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Susbtantivul (the noun)


Susbtantivul (the noun)


SUSBTANTIVUL (THE NOUN)

Substantivul (lat.: substantivus; substans = substanta; sub = sub/dedesubt, stans = asezat) este partea de vorbire care denumeste fiinte, obiecte, stari, notiuni, insusiri etc.

1. Clasificare



- comune (Common Nouns)

dog (caine), cat (pisica), bird (pasare), house (casa), apple (mar), girl (fata), boy (baiat), water (apa).

- proprii (Proper Nouns)

John, Alice, Romania, London, Europe, Asia, July, Sunday, Great Britain etc.

- abstracte (Abstract Nouns)

friendship (prietenie), joy (bucurie), wisdom (intelepciune), safety ( siguranta), theory (teorie), gratitude (recunostinta) etc.

- inidividuale (Individual Nouns)

man (barbat), house (casa), stone (piatra), tree (copac) etc.

- colective (Collective Nouns)

team (echipa), army (armata), family (familie), fleet (flota), crowd (multime), flock (stol), swarm (roi), group (grup) etc.

- nume de materie (Names of Matter)

water (apa), air (aer), fire (foc), beer (bere), milk (lapte), steel (otel), silver (argint), gold (aur), snow (zapada), wine (vin), tea (ceai), salt (sare) etc.

2. Genul substantivelor (The Gender of the Nouns)

masculin (masculine)

feminin (feminine)

(he = el)

(she = ea)

actor = actor

actress = actrita

bachelor = celibatar

spinster = celibatara

barman = barman

barmaid = barmanita

boy = baiat

girl = fata

bridegroom = ginere

bride = mireasa

brother = frate

sister = sora

dad/daddy = tati/taticu

mam/mammy = mami

earl = conte

countess = contesa

father = tata

mother = mama

gentleman = domn

gentlewoman = doamna

god = zeu

goddess = zeita

grandfather = grandpa = bunic

grandmother = grandma = bunica

hero = erou

heroine = eroina

husband = sot

wife = sotie

king = rege

queen = regina

lad = flacau

lass = fata

landlord = proprietar

landlady = proprietareasa

man = barbat

woman = femeie

master = stapan

mistress = stapana

monk = calugar

nun = calugarita

nephew = nepot

niece = nepoata

papa/daddy = tata

mamma/mammy = mama

policeman = politist

policewoman = politista

prince = print

princess = printesa

salesman = vanzator

saleswoman = vanzatoare

sir = domn

madam = doamna

son = fiu

daughter = fiica

tutor = tutore

governess = guvernanta

uncle = unchi

aunt = matusa

neutru (neuter)

comun (common)

(it = el/ea)

(he/she = el/ea)

air = aer

associate = asociat/asociata

ball = minge

architect = arhitect/arhitecta

book = carte

artist = artist/artista

box = cutie

beginner = incepator/incepatoare

bread = paine

author = autor/autoare

building = cladire

child = copil/copila

bus = autobuz

buyer = cumparator/cumparatoare

crocodile = crocodil

client = client/clienta

error = greseala

companion = insotitor/insotitoare

fish = peste

cook = bucatar/bucatareasa

flag = drapel

cousin = verisor/verisoara

flute = flaut

customer = client/clienta

fork = furculita

customs officer = vames/vamesa

glory = glorie

dancer = dansator/dansatoare

helicopter = elicopter

doctor = doctor/doctorita

honour = onoare

dreamer = visator/visatoare

house = casa

driver = sofer/soferita

impression = impresie

dyer = vopsitor/vopsitoare

indifference = indiferenta

economist = economist/economista

kangaroo = cangur

engineer = inginer/inginera

land = pamant

examiner=examinator/examinatoare

legend = legenda

fighter = luptator/luptatoare

light = lumina

friend = prieten/prietena

march = mars

guest = musafir/musafira

medal = medalie

interpreter = interpret/interpreta

microbe = microb

journalist = jurnalist/jurnalista

minaret = minaret

owner = posesor/posesoare

monkey = maimuta

painter = pictor/pictorita

mouse = soarece

parent = parinte

mushroom = ciuperca

masculin (masculine)

feminin (feminine)

(he = el)

(she = ea)

boy friend = prieten

girl friend = prietena

brother - in - law = cumnat

sister - in - law = cumnata

bull = taur

cow = vaca

cock = cocos

hen = gaina

dog = caine

bitch = catea

drake = ratoi

duck = rata

father - in - law = socru

mother - in - law = soacra

fisherman = pescar

fox = vulpoi

vixen = vulpe

gipsy/gypsy = tigan

gipsy/gypsy woman = tiganca

grandson = nepot

granddaughter = nepoata

horse = cal

mare = iapa

host = gazda

hostess = gazda

lion = leu

lioness = leoaica

lord = domn

lady = doamna

man-servant = servitor

maid - servant = servitoare

Mr. = domnul

Miss/Mrs. = domnisoara/doamna

negro = negru

negress = negresa

ox = bou

cow = vaca

peasant = taran

peasant woman = taranca

pirate = pirat

postman = postas

schoolboy = scolar

schoolgirl = scolarita

soldier = soldat

son - in - law = ginere

daughter - in - law = nora

steward = stevard

stewardess = stevardesa

tom cat = pisoi

pussy cat = pisica

turkey cock = curcan

turkey hen = curca

usher = plasator

usherette = plasatoare

waiter = chelner

waitress = chelnerita

neutru (neuter)

comun (common)

(it = el/ea)

(he/she = el/ea)

net = plasa

photographer = fotograf/fotografa

novel = roman

physician = doctor/doctorita

number = numar

physicist = fizician/fiziciana

occupation = ocupatie

passenger = pasager/pasagera

ocean = ocean

manager = manager/managera, director/direc- toare

oil = ulei

philosopher = filozof

page = pagina

physiologist = fiziolog

panic = panica

pilot = pilot

part = parte

player = jucator/jucatoare

pear = para

playwright = dramaturg

petal = petala

printer = tipograf/tipografa

piano = pian

prisoner = prizonier/prizoniera

pig = porc

purchaser = cumparator/ cumparatoare

pot = oala

supporter = suporter/suportera

root = radacina

reader = cititor/cititoare

scorpion = scorpion

reporter = reporter/reportera

shark = rechin

rival = rival/rivala

sparrow = vrabie

scholar = invatat/invatata

sphere = sfera

scientist = savant/savanta

stage = scena

smoker = fumator/fumatoare

stick = bat

spectator = spectator/spectatoare

sun = soare

spouse = sot/sotie

tea = ceai

successor = succesor/succesoare

telephone = telefon

superintendent = supraveghetor/ supraveghetoare

etc.

theorist = teoretician/teoreticiana

weaver = tesator/tesatoare

welder = sudor/sudorita

worker = muncitor/muncitoare

writer = scriitor/scriitoare

3. Pluralul substantivelor

3.1. Pluralul regulat al substantivelor

Se formeaza prin adaugarea literei s.

book - books = carte - carti

Litera s semn al pluralului substantivelor , al persoanei a III-a singular a verbelor si al genitivului saxon/sintetic al substantivelor, se citeste:

[ s ] - cand este precedata de consoane nesonore/surde

book - books = carte - carti

to speak - he speaks = a vorbi - el vorbeste

the economist's pen] = stiloul economistului

[ z ] - cand este precedata de o consoana sonora

chair - chairs = scaun - scaune

to receive - he receives = a primi - el primeste

the girl's flowers =florile fetei ;

[ iz ] - cand este precedata de s, z, ch, sh sau consoane suieratoare/sibilante;

bench - benches = banca - banci

bus - buses = autobuz - autobuze

fox - foxes = vulpoi - vulpoi

George' s books = cartile lui George

to teach - he teaches = a preda/explica - el preda/explica

to wash - he washes = a (se) spala - el se spala

Unele substantive terminate in y, precedat de consoana primesc s la plural, dar pe y il transforma in ie.

baby - babies = copilas - copilasi

beauty - beauties = frumusete - frumuseti

city - cities = oras - orase etc.

Substantivele terminate in y formeaza pluralul prin simpla adaugare la sfirsitul lor a literei s daca in fata lui y se afla o vocala :

boy - boys = baiat - baieti

day - days = zi - zile

play - plays = piesa - piese

toy - toys = jucarie - jucarii etc

Substantivele care se termina in f sau ff formeaza pluralul prin adaugarea lui s :

chief - chiefs = sef - sefi

cliff - cliffs = stanca - stanci

grief - griefs = suparare/mahnire - suparari/mahniri

Dar iata si exceptii:

calf - calves = vitel - vitei

half - halves = jumatate - jumatati

knife - knives = cutit - cutite

leaf - leaves = frunza - frunze

life - lives = viata - vieti

loaf - loaves = franzela - franzele

shelf - shelves = raft - rafturi

thief - thieves = hot - hoti

wife - wives = sotie - sotii

wolf - wolves = lup - lupi

Substantivele terminate in o formeaza pluralul astfel

a) - unele adauga terminatia es :

hero - heroes = erou - eroi

mosquito - mosquitoes = tantar - tantari

negro - negroes = negru - negri

potato - potatoes = cartof - cartofi

tomato - tomatoes = tomata - tomate

volcano - volcanoes = vulcan - vulcani

b) - altele adauga doar litera s :

casino - casinos = cazino - cazinouri

cuckoo - cuckoos = cuc - cuci

embryo - embryos = embrion- embrioni

kangaroo - kangaroos = cangur - canguri

piano - pianos = pian - piane

radio - radios = radio - radiouri

photo - photos = fotografie - fotografii

studio - studios = studio - studiouri

3.2. Pluralul neregulat al substantivelor

businessman - businessmen = om / oameni de afaceri

child - children = copil - copii

die - dice = zar - zaruri

Englishman - Englishmen = englez - englezi

fireman - firemen = pompier - pompieri

fisherman - fishermen = pescar - pescari

foot - feet = laba - labe

gentleman - gentlemen = domn - domni

gentlewoman - gentlewomen = doamna - doamne

goose - geese = gasca - gaste

louse - lice = paduche - paduchi

man - men = barbat - barbati

mouse - mice = soarece - soareci

postman - postmen = postas - postasi

sportsman - sportsmen = sportiv - sportivi

tooth - teeth = dinte/masea - dinti/masele

woman - women = femeie - femei

3.3. Plurale straine

Grecesti:

analysis - analyses = analiza - analize

axis - axes = axa - axe

basis - bases = baza - baze

crisis - crises = criza - crize

diagnosis - diagnoses = diagnostic - diagnostice

metropolis - metropolises = metropola - metropole

sphinx - sphinxes = sfinx - sfincsi

octopus - octopuses/octopi = caracatita - caracatite

Latinesti:

agendum - agenda = agenda - agende

alga - algae = alga - alge

aquarium / aquariums = acvariu - acvarii

bacillus - bacilli = bacil - bacili

candelabrum - candelabra = candelabru - candelabre

erratum - errata = erata - erate

gymnasium - gymnasiums = gimnaziu- gimnazii

mausoleum - mausoleums = mausoleu - mausolee

stimulus - stimuli = stimul - stimuli

stratum - strata = strat - straturi

3.4. Plurale asimilate in limba engleza

arena - arenas = arena - arene

circus - circuses = circ - circuri

dilemma - dilemmas = dilema - dileme

diploma - diplomas = diploma - diplome

drama - dramas = drama - drame

genius - geniuses = geniu - genii

idea - ideas = idee - idei

minus - minuses = minus - minusuri

opera - operas = opera - opere

umbrella - umbrellas = umbrela - umbrele

3.5. Pluralul substantivelor compuse

blackboard - blackboards = tabla - table

motel - motels = motel - moteluri

mother - in - law - mothers - in - law = soacra - soacre

passer - by - passers - by = pieton - pietoni

son - in - law - sons - in - law = ginere - gineri

3.6. Pluralul fractiilor zecimale

one quarter - three quarters = un sfert - trei sferturi

one third - two thirds = o treime - doua treimi

one fifth - two fifths = o cincime - doua cincimi

one seventh - two sevenths = o septime - doua septimi

3.7. Pluralul unor abrevieri

Member of Parliament (M.P.) - Members of Parliament (M.P.s) = membru al parlamentului, membri ai parlamentului

Mountain (Mt. ) - Mountains (Mts) = munte - munti

Post - Office (P.O.) - Post - Offices (P.O.s) = oficiu postal - oficii postale.

3.8. Substantive numai cu forma de plural

spectacles = glasses = ochelari, trousers = pantaloni, clothes = haine, scissors = foarfeci

3.9. Substantive numai cu forma de singular

advice = sfat, equipment = echipament/utilaj, furniture = mobila, information = informatie/informatii, knowledge = cunostinte, news = stiri, money = bani

3.10. Substantive cu aceeasi forma pentru singular si plural

sheep = oaie - oi, fish = peste - pesti, deer = caprioara - caprioare,

Portughese = portughez - portughezi, Chinese = chinez - chinezi

4. Cazurile substantivelor (The Cases of the Nouns)

Cazul este categoria gramaticala prin care se exprima raporturi sintactice intre cuvinte prin modificarea formelor acestora.

4.1. Cazul nominativ (The Nominative Case)

Este cazul subiectului si raspunde la intrebarile: who ? = cine ? , what ? = = ce?

The boy is playing in the garden. = Baiatul se joaca in gradina.

Who is playing in the garden? = Cine se joaca in gradina ?

I saw John. - Who saw John? - I did. = Eu l-am vazut pe John. - Cine l-a vazut pe John? - Eu.

The book is on the table. - What is on the table? - The book is. = Cartea este pe masa. - Ce este pe masa ? - Cartea.

Alice and Gabi are in the street. - Who is/are in the street ? - Alice and Gabi are. = Alice si Gabi sunt pe strada. - Cine este pe strada? - Alice si Gabi.

4.2. Cazul vocativ (The Vocative Case)

Este cazul adresarii sau al chemarii.

George, will you help me ? = George, vrei sa ma ajuti ?

Come here, my boy ! = Vino aici, fiule !

4.3. Cazul genitiv (The Genitive Case)

Este cazul atributului si raspunde la intrebarile: whose ? = al cui ?, a cui ?, ai cui?, ale cui ?, which ?= care ?, which of ?= care dintre ?, what ?= ce/care ?

Cazul genitiv este de patru feluri:

a) saxon/sintetic

b) prepozitional/analitic

c) dublu

d) implicit/aglutinant

4.3.1. Genitivul saxon/sintetic (The Saxon Genitive or the Possesive Case)

Se formeaza la singular cu ' (apostrof) plus litera s si se intrebuinteaza cu substantive masculine si feminine.

all Shakespeare's plays = toate piesele lui Shakespeare

John Major's diplomacy = diplomatia lui John Major

the boy's friend = prietenul baiatului

this man's gift = talentul acestui om

La plural sau daca posesorul se termina in s se adauga doar apostroful.

the boys' friend = prietenul baietilor

the children's ball = mingea copiilor

the boys' ball = mingea baietilor

Dickens' novels = romanele lui Dickens

Genitivul saxon se mai foloseste si in unele structuri cum ar fi:

A Midsummer Night's Dream = Visul unei nopti de vara

at a stone's throw = la o distanta de o aruncare de piatra

at Shakespeare's = la Shakespeare acasa

the night's coolness = racoarea noptii

the house of my sister's husband = casa sotului sorei mele

the sun's heat = caldura soarelui

the sea's roar = vuietul marii

to go to the barber's = a merge la frizerie

to his heart's content = pe pofta inimii lui

today's news = stirile de azi

without a moment's rest = fara o clipa de odihna

a talk of ten minutes = a ten minutes' talk = o discutie de zece minute

a two miles' walk = a walk of two miles = o plimbare de doua mile

England's football team = echipa de fotbal a Angliei

I must go to Mr. Brown's house. = Trebuie sa merg la domnul Brown acasa

to be at one's wit's/ wits' end = a fi in incurcatura, a fi la capatul puterilor

4.3.2. Genitivul prepozitional/analitic (The Prepositional/Analitical Genitive)

Se formeaza cu prepozitia of si se foloseste cu substantive de toate genurile.

the smell of the flower/flowers = mirosul florii/florilor

the friend of the boy = the boy's friend = prietenul baiatului

the friends of the boys = the boys' friends = prietenii baietilor

the friend of the boys = the boys' friend = prietenul baietilor

the friends of the boy = the boy's friends = prietenii baiatului

some books of my friend = niste carti ale prietenului meu

a friend of mine/yours/his/hers = un prieten al meu/tau/lui/ei

a friend of ours/yours/theirs = un prieten al nostru/vostru/lor

a brother of my friend = un frate al prietenului meu

a book of my sister = o carte a sorei mele

one of my good friends = unul din bunii mei prieteni

one of my best friends = unul din cei mai buni prieteni ai mei

this interesting book of Helen's = aceasta carte interesanta a Elenei

a dancing couple = a couple that/which is dancing = un cuplu care danseaza

a burning house = a house that is burning = o casa care arde

a sleeping dog = a dog that/which is sleeping = un caine care doarme

the boy between John and Nick = the boy who is between John and Nick = = baiatul dintre John si Nick = baiatul care este intre John si Nick.

the man in the street = omul de pe strada, omul de rand, omul obisnuit

a boy of eleven (years) = un baiat de unsprezece ani

a man with grey hair = un om cu par carunt

the girl with glasses = fata cu ochelari

the girl wearing glasses = fata care poarta ochelari

my friend's friend = prietenul prietenului meu

my friends' friend = prietenul prietenilor mei

my friend's friends = prietenii prietenului meu

my friends' friends = prietenii prietenilor mei

a walk of ten minutes = a ten minute walk = o plimbare de zece minute

our walk of ten minutes = our ten minute walk = plimbarea noastra de zece minute

a drive of ten miles = a ten mile drive = o plimbare de zece mile cu masina

a journey of two days = a two day journey = o calatorie de doua zile

my holiday of two weeks = my two week holiday = vacanta mea de doua saptamani

4.3.3. Genitivul dublu (Group Possesive

my friend's birthday/ the birthday of my friend = ziua de nastere a prietenului meu

her sister, Alice's blue eyes = ochii albastri ai sorei sale, Alice

his son-in-law's birthday = ziua de nastere a ginerelui sau/lui

my friend, Tom's birthday = ziua de nastere a prietenului meu, Tom

someone else's birthday = ziua de nastere a altcuiva

that boy's friend's book = cartea prietenului baiatului aceluia = cartea prietenului acelui baiat.

4.3.4. Genitivul implicit/aglutinant (The Implicit Genitive)

The United Nations Organisation = Organizatia Natiunilor Unite

Students Organisation = Organizatia studentilor

ignition timing = reglarea aprinderii

a heart disease = o boala de inima

4.4. Cazul dativ (The Dative Case)

Cazul dativ este cazul complementului indirect si raspunde la intrebarile: to whom ? who(m) to? = cui? for whom ? who(m) for ? = pentru cine ?, to what ? what to ? = la ce ? etc.

I give Alice two books. = I give two books to Alice. = Eu ii dau lui Alice doua carti. = Eu ii dau doua carti lui Alice.

To whom do I give two books ? = Who(m) do I give two books to ? = Cui dau eu doua carti ?

Everybody is working for him. = Toti lucreaza pentru el.

For whom is everybody working ? = Pentru cine lucreaza toti ?

Who(m) is everybody working for ? = Pentru cine lucreaza toti ?

I am referring to John. = Eu ma refer la John.

Who(m) am I referring to ? = To whom am I referring    ? = La cine ma refer eu?

dativ acuzativ acuzativ dativ

I have brought John a book. = I have brought a book to John.

I-am adus lui John o carte. = I-am adus o carte lui John.

Din exemplul de mai sus se observa ca, atunci cand in propozitie acuzativul (compl. direct) sta inaintea dativului (compl. indirect), se foloseste obligatoriu particula to .

Alte exemple:

I offered my wife some flowers. = I offered some flowers to my wife = I-am oferit sotiei mele niste flori. = I-am oferit niste flori sotiei mele.

The book belongs to me. = Cartea imi apartine mie.

The book does not belong to me .= Cartea nu-mi apartine mie.

Does the book belong to me ? = Imi apartine mie cartea ?

To whom does the book belong ? = Who(m) does the book belong to ? = Cui ii apartine cartea ?

He forgives us our mistake. = El ne iarta noua greseala noastra.

His coming is a mystery to me. = Venirea lui este un mister pentru mine.

The advantage is obvious to them. = Avantajul le este evident.

What relation are you to this boy ? = Ce ruda esti tu cu acest baiat ?

This computer is superior to other computers. = Acest calculator este superior altor calculatoare.

The matter is open to discussion.= Chestiunea este deschisa discutiei.

Give my friend that book, please ! = Give that book to my friend, please ! = Da-i prietenului meu cartea aceea, te rog !

I am going to write to my friend. = Am de gand sa-i scriu prietenului meu.

Do not be cruel to animals ! = Nu fi crud fata de animale !

You must not be blind to his mistakes. = Nu trebuie sa fii orb fata de greselile lui.

His uncle gave him a present. = Unchiul sau / lui i-a dat un cadou.

4.5. Cazul acuzativ (The Accusative Case)

Este cazul complementului direct si raspunde la intrebarile whom ? = pe cine ?, what ? = ce ?

I see the boy every day. = Il vad pe baiat in fiecare zi.

Whom do I see every day ? = Pe cine vad eu in fiecare zi ?

You see the book on the table. = Tu vezi cartea pe masa.

What do you see on the table ? = Ce vezi tu pe masa ?

My sister is looking for a book. = Sora mea cauta o carte.

What is my sister looking for ? = Ce cauta sora mea ?

5. Declinarea substantivelor (The Declension of the Nouns)

Trecerea unui substantiv (sau pronume) prin toate cazurile la numarul singular si la numarul plural poarta numele de declinare.

5.1. Declinarea cu articol nehotarat a unui substantiv masculin si a unui substantiv feminin

singular

plural

N.

a boy = un baiat

boys = baieti

a girl = o fata

girls = fete

G.

of a boy = a boy's = al, a , ai, ale unui baiat

of boys = boys' = al, a, ai, ale, unor baieti, de baieti

of a girl = a girl's = al, a, ai, ale unei fete

of girls = girls' = al, a , ai, ale, unor fete, de fete

D.

(to) a boy = unui baiat

(to) boys = unor baieti

(to) a girl = unei fete

(to) girls = unor fete

A.

a boy = un baiat

boys = baieti

a girl = o fata

girls = fete

V.

boy ! = baiete !, baiatule !

girl ! = fata !

boys ! = baieti!

girls ! = fetelor !

5.2. Declinarea substantivelor cu articol hotarat

singular

plural

N.

the boy = baiatul

the boys = baietii

the girl = fata

the girls = fetele

G.

of the boy = the boy's = al, a, ai, ale baiatului

of the boys = the boys' = al, a, ai, ale baietilor

of the girl = the girl's = al, a, ai, ale fetei

of the girls = the girls' = al, a, ai, ale fetelor

D.

(to) the boy = baiatului

(to) the boys = baietilor

(to) the girl = fetei

(to) the girls = fetelor

A.

the boy = baiatul

the boys = baietii

the girl = fata

the girls = fetele

V.

5.3. Declinarea substantivelor neutre

singular

plural

N.

a table = o masa

tables = mese

the table = masa

the tables = mesele

G.

of a table = al, a, ai, ale unei mese

of tables = de mese

of the table = al, a, ai, ale mesei

of the tables = al, a, ai, ale meselor

D.

to a table = unei mese

to tables = la/unor mese

to the table = mesei

to the tables = meselor

A.

a table = o masa

tables = mese

the table = masa

the tables = mesele

V.





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