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Gramatica


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Ľ Timpuri limba engleza


Timpuri limba engleza




PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE

  1. Past actions with present results;

(actiuni trecute cu consecinte in prezent);

I have learnt the lesson and now I know it.




  1. Actions completed recently or which are still incomplete (recently, lately, just, already Ė only in affirmative and interrogative sentences, yet Ė only in negative and interrogative sentences);

(actiuni recent incheiate sau care inca nu s-au incheiat);

Note: In questions we use already if the action is performed earlier than expected, and yet when we only want to know if the action has been performed.

E.g Itís only 5 oíclock. Have they already arrived?

I donít know . Have they arrived yet?

  1. - Actions performed in an uncompleted period of time and which can be repeated ;

I have met him twice this week.

- Actions completed before the present moment, but whose time is not mentioned;

Iíve had a busy but profitable day.

(up to now, so far, never, often, today, this week/month/year etc)

(actiuni desfasurate intr-o perioada de timp nedefinita sau neterminata si care se mai pot repeta pana la sfarsitul perioadei);

  1. At the beginning of a conversation (in questions), when we donít know the exact moment of the action (ever, before);

(la inceputul unei conversatii, in special in intrebari, cand nu se cunoaste exact momentul in care a avut loc actiunea);

Have you ever cooked (before)?

After comparative/superlative constructions and after itís the first time .

(dupa constructii comparative/superlative si dupa itís the first time . );

This is the most interesting book I have ever read.

Itís the first time I have travelled by plane.

To express a future action that occurs before another future action (in time clauses, when in the main clause itís used the Future Tense) (as soon as, when, after, by the time, until

(pt. a exprima o actiune viitoare care va avea loc inaintea altei actiuni viitoare);

Iíll phone Angela as soon as/when/after I have had dinner.

Note Future Tense Negative + until + Present Perfect

You wonít go out until you have finished your work!

Future Tense Affirmative + by the time + Present Perfect

I will have been hungry by the time the television programme has finished!

Other time phrases:

FOR the period of time;

SINCE the beginning of the period

I have known him since 1999 / for 7 years.

Affirmative

S + HAVE/HAS (3rd pers. sing.)+ Vb. III (Past Participle)

He has seen two films this afternoon.

Interrogative

HAVE/HAS + S + Vb. III ?

Has he seen two films this afternoon?

Negative:

S + HAVE/HAS + NOT (HAVENíT/HASNíT) + Vb. III

He hasnít seen two films this afternoon.



THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS

Activities which began in the past, include the present and may extend into the future;

(actiuni care au inceput in trecut, continua in prezent si pot continua si in viitor);

They have been playing tennis for two hours.

Recent actions which explain present results;

(actiuni recente cu rezultate evidente in prezent);

Please excuse my dirty clothes. Iíve been working in the garden.

Constantly repeated actions (actiuni repetate in mod constant);

Iíve been taking French lessons for six months.

Affirmative

S + HAVE/HAS (3rd pers. sing.) + BEEN + Vb.-ING

They have been playing tennis since 5 oíclock

Interrogative

HAVE/HAS + S +BEEN + Vb.-ING

Have they been playing tennis since 5 oíclock?

Negative:

S + HAVE/HAS + NOT (HAVENíT/HASNíT) + Vb.-ING

They havenít been playing tennis since 5 oíclock.

PAST TENSE

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

Action in the past when the time/place of the action is mentioned:

I     had a busy but profitable day yesterday.

The time of the past action is not mentioned:

I have had a busy but profitable day.

To ask for specific information:

Did you meet him yesterday?

To open a conversation:

Have you met my friend?

The period of time is completed:

I read this book last month.

The period of time is uncompleted:

I have read two books this month.

ĄHow long ago

I met her two years ago.

ĄHow long

I have known her for two years.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE vs.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS

Present Perfect Tense CONTINUOUS refers to a period of time extending up to the present moment (HOW LONG?)

He has been listening to records for one hour.

Present Perfect Tense SIMPLE refers to the number of things/actions performed within that period of time (HOW MANY?)

He has listened two records.








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