare sa (merg) = eu nu as fi putut sa (merg) etc.

I could not have gone = I couldn't have gone = eu nu puteam sa fi mers etc.

I || should/would I have been able to (go) ? = as fi fost eu in stare sa (merg) ? etc.

could I have gone ? = puteam eu sa fi mers ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not have been able to (go) ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have been able to (go) ?= nu as (n-as) fi fost eu in stare sa (merg) ? = n-as fi putut eu sa (merg) ? etc.

could I not have gone ? = couldn't I have gone? = nu puteam eu sa fi mers ? etc.

may - might - o = to be permitted / allowed to

A || I should/would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = eu as fi avut voie sa (merg) = as fi putut sa (merg) =     mie mi-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (merg)

you would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = tu ai fi avut voie sa (mergi) = tu ai fi putut sa (mergi) = tie     ti-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (mergi)

he/she/it would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = el/ea ar fi avut voie sa (mearga) = el/ea ar fi putut sa (mearga) = lui i-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (mearga)

we should/would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = noi am fi avut voie sa (mergem) = noi am fi putut sa (mergem) = noua ne-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (mergem)

you would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = voi ati fi avut voie sa (mergeti) = voi ati fi putut sa     (mergeti) = voua v-ar fi fost permis /ingaduit sa (mergeti)

they would have been permitted/allowed to (go) = ei/ele ar fi avut voie sa (mearga) = ei/ele ar fi putut sa     (mearga) = lor le-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (mearga)

I might have gone = eu puteam sa fi mers     you might have gone = tu puteai sa fi mers

he/she/it might have gone = el/ea putea sa fi mers     we might have gone = noi puteam sa fi mers

you might have gone = voi puteati sa fi mers they might have gone = ei/ele puteau sa fi mers

N || I should/would not (shouldn't) have been permited/allowed to (go) = eu nu as fi avut voie sa (merg) = eu nu as fi putut sa (merg) = mie nu mi-ar fi fost permis/ ingaduit sa (merg) etc.

I might not (I mightn't) have gone = eu nu puteam sa fi mers etc.

I || should/would I have been permitted/allowed to (go) ? = eu as fi avut voie sa (merg) ? = eu as fi putut sa (merg) ? = eu as fi putut (merge) ? = mie mi-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (merg) ? etc.

might I have gone ? = puteam eu sa fi mers ? = eu puteam sa fi mers ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not (shouldn't/wouldn't I) have been permitted/allowed to (go)? = eu nu as fi avut voie sa (merg) ? = nu as (n-as) fi avut eu voie sa (merg) ? = eu nu as (n-as) fi putut sa (merg) ? = eu nu as (n-as) fi putut (merge) ? = mie nu mi-ar fi fost permis/ingaduit sa (merg) ? = nu mi-ar fi fost mie permis/ingaduit sa . ?

might I not have gone ? = mightn't I have gone ? = nu puteam eu sa fi mers ? = eu nu puteam sa fi mers ?

must - o - o = to have to

A || I should/would have had to (go) = eu ar fi trebuit sa (merg)

you would have had to (go) = tu ar fi trebuit sa (mergi)

he/she/it would have had to (go) = el/ea ar fi trebuit sa (mearga)

we should/would have had to (go) = noi ar fi trebuit sa (mergem)

you would have had to (go) = voi ar fi trebuit sa (mergeti)

they would have had to (go) = ei/ele ar fi trebuit sa (mearga)

N || I should/would not have had to (go) = eu nu ar fi trebuit sa (merg) etc.

I || should/would I have had to (go) ? = eu ar fi trebuit sa (merg) ? = ar fi trebuit eu sa (merg) ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not have had to (go)? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have had to (go)? = eu nu ar (n-ar) fi trebuit sa (merg) ? = nu ar (n-ar) fi trebuit eu sa (merg) ? etc.

shall - should - o

A || I should have (come) = eu se cuvenea (trebuia) sa fi (venit)

you should have (come) = tu se cuvenea (trebuia) sa fi (venit)

he/she/it should have (come) = el/ea se cuvenea (trebuia) sa fi (venit)

we should have (come) = noi se cuvenea (trebuia) sa fi (venit)

you should have (come) = voi se cuvenea (trebuia) sa fi (venit)

they should have (come) = ei/ele se cuvenea (trebuia) sa fi (venit)

N || I should not (shouldn't) have (come) = eu nu se cuvenea (nu trebuia) sa fi (venit) etc.

I || should I have (come) ? = eu se cuvenea (trebuia) sa fi (venit) ? = se cuvenea (trebuia) sa fi (venit) eu ? etc.

I - N || should I not (shouldn't I) have (come) ? = eu nu se cuvenea (nu trebuia) sa fi (venit) ? = nu trebuia (nu se cuvenea) sa fi (venit) eu ? etc.

will - would - o

A || I would have (come) = eu voiam sa fi (venit)

you would have (come) = tu voiai sa fi (venit)

he/she/it would have (come) = el/ea voia sa fi (venit)

we would have (come) = noi voiam sa fi (venit)

you would have (come) = voi voiati sa fi (venit)

they would have (come) = ei/ele voiau sa fi (venit)

N || I would not (wouldn't) have (come) = eu nu voiam sa fi (venit) etc.

I || would I have (come) ? = voiam eu sa fi (venit) ? etc.

I - N || would I not (wouldn't I) have (come) ? = eu nu voiam sa fi (venit) ? etc.

ought to

A || I ought to have come = eu s-ar fi cuvenit sa vin = eu se cuvenea sa fi venit

you ought to have come = tu s-ar fi cuvenit sa vii = tu se cuvenea sa fi venit

he/she/it ought to have come = el/ea s-ar fi cuvenit sa vina = el/ea se cuvenea sa fi venit

we ought to have come = noi s-ar fi cuvenit sa venim = noi se cuvenea sa fi venit

you ought to have come = voi s-ar fi cuvenit sa veniti = voi se cuvenea sa fi venit

they ought to have come = ei/ele s-ar fi cuvenit sa vina = ei/ele se cuvenea sa fi venit

N || I ought not (oughtn't) to have come = eu nu s-ar fi cuvenit sa vin = eu nu se cuvenea sa fi venit etc.

I || ought I to have come ? = eu s-ar fi cuvenit sa vin ? = eu se cuvenea sa fi venit ? etc.

I - N || ought I not (oughtn't I) to have come ? = eu nu s-ar fi cuvenit sa vin ? = eu nu se cuvenea sa fi venit ? etc.

Did he/she tell you why you ought to do it ? = Ti-a spus el/ea tie de ce trebuie (se cuvine/cade) s-o faci ? = ti-a spus el/ea tie de ce trebuia (se cuvenea/cadea) s-o faci ?

Did he/she tell you that you ought to have done it ? = Ti-a spus el/ea tie ca se cuvine/cuvenea s-o fi facut ?

Ought your friend to have been an engineer ? = Se cuvenea prietenul tau sa fie inginer? = Se cuvenea prietenul tau sa fi fost inginer ?

If I were you I should/would learn more. = Daca as fi in locul tau as invata mai mult.

If I had seen you I might have helped you. = Daca te-as fi vazut as fi putut sa te ajut.

Had I known him I should/would have helped him. = Sa-l fi cunoscut, l-as fi ajutat.

Even if they had been there, they couldn't have helped us. = Chiar daca ei ar fi fost acolo nu ar fi putut sa ne ajute.

C. Conjugarea verbelor principale la conditional perfect - diateza activa

to read = a citi

A || I should/would have read = eu as fi citit     we should/would have read = noi am fi citit

you would have read = tu ai fi citit you would have read = voi ati fi citit

he/she would have read = el/ea ar fi citit    they would have read = ei/ele ar fi citit

N || I should/would not have read = I shouldn't/wouldn't have read = eu nu as fi citit = eu n-as fi citit etc.

I || should/would I have read ? = eu as fi citit ? = as fi citit eu ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not have read ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have read ? = eu nu as (eu n-as) fi citit ? = nu as (n- as) fi citit eu ? etc.

D. Conjugarea verbelor principale la conditional perfect- diateza pasiva

to be seen = a fi vazut

A || I should/would have been seen = eu as fi fost vazut(a)

you would have been seen = tu ai fi fost vazut(a)

he/she/it would have been seen = el/ea ar fi fost vazut(a)

we should/would have been seen = noi am fi fost vazuti/vazute

you would have been seen = voi ati fi fost vazuti/vazute

they would have been seen = ei/ele ar fi fost vazuti/vazute

N || I should/would not have been seen = I shouldn't/wouldn't have been seen = eu nu as (eu n-as) fi fost vazut(a) etc.

I || should/would I have been seen ? = eu as fi fost vazut(a) ? = as fi fost eu va- zut(a) ? etc.

I - N || should/would I not have been seen ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have been seen ? = eu nu as (eu n-as) fi fost vazut(a) ? = nu as (n-as) fi fost eu vazut(a) ? etc.

E. Conjugarea verbelor reflexive la conditional perfect

to enjoy oneself = a se distra

A || I should/would have enjoyed myself = eu m-as fi distrat

you would have enjoyed yourself = tu te-ai fi distrat

he would have enjoyed himself = el s-ar fi distrat

she would have enjoyed herself = ea s-ar fi distrat

we should/would have enjoyed ourselves = noi ne-am fi distrat

you would have enjoyed yourselves = voi v-ati fi distrat

they would have enjoyed themselves = ei/ele s-ar fi distrat

N || I should/would not (I shouldn't/wouldn't) have enjoyed myself = eu nu m-as fi distrat etc.

I || should/would I have enjoyed myself? = eu m-as fi distrat? = m-as fi distrat eu? etc.

I - N || should/would I not have enjoyed myself ? = shouldn't/wouldn't I have enjoyed myself ? = eu nu m-as fi distrat ?= nu m-as fi distrat eu ? etc.

Exemple care contin verbe la subjonctiv si conditional

I should/would come if I could come. = As veni daca as putea sa vin.

We should/would come if we should/would come. = Am veni daca ar trebui sa venim.

They would come if they might come. = Ei ar veni daca le-ar fi permis sa vina.

I should/would have come if I had had time. = Eu as fi venit daca as fi avut timp.

We should/would have come if we had had to come. = Noi am fi venit daca ar fi trebuit sa venim.

He would have come if it had not been so late. = El ar fi venit daca n-ar fi fost asa tarziu.

We should/would have given you the books if we have found you at home. = V-am fi dat cartile daca v-am fi gasit acasa.

If he hadn't told me the truth, I shouldn't/wouldn't have given him anything. = Daca nu mi-ar fi spus adevarul, nu i-as fi dat nimic.

He wishes he were rich. = El ar vrea sa fie bogat. (dar nu este)

2.4. Modul imperativ (The Imperative Mood)

Exprima un sfat, un indemn, un ordin, o sugestie, o recomandare, o rugaminte, o dorinta, o urare etc.

Come here ! = Vino/Veniti aici !

Wait a moment ! = Asteapta/Asteptati o clipa !

Speak louder ! = Vorbeste/Vorbiti mai tare !

Rugaminti, ordine, recomandari, urari sau comenzi pot fi adresate si persoanelor I si III. In acest caz se apeleaza la auxiliarul let care este urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ si apoi de un verb la infinitiv scurt prezent.

A || let me go! = sa merg/plec eu! = sa ma duc eu!

go! = mergi/pleaca! = du-te!

let him go! = sa mearga/plece el! = sa se duca el!

let her go! = sa mearga/plece ea! = sa se duca ea!

let it go! = sa mearga/plece el/ea! = sa se duca el/ea!

let us go! = let's go! = sa mergem/plecam noi! = sa ne ducem noi!

go! = mergeti/plecati! = duceti-va!

let them go! = sa mearga/plece ei/ele! = sa se duca ei/ele!

N || do not (don't) let me go! = let me not go! = sa nu merg/plec eu!

do not (don't) go! = nu te duce! = nu pleca!

do not (don't) let him go! = let him not go! = sa nu mearga/plece el! = el sa nu se duca!

do not (don't) let her go! = let her not go! = sa nu mearga/plece ea!= ea sa nu se duca!

do not (don't) let it go! = let it not go! = sa nu mearga/plece el/ea! = el/ea sa nu se duca!

do not (don't) let us go! = sa nu plecam/mergem! = sa nu ne ducem!

do not (don't) go! = nu plecati/mergeti! = (sa) nu va duceti!

do not (don't) let them go! = let them not go! = sa nu plece/mearga ei/ele! = sa nu se duca!

Modul imperativ are doar timpul prezent.

Do come to see us! = Insist sa vii pe la noi! este o forma accentuata de imperativ.

Do be careful what you are doing! = Fii foarte atent ce faci!

Trust in God and He will watch over you! = Crede in Dumnezeu, iar El va veghea asupra ta!

3. Modurile impersonale ale verbului (The Non-Finite Forms of the Verb = The Verbals)

Modurile impersonale ale verbului sunt: infinitiv, gerund si participiu.

3.1. Modul infinitiv (The Infinitive Mood)

Se traduce prin infinitiv, conjunctiv, gerunziu, supin, iar in limba engleza substituie subjonctivul

They asked me to do it (Mi-au cerut s-o fac), in loc de They asked me that I (should) do it.

Infinitivul exprima scopul si se traduce prin conjunctivul romanesc.

He has come to give me a book. = El a venit sa-mi dea mie o carte.

We have come to school to learn. = Am venit la scoala sa invatam.

We go to church to pray. = Mergem la biserica sa ne rugam.

They have a lot of books to read.= Ei/Ele au o multime de carti de citit (in acest exemplu se traduce prin supin).

To be or not to be, this is the question (Shakespeare : Hamlet). = A fi sau a nu fi, aceasta-i intrebarea.

In aceste ultime doua exemple infinitivul din limba engleza s-a tradus in limba romana tot prin infinitiv.

Exista posibilitatea de a intercala intre particula infinitivala to si verb un adverb.

to greatly influence = a influenta mult

to humbly thank = a multumi umil

to again express = a exprima din nou

to rightly intervene = a interveni corect.

Aceasta forma se numeste in limba engleza The Split Infinitive.

Unele verbe la infinitiv pot fi intalnite, ca si in limba romana, la inceputul unor proverbe.

To go through fire and water. = A trece prin foc si apa.

To be in the ninth heaven. = A fi in al noualea cer.

To kill two birds with one stone. = A nimeri doi iepuri dintr-o lovitura.

To go to the dogs. = A se duce de rapa, a se ruina.

To hang by a hair. = A atarna de un fir de par.

Clasificarea infinitivului

INFINITIV

Prezent

Scurt

diateza activa

aspectul comun

look (privi)

aspectul continuu

be looking (privi)

diateza pasiva

aspectul comun

be looked at (fi privit)

aspectul continuu

be being looked at (fi privit)

Lung

diateza activa

aspectul comun

to look (a privi)

aspectul continuu

to be looking (a privi)

diateza pasiva

aspectul comun

to be looked at (a fi privit)

aspectul continuu

to be being looked at (a fi privit)

Perfect

Scurt

diateza activa

aspectul comun

have looked at (fi privit)

aspectul continuu

have been looking at (fi privit)

diateza pasiva

aspectul comun

have been looked at (fi fost privit)

aspectul continuu

have been being looked at (fi fost privit)

Lung

diateza activa

aspectul comun

to have looked at ( a fi privit)

aspectul continuu

to have been looking at (a fi privit)

diateza pasiva

aspectul comun

to have been looked at (a fi fost privit)

aspectul continuu

to have been being looked at (a fi fost privit)

3.1.2. Constructii infinitivale

A. Acuzativ cu infinitiv

I want him to come earlier. = Vreau ca el sa vina mai devreme.

I want the boy to come earlier. = Vreau ca baiatul sa vina mai devreme.

In exemplele de mai sus pronumele him si substantivul the boy sunt in cazul acuzativ si sunt urmate de verbul to come la modul infinitiv. Aceasta structura este posibila numai dupa verbe care exprima :

1. perceptii ale simturilor: to feel (a simti), to hear (a auzi), to notice (a observa), to see (a vedea), to watch (a urmari) etc.

I saw him enter the house. = L-am vazut ca intra in casa.

He heard her play the piano. = El a auzit-o cantand la pian.

You will watch us play tennis. = Ne vei privi pe noi jucand tenis.

2. ordin, permisiune, intentie, obligatie etc. : to allow (a ingadui/admite, a da voie), to command (a comanda), to compel (a obliga/forta/sili), to let (a lasa), to make (a face), to order (a ordona/porunci), to permit (a permite), to persuade (a convinge/determina), to request (a pretinde/ cere) etc.

I permit them to play in the garden. = Le permit sa se joace in gradina.

I want him to learn, not to play. = Vreau ca el sa invete, nu sa se joace.

Will you allow us to visit the museum ? = Ne permiteti sa vizitam muzeul ?

John didn't allow them to make any noise. = John nu le-a permis sa faca nici un zgomot.

He let them walk in the park. = El i-a lasat sa se plimbe in parc.

Don't make us laugh! = Nu ne face/faceti sa radem!

3. dorinta, placere, antipatie etc. : to bear (a suporta /indura /suferi), to desire (a dori/ pofti), to detest (a detesta), to hate (a uri), to like (a-i placea), to love (a iubi, a-i fi drag), to notice (a observa, a baga de seama), to perceive (a observa, a intelege), to smell (a mirosi), to taste (a avea gust de), to want (a vrea), to wish (a dori, a tanji dupa).

I'd love you to come and see us. = Mi-ar fi drag sa vii pe la noi .

A || John wants me to go. = John vrea ca eu sa merg.

John wants you to go. = John vrea ca tu sa mergi.

John wants him to go. = John vrea ca el sa mearga.

John wants her to go. = John vrea ca ea sa mearga.

John wants us to go. = John vrea ca noi sa mergem.

John wants you to go. = John vrea ca voi sa mergeti.

John wants them to go. = John vrea ca ei/ele/dansii/dansele sa mearga.

N || John does not (doesn't) want me to go. = John nu vrea ca eu sa merg etc.

I || Does John want me to go ? = Vrea John ca eu sa merg ? etc.

I - N ||Does John not (Doesn't John) want me to go ? = John nu vrea ca eu sa merg ? etc.

He asked them to be quiet and listen to him. = El le-a cerut sa taca si sa asculte la el.

I saw him not only play the guitar but also dance. = L-am vazut nu numai cantand la chitara ci si dansand.

He wanted him to do it, not me. = El a vrut ca el s-o faca, nu eu.

Do you wish them to stay or to leave ? = Vrei ca ei sa stea sau sa plece ?

He taught me to swim. = El m-a invatat sa inot.

They warned me not to come late. = M-au avertizat sa nu vin tarziu.

I cannot allow/permit her to do that. = Nu-i pot ingadui/permite ei sa faca asta.

All the neighbours thought her to be a communist. = Toti vecinii o presupuneau/ banuiau pe ea a fi comunista.

I declared myself to be against war. = M-am declarat a fi contra/impotriva razboiului.

Did you teach him to drive the car ? = L-ai invatat sa conduca masina ?

I did not deny her to be beautiful and to sing beautifully. = N-am negat ca ea este frumoasa si canta frumos.

Do you know him to be honest ? = Il stii pe el a fi (ca fiind, ca este) cinstit ?

B. Acuzativ cu infinitiv scurt

Dupa verbe ca: to feel (a simti), to hear (a auzi), to let (a lasa), to make (a face), to notice (a observa), to see (a vedea), to watch (a privi/viziona), se foloseste infinitiv scurt cand sunt folosite la diateza activa, si infinitiv lung daca sunt la diateza pasiva.

I felt the wind blow. = Am simtind vantul sufland.

Did you hear him say that ? = L-ai auzit spunand-o ?

Why don't you let me solve the problem by myself ? = De ce nu ma lasi sa rezolv problema singur ?

Who makes you laugh ? = Cine te face sa razi ?

I noticed him enter (into) the bookshop. = L-am zarit intrand in librarie.

They saw us buy some books. = Ne-au vazut cumparand niste carti.

You can watch us swim. = Poti sa ne privesti inotand.

He was heard to say something. = El a fost auzit zicand ceva.

Someone was heard to sing a song. = Cineva a fost auzit cantand un cantec.

He was allowed to do what he wanted. = A fost lasat sa faca ce vrea.

C. Constructia/Structura 'for' + pronume / substantiv in acuzativ + infinitiv

It is easy for him to understand. = Pentru el este usor de inteles. = Lui ii este usor sa inteleaga.

Este de fapt tot acuzativ cu infinitiv, dar este precedat de prepozitia for.

Se foloseste dupa structurile impersonale there is (este, se afla/gaseste), there are (sunt, se afla/gasesc), here is (iata), here are (iata), it is early (este devreme), it is easy (este usor), it is difficult (este greu), it is important (este important), it is late (este tarziu), it is necessary (este necesar), it is right (este drept/just), it is wrong (este nedrept/nejust/gresit) etc.

Here are some books for me to read. = Iata niste carti pentru mine sa citesc.

It is too early for us to go to the station. = Este prea devreme pentru noi sa mergem la gara.

Was it too late for you to learn that language ? = Era prea tarziu ca tu sa inveti limba aceea ?

There was nothing for me to do there. = Nu era nimic pentru mine de facut acolo.

It is better for you to leave now. = Este mai bine ca tu sa pleci acum. = Este mai bine pentru tine sa pleci acum.

Conjugarea structurii it is easy for me to learn

A || It is easy for me to learn. = Mie imi este usor sa invat.

It is easy for you to learn. = Tie iti este usor sa inveti.

It is easy for him to learn. = Lui ii este usor sa invete.

It is easy for her to learn. = Ei ii este usor sa invete.

It is easy for it to learn. = Lui/Ei ii este usor sa invete.

It is easy for us to learn. = Noua ne este usor sa invatam.

It is easy for you to learn. = Voua va este usor sa invatati.

It is easy for them to learn. = Lor le este usor sa invete.

N || It is not (isn't) easy for me to learn. = Mie nu-mi este usor sa invat. etc.

I || Is it easy for me to learn ? = Imi este mie usor sa invat ? etc.

I - N || Is it not (isn't it) easy for me to learn ? = Nu-mi este mie usor sa invat ? etc.

It was easy for me to learn. = Mie mi-a fost usor sa invat.. It had been easy for me to learn. = Mie imi fusese usor sa invat.

It would be easy for me to learn. = Mie mi-ar fi usor sa invat.

D. Nominativ cu infinitiv

Este varianta pasiva a acuzativului cu infinitiv, si se foloseste dupa aceleasi grupe de verbe.

1 : I want him to play the piano. = Vreau ca el sa cante la pian. - este acuzativ cu infinitiv. Iata cum se transforma el in nominativ cu infinitiv :

2 : He is wanted to play the piano by me. = Se doreste ca el sa cante la pian de catre mine.

Subiectul din exemplul 1adica I devine in exemplul 2 complement de agent (deci subiect logic).

Verbul want din exemplul 1 isi schimba diateza din activa in pasiva.

Pronumele him din exemplul 1, care era la acuzativ trece in exemplul 2 la cazul nominativ si devine subiectul propozitiei.

by me = de (catre) mine by us = de (catre) noi

by you = de (catre) tine     by you = de (catre) voi/dv.

by him/her/it = de (catre) el/ea     by them = de (catre) ei/ele

by whom? = de (catre) cine ?

By whom was he wanted to play the piano ? = Who(m) was he wanted to play the piano by ? = De (catre) cine s-a dorit sa cante el la pian ?

They were expected to come much earlier. = Erau asteptati sa soseasca mult mai devreme.

Dupa verbele to prove (a dovedi, a se dovedi), to turn out (a se dovedi), to happen (a se intampla) si to seem (a se parea) nominativul cu infinitiv este o constructie activa, nu pasiva.

She proves to be a good tennis player. = Ea se dovedeste a fi o buna jucatoare de tenis.

They do not seem to be too friendly. = Ei nu par a fi prea prietenosi.

We happened to be watching the match when he came. = S-a intamplat ca noi sa privim meciul cand a venit el.

He turned out to be a reliable man. = El s-a dovedit un om de nadejde.

If she were considered to be a good tennis player = Daca ea ar fi considerata o buna jucatoare de tenis

If she can be considered to be a good tennis player = Daca ea poate fi considerata a fi buna jucatoare de tenis

If she could be considered to be a good tennis player = Daca ea ar putea fi considerata o buna jucatoare de tenis

If she should be considered to be a good tennis player = Daca ea ar trebui sa fie considerata o buna jucatoare de tenis

Conjugarea structurii I am known to be la prezent

A ||

I am known to be = se stie/cunoaste ca eu sunt = eu sunt cunoscut a fi = eu sunt cunoscut ca fiind

you are known to be = se stie/cunoaste ca tu esti = tu esti cunoscut a fi = tu esti cunoscut ca fiind..

he is known to be = se stie/cunoaste ca el este = el este cunoscut a fi = el este cunoscut ca fiind

she is known to be = se stie/cunoaste ca ea este = ea este cunoscuta a fi = ea este cunoscuta ca fiind

it is known to be = se stie/cunoaste ca el/ea este = el/ea este cunoscut(a) a fi.. = el/ea este cunoscut(a) ca fiind

we are known to be = se stie/cunoaste ca noi suntem cunoscuti ca fiind

you are known to be = se stie/cunoaste ca voi sunteti cunoscuti ca fiind

they are known to be = se stie/cunoaste ca ei/ele sunt cunoscuti ca fiind

N || I am not known to be = eu nu se stie/cunoaste ca sunt cunoscut ca fiind    etc.

I || am I known to be? = eu se stie/cunoaste ca sunt? = se cunoaste/stie ca eu sunt? = sunt eu cunoscut ca fiind? etc.

I - N || am I not known to be? = eu nu se stie/cunoaste ca sunt ? = nu sunt eu cu-noscut a fi? = eu nu sunt cunoscut ca fiind? etc.

I was known to be = se stia/cunostea ca eu sunt = eu eram cunoscut a fi = eu eram cunoscut ca fiind

I had been known to be = se stiuse/cunoscuse ca eu sunt = eu fusesem cu-noscut a fi

if I were known to be = daca s-ar sti/cunoaste ca eu sunt.

if I had been known to be = daca s-ar fi stiut/cunoscut ca eu sunt = daca eu as fi fost cunoscut ca fiind

Modul participiu (The Participle Mood)

diateza activa

diateza pasiva

prezent

seeing = vazand

beeing seen = fiind vazut

speaking = vorbind

Participiu

trecut

seen = vazut

seen = vazut

spoken = vorbit

perfect

having seen = vazand

having been seen = fiind vazut

having spoken = vorbind

Din schema si exemplificarea de mai sus se vede ca participiul are trei timpuri, iar pentru unele verbe are forme pentru diatezele activa si pasiva

1. Participiul prezent impreuna cu verbul to be, care se conjuga, formeaza, asa cum s-a aratat, aspectul continuu al verbelor.

I am speaking. = Eu vorbesc (acum).

Participiul prezent se mai traduce in limba romana si prin modul gerunziu.

We watched them playing football. = I-am privit jucand fotbal.

The boy running is John = The boy, who is running, is John. = Baiatul, care alearga, este John.

We came to know each other playing tennis. = Am ajuns sa ne cunoastem jucand tenis.

Participiul prezent este un adjectiv verbal.

a singing bird = o pasare cantatoare

the coming days = zilele care vin

the rising generation = generatia care se ridica

in the coming years = in anii care vin

running water = apa curgatoare

the winning horse = calul castigator

the rising/setting sun = soarele care rasare/apune

to keep somebody waiting = a face pe cineva sa astepte

I did not keep him waiting. = Nu l-am facut sa astepte.

to find somebody doing something = a gasi pe cineva facand ceva

I found her writing a letter. = Am gasit-o scriind o scrisoare.

to leave somebody doing something = a lasa pe cineva facand ceva

I left them playing in the garden. = I-am lasat jucandu-se in gradina.

I felt the earth shaking. = Am simtit pamantul clatinandu-se.

to see somebody doing something = a vedea pe cineva facand ceva

She is watching her baby sleeping. = Ea isi supravegheaza copilul care doarme.

Did you catch him stealing anything ? = L-ai prins furand ceva ?

Keep on singing! = Cantati mai departe!

I can feel the wind blowing. = Pot simti vantul sufland.

I like to listen to the birds singing. = Imi place sa ascult la pasari cantand.

We left her learning her lessons. = Am lasat-o invatandu-si lectiile.

He wrote the exercise while singing a song. = A scris exercitiul cantand un cantec.

I noticed him smiling happily at them. = L-am zarit/observat zambind fericit catre ei.

Did you see us swimming in the lake ? = Ne-ati/ne-ai vazut (pe noi) inotand in lac ?

Searching in the library I came across an interesting book. = Cautand prin biblioteca, am dat peste o carte interesanta.

We were watching the setting sun and the waves receding from the shore. = Priveam soarele care apunea si valurile ce se retrageau de la tarm.

A man learning to swim should be very cautious. = Un om care invata sa inoate ar trebui sa fie foarte precaut.

2. Participiul trecut (The Past Participle) este a III-a forma de baza a verbelor, forma care intra in alcatuirea timpurilor The Present Perfect si The Past Perfect.

3. Participiul perfect (The Perfect Participle)

Having given him the book, I went home. = Dupa ce i-am dat (lui) cartea, (eu) am plecat acasa.

Structura aceasta consta din participiul prezent al verbului to have urmat de un verb la participiul trecut.

Having been read the book was returned to the library. = After the book had been read it was returned to the library. = Dupa ce a fost citita cartea a fost inapoiata la biblioteca.

Constructii participiale

A. Acuzativ cu participiu

Everybody admired him driving his car. = Toata lumea l-a admirat conducan-du-si masina.

Nobody heard her playing the piano or singing any song. = Nimeni n-a auzit-o cantand la pian sau cantand vreun cantec.

I did not hear the bell ringing. = N-am auzit clopotelul (soneria) sunand.

B. Nominativ cu participiu

Were you heard singing a song? = Ai fost (tu) auzit cantand un cantec?

Was the bell heard ringing? = A fost clopotelul (soneria) auzit(a) sunand?

C. Nominativul absolut

The door being locked, we went to bed. = Usa fiind incuiata, ne-am dus la culcare.

We may go swimming while the sun is shining. = Putem merge sa inotam in timp ce soarele straluceste.

D. Participiul absolut

Judging by appearances is not the best method. = A judeca dupa aparente nu este cea mai buna metoda.

Exemple cu structuri care contin verbe la participiul trecut :

We saw a deserted village. = Am vazut un sat parasit

He found the window shut. = El a gasit fereastra inchisa.

Can you make your presence felt ? = Iti poti face prezenta simtita ?

You should make yourself respected. = Ar trebui sa te faci respectat.

She felt herself admired. = S-a simtit admirata.

You must have your hair cut. = Trebuie sa-ti scurtezi/tunzi parul.

Modul gerunziu (The Gerund Mood)

Este un substantiv verbal, si seamana ca forma cu participiul.

His coming was expected. = Venirea lui era asteptata.

Seeing is believing. = Faptul de a vedea (vazutul) inseamna a crede.

diateza activa

diateza pasiva

Gerund

prezent

seeing = vazand

being seen = fiind vazut

perfect

having seen = dupa ce a vazut

having been seen = dupa ce a fost vazut

Acest substantiv verbal apare de obicei dupa verbe cu prepozitii ca :

to accuse of = a acuza de

He was accused of being late. = A fost acuzat de intarziere.

We accuse him of having committed a crime. = Il acuzam pentru comiterea unei crime.

to be afraid of = a se teme de

They were afraid of coming across a tiger. = Se temeau sa nu dea peste un tigru.

to be astonished at a fi uimit/uluit de

Were you astonished at seeing the shark ? = Erati uimiti la vederea rechinului ?

to be aware of = a-si da seama de, a fi constient de

We were aware of John's being cleverer than Nick. = Eram constienti de faptul ca John era mai destept decat Nick.

to be fond of = a fi amator de

He is fond of swimming and fishing. = Este amator de inot si pescuit.

to be good at = a fi bun/priceput la

Tom is good at driving cars. = Tom este bun/priceput la conducerea masinilor.

to be impressed by = a fi impresionat de

Everybody was impressed by his scoring the goal. = Toti erau impresionati de inscrierea golului de catre el.

to be interested in a-l interesa

He is interested in learning English. = Il intereseaza invatarea limbii engleze.

to be proud of = a fi mandru de

Are you proud of your son's winning the prize ? = Esti mandru de castigarea premiului de catre fiul tau ?

to be satisfied with = a fi multumit de

We are satisfied with winning the prize. = Suntem multumiti de castigarea premiului.

to appologize for a-si cere iertarea pentru

You must appologize to him for not replying to his letter. = Trebuie sa-ti ceri iertarea de la el pentru a nu-i fi raspuns la scrisoare.

to begin by = a incepe prin a

I ought to begin by thanking you for = Se cuvine sa incep prin a-ti multumi pentru

to complain of a se plange de

We are complaining of having such bad weather. = Ne plangem (de faptul) ca avem o vreme asa de proasta.

to contribute to a contribui la

He contributed to our winning the prize. = El a contribuit la castigarea premiului de catre noi.

to be crazy about a fi nebun/mort/topit dupa

John is crazy about fishing. = John este nebun dupa pescuit.

to count (up) on = to rely on a se baza / bizui pe = a conta pe

You can count/rely on our helping you. = Poti sa te bazezi/bizuiesti pe faptul ca noi te ajutam.

to depend on/upon a depinde de

Does everything depend on his winning a scholarship ? = Depinde totul de castigarea unei burse de catre el ?

to forgive for = a ierta pentru

We forgive you for your being late. =Te iertam pentru intarzierea ta.

to insist on = a insista asupra

Need you insist on her writing her homework ? = Este nevoie sa insisti asupra scrierii temei sale de catre ea ?

to long for a tanji dupa

We are longing for a short holiday. = Tanjim dupa o scurta vacanta.

to prevent from = a impiedica / preveni sa

You must prevent your son from making mistakes. = Trebuie sa-l previi pe fiul tau sa nu faca greseli.

to refer to a se referi la

Did he refer to his coming to see us ? = S-a referit el la venirea lui pe la noi ?

to resort to a recurge la

He mustn't resort to stealing however poor he were. = El nu trebuie sa recurga la furat oricat de sarac ar fi.

to be sated with a fi satul / dezgustat de

We aren't sated with fishing and swimming, are we ? = Noi nu suntem plictisiti / satui de pescuit si inot, nu-i asa ?

to see to = a avea grija de, a se ocupa de

See to making some tea, will you ? = Vezi / ocupa-te sa faci niste ceai, te rog.

to succeed in a reusi sa

He succeeded in learning the poem by heart. = El a reusit sa invete poezia pe de rost.

to thank for a multumi pentru

Thank you for comming. = Multumesc ca ai venit.

to think of = a se gandi la

We are thinking of going on a trip. = Ne gandim sa mergem intr-o excursie.

3.3.1. Gerund prezent (The Present Gerund)

Gerund prezent (sau indefinit) este, cum s-a putut observa si in exemplele de mai sus, precedat :

a) fie de adjective posesive, ca in structurile :

my coming = venirea mea

my being late = intarzierea mea etc.

b) fie de unele substantive cu prepozitii :

He is known for his art of writing. = El este cunoscut pentru arta lui de a scrie.

Let me tell you about their surprise at seeing us! = Sa-ti povestesc despre surpriza lor la vederea noastra.

I know his interest in learning. = Ii cunosc interesul pentru invatatura.

I like the idea of building a house here. = Imi place ideea de a construi o casa aici.

Alte astfel de substantive cu prepozitii dupa care se poate folosi gerund-ul sunt:

the art of (living) = arta de a (trai) astonishment at = uimire fata de

confidence in = incredere in dependence on = dependenta fata de

disappointment at = dezamagire la experience in = experienta in

fear of = teama de idea of = idee de a

interest in = interes fata de risk of = riscul de a

mode of (living) = modul de a (trai) surprise at = surpriza la

Gerund-ul prezent se traduce fie prin gerunziu, fie printr-un substantiv, fie prin infinitiv sau conjunctiv.

I prefer watching football matches. = Eu prefer vizionarea meciurilor de fotbal.

He went on smoking and drinking coffee. = El a continuat sa fumeze si sa bea cafea.

Please excuse my saying so. = Te rog sa ma scuzi ca zic/spun asa.

Do you mind opening the window ? = Te/Va deranjeaza daca deschid fereastra ?

Did you mind my opening the window ? = Te-a/V-a deranjat ca am deschis fereastra ?

Do you enjoy dancing ? = Iti place mult sa dansezi ?

Willing and wishing are two different things, aren't they ? = A vrea/voi si a dori sunt doua lucruri diferite, nu-i asa ?

Any work needs correcting. = Oricare lucrare are nevoie sa fie corectata.

I like swimming not mountain climbing. = Imi place inotul nu alpinismul.

Some women hate fishing. = Unele femei detesta pescuitul.

3.3.2. Gerund perfect (The Perfect Gerund)

He does not remember having said such a thing. = El nu-si aminteste sa fi spus/zis asa ceva.

Do you remember having invited them there ? = Iti amintesti sa-i fi invitat pe ei acolo ?

Iata in continuare o lista de verbe dupa care se foloseste gerund-ul :

to admit = a admite, to allow/permit = a ingadui/permite, to anticipate = a anticipa, to attempt = a incerca, to advice = a sfatui, to avoid = a evita, can't bear = a nu putea suferi, to consider = a considera, to continue = a continua, to deny = a nega, to enjoy = a savura, to excuse = a scuza, to finish = a termina, to forgive = a ierta, to hate = a uri, to imagine = a imagina, to intend = a intentiona, to like = a-i placea, to love = a iubi, a-i fi drag, to mean = a insemna; a vrea sa spuna, to mind = a supara, to miss = a pierde; a-i fi dor de, to postpone = a amana, to prefer = a prefera, to propose = a propune, to regret = a regreta, to remember = a-si aminti, to risk =a risca, to start = a porni, to stop = a opri, to suggest = a sugera, to try = a incerca, used to = obisnuia sa.

Tot gerund se mai foloseste dupa expresii ca :

it's no use = it's no good = n-are rost/sens sa

It's no use going now. = N-are rost sa mergem acum.

can't stand = a nu suferi/inghiti/suporta

I can't stand wasting time. = Nu pot suferi irosirea timpului.

can't help = a nu putea sa nu, a nu avea incotro

I can't help laughing when I see you making faces = Nu pot sa nu rad cand te vad strambandu-te.

4. Conjugarea expresiilor there is, there are

there is = este, se afla, exista, se gaseste.

there are = sunt, se afla, exista, se gasesc.

Timpul prezent (The Present Tense)

A || There is a book on the table. = Este (Se afla/gaseste) o carte pe masa.

There are two books on the table. = Sunt (Se afla/gasesc) doua carti pe masa.

N || There is not (there isn't) a book on the table. = Nu este (Nu se afla) o carte pe masa.

There are not (there aren't) two books on the table. = Nu sunt (nu se afla) doua carti pe masa.

I || Is there a book on the table ? = Este (se afla) o carte pe masa ?

Are there two books on the table ? = Sunt (se afla) doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Is there not (isn't there) a book on the table ? = Nu este (nu se afla) o carte pe masa ?

Are there not (aren't there) two books on the table ? =Nu sunt (nu se afla) doua carti pe masa ?

Timpul prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus (The Present Perfect)

A || There has been a book on the table. = Este o carte pe masa.

There have been two books on the table. = Sunt doua carti pe masa.

N || There has not (hasn't) been a book on the table. = Nu este (nu se afla) o carte pe masa.

There have not (haven't) been two books on the table. = Nu sunt (nu se afla) doua carti pe masa.

I || Has there been a book on the table ? = Este (se afla) o carte pe masa ?

Have there been two books on the table ? = Sunt (se afla) doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Has there not (hasn't there) been a book on the table ? = Nu este (nu se afla) o carte pe masa ?

Have there not (haven't there) been two books on the table ? = Nu sunt (nu se afla) doua carti pe masa ?

Timpul imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus (The Past Tense)

A || There was a book on the table. = A fost (s-a aflat) o carte pe masa.

There were two books on the table. = Au fost (s-au aflat) doua carti pe masa. Erau doua carti pe masa.

N || There was not (there wasn't) a book on the table. = Nu a fost (nu s-a aflat) o carte pe masa.

There were not (there weren't) two books on the table. = Nu au fost (nu s-au aflat) doua carti pe masa.

I || Was there a book on the table ? = A fost (s-a aflat) o carte pe masa ?

Were there two books on the table ? = Au fost (s-au aflat) doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Was there not (wasn't there) a book on the table ? = Nu a (n-a) fost (nu s-a aflat) o carte pe masa ?

Were there not (weren't there) two books on the table ? = Nu au (n-au) fost (nu s-au aflat) doua carti pe masa ?

Timpul mai mult ca perfect (The Past Perfect)

A || There had been a book on the table. = Fusese (se aflase) o carte pe masa.

There had been two books on the table. = Fusesera (se aflasera) doua carti pe masa.

N || There had not (there hadn't) been a book on the table. = Nu fusese (nu se aflase) o carte pe masa.

There had not (there hadn't) been two books on the table. = Nu fusesera (nu se aflasera) doua carti pe masa.

I || Had there been a book on the table ? = Fusese (se aflase) o carte pe masa ?

Had there been two books on the table ? = Fusesera (se aflasera) doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Had there not (hadn't there) been a book on the table ? = Nu fusese (nu se aflase) o carte pe masa ?

Had there not (hadn't there) been two books on the table ? = Nu fusesera (nu se aflasera) doua carti pe masa ?

Timpul viitor simplu (The Simple Future)

A || There will (there'll) be a book on the table. = Va fi (o sa fie) o carte pe masa = Se va afla o carte pe masa.

There will (there'll) be two books on the table. = Vor fi (o sa fie) doua carti pe masa = Se vor afla doua carti pe masa.

N || There will not be (there won't be) a book on the table. = Nu va fi (n-o sa fie) o carte pe masa. = Nu se va afla (n-o sa se afle) o carte pe masa.

There will not be (there won't be) two books on the table. = Nu vor fi (n-o sa fie) doua carti pe masa. = Nu se vor afla (n-o sa se afle) doua carti pe masa.

I || Will there be a book on the table ? = Va fi (o sa fie) o carte pe masa ? = Se va afla (o sa se afle) o carte pe masa ?

Will there be two books on the table ? = Vor fi (o sa fie) doua carti pe masa ? = Se vor afla doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Will there not (won't there) be a book on the table ? = Nu va fi o carte pe masa ? = Nu se va afla o carte pe masa ?

Will there not (won't there) be two books on the table ? = Nu vor fi (n-o sa fie) doua carti pe masa ? = Nu se vor afla (n-o sa se afle) doua carti pe masa ?

Timpul viitor anterior (The Future Perfect)

A || There will (there'll) have been a book on the table. = Va fi fost o carte pe masa. = Se va fi aflat o carte pe masa.

There will (there'll) have been two books on the table. = Vor fi fost doua carti pe masa.

N || There will not (there won't) have been a book on the table. = Nu va fi fost o carte pe masa. = Nu se va fi aflat o carte pe

There will not (there won't) have been two books on the table. = Nu vor fi fost doua carti pe masa.

I || Will there have been a book on the table ? = Va fi fost (se va fi aflat) o carte pe masa ?

Will there have been two books on the table ? =Vor fi fost (se vor fi aflat) doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Will there not (won't there) have been a book on the table ? = Nu va fi fost (nu se va fi aflat) o carte pe masa ?

Will there not (won't there) have been two books on the table ? = Nu vor fi fost (nu se vor fi aflat) doua carti pe masa ?

Timpul viitor in trecut (The Future in the Past)

A || There would be a book on the table. = Va fi (se va afla) o carte pe masa.

There would not (wouldn't) be a book on the table. = Nu va fi (nu se va afla) o carte pe masa.

There would not (wouldn't) be two books on the table. = Nu vor fi (nu se vor afla) doua carti pe masa.

Timpul viitor apropiat/intentiei (The Near Future)

A || There is going to be a book on the table. = Va fi (o sa fie) o carte pe masa.

There are going to be two books on the table. = Vor fi (o sa fie) doua carti pe masa.

N || There is not going to be a book on the table. = Nu va fi (n-o sa fie) o carte pe masa.

There are not going to be two books on the table. = Nu vor fi (n-o sa fie) doua carti pe masa.

I || Is there going to be a book on the table ? = Va fi (o sa fie) o carte pe masa ?

Are there going to be two books on the table ? = Vor fi (o sa fie) doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Is there not (isn't there) going to be a book on the table? = Nu va fi (n-o sa fie) o carte pe masa?

Are there not (aren't there) going to be two books on the table ? = Nu vor fi (n-o sa fie) doua carti pe masa ?

Expresiile there is si there are combinate cu verbele modale la Present Tense

- cu verbul can-could = a putea/sti, a fi posibil

A || There can be a book on the table. = Poate fi (se poate afla) o carte pe masa.

There can be two books on the table. = Pot fi (se pot afla) doua carti pe masa.

N || There cannot (there can't) be a book on the table. = Nu poate fi (nu se poate afla) o carte pe masa.

There cannot (there can't) be two books on the table. = Nu pot fi (nu se pot afla) doua carti pe masa.

I || Can there be a book on the table ? = Poate fi (se poate afla) o carte pe masa ?

Can there be two books on the table ? = Pot fi (se pot afla) doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Can there not (can't there) be a book on the table ? = Nu poate fi (nu se poate afla) o carte pe masa ?

Can there not (can't there) be two books on the table ? = Nu pot fi (nu se pot afla) doua carti pe masa ?

- cu verbul may - might = a putea, a fi voie/permis

A || There may be a book on the table. = Poate fi (este voie sa fie) o carte pe masa.

There may be two books on the table. = Pot fi (este voie sa fie) doua carti pe masa.

N || There may not (there mayn't) be a book on the table. = Nu poate fi (nu este voie sa fie) o carte pe masa.

There may not be two books on the table. = Nu pot fi (nu este voie sa fie) doua carti pe masa.

I || May there be a book on the table ? = Poate fi (este voie sa fie) o carte pe masa ?

May there be two books on the table ? = Pot fi (este voie sa fie) doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || May there not be a book on the table ? = Nu poate fi (nu este voie sa fie) o carte pe masa ?

May there not be two books on the table ? = Nu pot fi (nu este voie sa fie) doua carti pe masa ?

cu verbul must = to have to = trebuie sa = a trebui sa

A || There must be a book on the table. = Trebuie sa fie o carte pe masa.

There must be two books on the table. = Trebuie sa fie doua carti pe masa.

N || There must not (there mustn't) be a book on the table. = Nu trebuie sa fie (nu trebuie sa se afle) o carte pe masa.

There must not (there mustn't) be two books on the table. = Nu trebuie sa fie doua carti pe masa.

I || Must there be a book on the table ? = Trebuie sa fie (trebuie sa se afle) o carte pe masa ?

Must there be two books on the table ? = Trebuie sa fie doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Must there not (musn't there) be a book on the table ? = Nu trebuie sa fie (nu trebuie sa se afle) o carte pe masa ?

Must there not (musn't there) be two books on the table ? = Nu trebuie sa fie doua carti pe masa ?

Expresiile there is si there are combinate cu verbele modale la Past Tense

A || There could be a book on the table. = Putea fi o carte pe masa. = Putea sa se gaseasca o carte pe masa.

There could be two books on the table. = Puteau fi doua carti pe masa. = Puteau sa se afle doua carti pe masa.

N || There could not (there couldn't) be a book on the table. = Nu putea fi o carte pe masa. = Nu putea sa se gaseasca o carte pe masa.

There could not (there couldn't) be two books on the table. = Nu puteau fi doua carti pe masa. = Nu puteau sa se afle doua carti pe masa.

I || Could there be a book on the table ? = Putea fi o carte pe masa ?= Putea sa se gaseasca o carte pe masa ?

Could there be two books on the table ? = Puteau fi doua carti pe masa? = Puteau sa se afle doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Could there not (couldn't there) be a book on the table ? = Nu putea fi o carte pe masa? = Nu putea sa se gaseasca o carte pe masa ?

Could there not (couldn't there) be two books on the table ? = Nu puteau fi doua carti pe masa ? = Nu puteau sa se afle doua carti pe masa ?

A || There might be a book on the table. = Putea fi (era voie sa fie) o carte pe masa.

There might be two books on the table. = Puteau fi (era voie/permis sa fie) doua carti pe masa.

N || There might not (there mighn't) be a book on the table. = Nu putea fi (nu era voie sa fie) o carte pe masa.

There might not (there mightn't) be two books on the table. = Nu puteau fi (nu era voie sa fie) doua carti pe masa.

I || Might there be a book on the table ? = Putea fi (era voie sa fie) o carte pe masa?

Might there be two books on the table ? = Puteau fi (era voie sa fie) doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Might there not (mighn't there) be a book on the table ? = Nu putea fi (nu era voie sa fie) o carte pe masa ?

Might there not be two books on the table ? = Nu puteau fi (nu era voie sa fie) doua carti pe masa ?

A || There had to be a book on the table. = Trebuia sa fie (trebuia sa se afle) o carte pe masa.

There had to be two books on the table. = Trebuia sa fie doua carti pe masa.

Expresiile there is si there are combinate cu verbele modale la Future Tense

A || There will possibly be a book on the table. = Va putea fi o carte pe masa.

There will possibly be two books on the table. = Vor putea fi doua carti pe masa.

N || There will not (there won't) possibly be a book on the table. = Nu va putea fi o carte pe masa.

There will not (there won't) possibly be two books on the table. = Nu vor putea fi doua carti pe masa.

I || Will there possibly be a book on the table ? = Va putea fi o carte pe masa ?

Will there possibly be two books on the table ? = Vor putea fi doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Will there not (won't there) possibly be a book on the table ? = Nu va putea fi (sa se afle) o carte pe masa ?

Will there not (won't there) possibly be two books on the table ? = Nu vor putea fi (sa se afle) doua carti pe masa ?

Expresiile there is si there are combinate cu verbele modale la Future in the Past

A || There could be a book on the table. = Va putea fi o carte pe masa.

There could be two books on the table. = Vor putea fi doua carti pe masa.

N || There could not be (there couldn't be) a book on the table. = Nu va putea fi o carte pe masa.

There could not be (there couldn't be) two books on the table. = Nu vor putea fi doua carti pe masa.

Exemplu: He told me that there could be a book on the table. = El mi-a spus ca va putea fi o carte pe masa.

A || There might be a book on the table. = Va putea fi o carte pe masa.

There might be two books on the table. = Vor putea fi doua carti pe masa.

N || There might not (there mightn't) be a book on the table. = Nu va putea fi o carte pe masa. = Nu va fi permis sa fie o     carte pe masa.

There might not (there mightn't) be two books on the table. = Nu vor putea fi doua carti pe masa. = Nu va fi permis sa fie doua carti pe masa.

A || There had to be a book on the table. = Va trebui sa fie o carte pe masa.

There had to be two books on the table. = Va trebui sa fie doua carti pe masa.

N || There had not (there hadn't) to be a book on the table. = Nu va trebui sa fie o carte pe masa.

There had not (there hadn't) to be two books on the table. = Nu va trebui sa fie doua carti pe masa.

I-N || I didn't find out whether there might be a book on the table. = N-am aflat daca va putea fi o carte pe masa.

I didn't find out whether there would be a book on the table. = Nu am aflat daca va fi o carte pe masa.

Expresiile there is si there are la Conditionalul prezent

A || There would be a book on the table. = Ar fi (s-ar afla) o carte pe masa.

There would be two books on the table. = Ar fi (s-ar afla) doua carti pe masa.

N || There would not be a book on the table. = Nu ar fi o carte pe masa. = Nu s-ar afla o carte pe masa.

There would not be two books on the table. = Nu ar fi doua carti pe masa. = Nu s-ar afla doua carti pe masa.

I || Would there be a book on the table ? = Ar fi o carte pe masa ?

Would there be two books on the table ? = Ar fi doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Would there not be a book on the table ? = Nu ar fi o carte pe masa ? = Nu s-ar afla o carte pe masa ?

Expresiile there is si there are la Conditionalul perfect

A || There would have been a book on the table. = Ar fi fost o carte pe masa.

There would have been two books on the table. = Ar fi fost doua carti pe masa.

N || There would not have been a book on the table. = Nu ar fi fost o carte pe masa. = Nu s-ar fi aflat o carte pe masa.

There would not have been two books on the table. = Nu ar fi fost doua carti pe masa.

I || Would there have been a book on the table ? = Ar fi fost o carte pe masa ? = S-ar fi aflat o carte pe masa ?

Would there have been two books on the table ? = Ar fi fost doua carti pe masa? = S-ar fi aflat doua carti pe masa ?

I - N || Would there not have been a book on the table ? = Nu ar fi fost o carte pe masa? = Nu s-ar fi aflat o carte pe masa ?

Would there not have been two books on the table ? = Nu ar fi fost doua carti pe masa ?

Expresiile there is si there are la Subjunctive II

A || If there were a book on the table. = Daca ar fi o carte pe masa. = Daca s-ar afla o carte pe masa

If there were two books on the table. = Daca ar fi doua carti pe masa. = Daca s-ar afla doua carti pe masa.

N || If there were not a book on the table. = Daca nu ar fi o carte pe masa. = Daca nu s-ar afla o carte pe masa.

If there were not two books on the table. = Daca nu ar fi doua carti pe masa. = Daca nu s-ar afla doua carti pe masa.

Expresiile there is si there are la Subjunctive III

A || If there had been a book on the table. = Daca ar fi fost o carte pe masa. = Daca s-ar fi aflat o carte pe masa.

If there had been two books on the table. = Daca ar fi fost doua carti pe masa = Daca s-ar fi aflat doua carti pe masa.

N || If there had not been a book on the table. = Daca n-ar fi fost o carte pe masa. = Daca nu s-ar fi aflat o carte pe masa.

If there had not been two books on the table. = Daca n-ar fi fost doua carti pe masa. = Daca nu s-ar fi aflat doua carti pe

Alte exemple cu there is si there are:

We should not want there to be new wars. = Nu am vrea sa fie noi razboaie.

Do you want there to be another festival ? = Vrei sa fie un alt festival ?

There can be no doubt about it. = Nu poate fi nici o indoiala in aceasta privinta.

He doesn't want there to be any misunderstanding. = El nu vrea sa fie nici o neintelegere.

5. Schema recapitulativa a verbului

Formele de baza ale verbului sunt:

I

II

III

IV

Present Infinitive

Past Tense

Past Participle

Present Participle/Gerund

to see

saw

seen

seeing

MODUL INDICATIV (THE INDICATIVE MOOD)

1) The Present Simple (prezent) = subiect + I (fara particula to)

I see. = Eu vad.

2) The Present Perfect (prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus) = subiect + have + III

I have seen. = Am vazut.

3) The Past Tense (imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus) = subiect + II

I saw. = Am vazut/vedeam/vazui.

4) The Past Perfect Tense (mai mult ca perfect, perfect compus) = subiect + had + III

I had seen. = Vazusem.

5) The Future Tense (viitor) = subiect + shall/will + I

I shall/will see. = Voi vedea; I'll see. = O sa vad.

The Future in the Past (viitor) = subiect + should/would + I

I should/would see = Voi vedea.

The Future Perfect (viitor anterior) = subiect + shall/will + have + III

I shall/will have seen (something). = Voi fi vazut (ceva).

Near Future (prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus, imperfect, mai mult ca perfect) = subiect + to be going to + I

I am going to see. = Am de gand sa vad. = Voi vedea. (deci viitor)

I was going to see. = Aveam de gand sa vad.

I had been going to see. = Avusesem de gand sa vad.

MODUL CONDITIONAL (THE CONDITIONAL MOOD)

1) Present Conditional (Optativ prezent) = subiect + should/would + I

I should/would come. = Eu as veni.

The Perfect Conditional (optativ trecut) = subiect + should/would + have + III

I should/would have seen. = As fi vazut.

MODUL SUBJONCTIV (THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)

1) The Subjunctive II (conditional optativ prezent) = if + subiect + II

If I saw. = Daca as vedea. etc.

2) The Subjunctive III (conditional optativ trecut) = if + subiect + had + III

If I had had time. = Daca as fi avut timp etc.

DIATEZA PASIVA

The Passive Voice (diateza pasiva) = if + to be + III

I am seen. = Sunt vazut.

ASPECTUL CONTINUU

The Continuous/Definite Progressive Aspect (aspectul continuu) = subiect + to be + IV

I am speaking. = Vorbesc (acum).

6. TIMPUL sI TIMPUL GRAMATICAL (TIME aND TENSE)

Se stie ca timpul trece si este ireversibil. El se scurge/trece dinspre viitor spre trecut, asa cum se vede in schema de mai jos:

Viitorul devine prezent, iar prezentul devine trecut.

Actiunile prezente ale verbelor coincid in principal cu momentul vorbirii; actiunile trecute sunt anterioare prezentului, iar cele viitoare sunt posterioare prezentului.





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