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Sintaxa frazei (the syntax of the compound and complex sentence)


Sintaxa frazei (the syntax of the compound and complex sentence)


SINTAXA FRAZEI (THE SYNTAX OF THE COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCE)

Fraza este o comunicare alcatuita din mai multe propozitii aflate intre ele fie in raporturi de coordonare fie de subordonare. In cadrul coordonarii partile de propozitie in propozitie si propozitiile in fraza sunt independente una de alta. Se pot lega intre ele prin conjunctii coordonatoare sau juxtapunere / alaturare.



Subordonare insemneaza raport / relatie sintactica de dependenta a unei parti de propozitie de alta parte de propozitie sau a unei propozitii de alta propozitie. Elementul subordonat depinde de termenul sau regent, iar propozitia subordonata depinde de regenta sa. Elementul subordonat este deci termenul dependent, iar cel regent este cel care guverneaza in cadrul relatiei respective.

Subordonarea se realizeaza prin conjunctii subordonatoare, prin juxtapunere sau printr-un cuvant de legatura subordonator.

Propozitia regenta este aceea de care depinde semantic o alta propozitie in cadrul aceleiasi fraze. Propozitia subordonata se poate adresa unui singur cuvant din regenta sa, iar acest cuvant, care se numeste termen regent, determina felul subordona-tei respective.

Pentru a se alcatui o fraza este necesar ca in cadrul ei sa existe o propozitie principala, un fel de nucleu al frazei. Alaturi de ea exista propozitii secundare, adica propozitii totdeauna cu sens insuficient. Secundarele, spre deosebire de principale nu pot exista /functiona izolate in comunicare. Propozitia secundara functioneaza in fraza ca o parte secundara a propozitiei principale.

1. Propozitia subiectiva (The Subject Clause)

Functioneaza ca subiect al predicatului din regenta si intregeste intelesul regentei.

Why they didn't come is still a secret. = De ce nu au venit ei este inca secret.

How to write a book is not known by anybody. = Cum sa scrii o carte nu se stie de catre oricine.

Se intalneste dupa expresii ca:

it is advisable that = este recomandabil ca it is better that = este mai bine sa

it is certain that = este sigur ca    it is desirable that = este de dorit ca

it is meet and proper that = se cuvine ca it is inevitable that = este inevitabil ca

It is necessary that I came. = Este necesar ca eu sa fi venit.

It is important that they will buy this book. = Este important ca ei sa cumpere aceasta carte.

It is possible that he may come tomorrow. = Este posibil ca el sa vina maine.

When they will come is not my business. = Cand vor veni ei nu este treaba mea.

When they come is not my business. = Cand vin ei nu este treaba mea.

When they came is not my business. = Cand au venit ei nu este treaba mea.

When they had come is not my business. = Cand venisera ei nu este treaba mea.

It is impossible that they should have come by train. = Este imposibil ca ei sa fi venit cu trenul.

It is compulsory for us to be there. = It is compulsory that we should be there. = It is compulsory that we be there Este obligatoriu ca noi sa fim acolo.

It is good for them to live here. = It is good that they live here. = It is good that they should live here. = E bine ca ei sa locuiasca aici.

2. Propozitia predicativa (The Predicative/Complement Clause)

Implineste functia de nume predicativ al verbului din regenta sa si se introduce in maniera in care se introduc si subiectivele.

Why he has come is the question. = De ce a venit el este problema.

Why he has come = subiectiva    is the question = predicativa

It looks as if it were going to rain. = Arata de parca ar avea de gand sa ploua.

It looks = subiectiva ; were going to rain = predicativa

Propozitia atributiva (The Atributive Clause)

Este un atribut al unui substantiv din regenta sa.

Every man, who knows him, appreciates him very much. = Fiecare om, care il cunoaste, il apreciaza foarte mult.

Every man appreciates him very much = propozitie regenta who knows him = atributiva

Termenul regent al atributivei de mai sus este substantivul man.

The reason why he has come is very clear. = Motivul pentru care a venit este foarte clar.

It rained cats and dogs on the day on which we arrived. A plouat cu galeata in ziua in care am sosit.

4. Propozitia completiva directa (The Object Clause)

Este complementul direct al verbului tranzitiv din regenta.

I did not ask him whether he was thirsty. = Nu l-am intrebat daca ii este/era sete.

Did you know whose that house was ? = Ai stiut tu a cui este/era casa aceea ?

I told you whom he gave the books to. = Eu ti-am spus cui a dat el cartile.

He said that he would come later on. = El a zis ca va veni dupa aceea.

I advised him to stay with us. = I advised that he stay with us. = L-am sfatuit sa stea cu noi.

5. Propozitia subordonata temporala (The Adverbial Clause of Time)

Este in fraza complementul circumstantial de timp pe langa un verb sau adverb din regenta sa.

I shall read this book when I have time. = Voi citi aceasta carte cand voi avea timp.

Termenul regent este verbul read.

Buy your ticket immediately that you reach the station! = Cumpara-ti biletul imediat cum ajungi la gara!

I shall read this book before you come home. = Voi citi aceasta carte inainte ca tu sa vii acasa.

I shall give you the money as soon as I meet you. = Iti voi da banii de indata ce te voi intalni.

They have been dancing ever since the party started. = Ei danseaza chiar de cand a inceput petrecerea.

She is happy when she is with her family. = Ea este fericita cand este cu familia ei.

You may stay until your cousin arrives. = Poti sta pana soseste verisorul tau.

He may write the letter while we are swimming. = El poate scrie scrisoarea in timp ce noi inotam.

You will repeat the lesson till/until you know it. = Vei repeta lectia pana o vei sti.

No sooner had the sunset than they went to bed. = Nici n-a apus soarele ca ei s-au si dus la culcare.

He may stay until John comes. = El poate sta pana vine John.

Subordonata temporala raspunde la intrebarile: when ? = cand ?, how long? = de cat timp ?, since when ? = de cand ?, till when ? = pana cand ? etc.

6. Propozitia circumstantiala de loc (The Adverbial Clause of Place)

Este complementul circumstantial de loc al unui verb sau adverb din regenta sa de care se leaga prin adverbe relative ca: where = unde, wherever = oriunde etc.

You cannot live where they live. = Nu poti trai unde traiesc ei.

We may spend our holidays wherever we like. = Noi putem petrece vacanta/ concediul oriunde ne place.

I'll go wherever I can find work. = Voi merge oriunde pot gasi de lucru.

7. Subordonata de proportie (The Clause of Proportion)

Este o varianta a subordonatei de mod.

The more we are, the better it is. = Cu cat suntem mai multi, cu atat mai bine.

As time went on, (so) she began to type more quickly. = Cum timpul a trecut, ea a inceput sa bata la masina mai repede. = Cu trecerea timpului ea a inceput sa scrie la masina mai repede.

The harder you work, the more money you make. = Cu cat muncesti mai mult, cu atat castigi mai multi bani.

8. Subordonata preferentiala (The Clause of Preference)

Se traduce prin subordonata opozitionala.

Rather than play football, I'd prefer to swim. = Decat sa joc fotbal, as prefera sa inot.

Rather than play football, you had better learn. = Decat sa joci fotbal, mai bine ai invata. = Decat sa joci fotbal, mai bine sa inveti.

I would play football rather than learn. = As juca fotbal mai degraba decat sa invat.

9. Propozitia circumstantiala de mod si comparativa (The Adverbial Clause of Manner and Comparison)

Joaca rolul de complement circumstantial de mod pe langa un verb sau un adverb din regenta sa.

Mary sings as beautifully as her sister does. = Maria canta la fel de frumos cum canta sora ei.

My friend is older than your friend (is). = Prietenul meu este mai mare/batran decat este al tau.

He looked at me as if/though he hadn't known me. = El a privit la mine de parca nu m-ar fi cunoscut.

Alice sings more beautifully than Jane (does). = Alice canta mai frumos decat canta Jane.

She was singing as beautifully as her sister, Alice was. = Ea canta la fel de frumos cum canta sora ei, Alice.

Tomorrow we shall work more than we worked yesterday. = Maine vom munci mai mult decat am muncit ieri.

Subordonata circumstantiala de mod raspunde la intrebarile: how? = cum?, how beautifully ? = cat de frumos ?, how much ? = cat de mult ?, how little ? = cat de putin ?, how big ? = cat de mare ? etc.

She cooks the breakfast exactly as her mother did. = Ea pregateste micul dejun exact cum facea mama ei.

10. Propozitia subordonata cauzala (The Adverbial Clause of Cause/Reason)

Este in fraza respectiva un complement circumstantial de cauza pe langa termenul sau regent care este un verb sau un adverb din regenta sa.

I didn't meet them there because I was late. = Nu i-am intalnit acolo pentru ca am intarziat.

Se leaga de regenta sa prin conjunctii sau adverbe relative ca: because = pentru ca, for the reason that = pentru motivul ca, seeing that = vazand ca, on the ground that = din cauza ca, owing to the fact that = datorita faptului ca, as = caci, since = intrucat, on account that = din cauza ca etc.

Raspunde la intrebari ca: why ? = de ce ?, on what account ? = din ce cauza, for what reason ? = din ce motiv/cauza ? etc.

Seeing that they did not come I went home. = Vazand ca ei nu vin am plecat acasa.

I did not come owing to the fact that it was too late. = Eu nu am venit pentru faptul ca era prea tarziu.

11. Propozitia subordonata finala (de scop) (The Adverbial Clause of Purpose)

Corespunde in fraza respectiva unui complement circumstantial de cauza pe langa un verb sau adverb din regenta sa, respectiv pe langa termenul sau regent.

You must get up earlier, so that you can meet him at the station. Trebuie sa te scoli mai devreme ca sa-l poti intampina pe el la gara.

We got up early, so that we should not be late for school. = Ne-am sculat de-noapte ca sa nu intarziem de la scoala.

He must turn on the light lest he should knock himself against something in the darkness. = El trebuie sa aprinda lumina ca sa nu se loveasca de ceva pe intuneric.

Subordonata finala se leaga de regenta sa prin conjunctiile si adverbele relative: in order that = cu scopul de a, so that = asa incat, that = incat/ca, lest (+ should) = ca sa nu, for fear that = de teama sa nu, on purpose to = cu scopul de a.

I shall go to England so that I can learn English well. Eu voi merge in Anglia ca sa pot invata englezeste bine.

In limba engleza un mare numar de subordonate finale se realizeaza cu ajutorul modului infinitiv, desi se stie ca infinitivul nu este un mod personal.

We go to school to learn. = Mergem la scoala sa invatam. = Mergem la scoala pentru a invata.

We go to church to pray. = Mergem la biserica pentru a ne ruga. = Mergem la biserica sa ne rugam.

They came here on purpose to borrow money from us. = Ei au venit aici cu scopul de a imprumuta bani de la noi.

Raspunde la intrebarile: on what purpose ? = cu ce scop ?, for what reason ? = pentru care motiv ?, for what ? = what.. for ? = pentru ce ?

12. Subordonata concesiva (The Adverbial Clause of Concession)

Se introduce prin conjunctiile: though, although = desi, cu toate ca, however = oricat de, whoever = indiferent cine, in spite of = in ciuda /pofida, even if/though = chiar daca, whichever = indiferent care, no matter who = indiferent cine, no matter whose = indiferent al, a, ai, ale cui ?, no matter by whom = no matter who(m) by = indiferent de cine, no matter why = indiferent de ce, no matter how = indiferent cum , no matter when = indiferent cand, no matter where = indiferent unde

Though it is late we shall sit and watch the football match. Desi este tarziu noi vom sta si vom privi meciul de fotbal.

We shall watch the football match although it is late. Noi vom privi meciul de fotbal desi este tarziu.

Late as it is we shall watch the football match. Tarziu asa cum este noi vom privi meciul de fotbal. = Asa tarziu cum este noi vom privi meciul de fotbal.

You should be waiting for him even if it were late. Ar trebui sa-l astepti chiar daca ar fi tarziu.

In acest ultim exemplu se observa in subordonata folosirea modului subjonctiv prin care se exprima o situatie ireala sau o presupunere.

You should have been waiting for him even if it had been late. Ar fi trebuit sa-l astepti chiar daca era tarziu.

We shall go to see them even if it is rather early. = Mergem pe la ei desi este cam devreme.

I buy it however expensive it is. = Il /O cumpar indiferent cat este de scump(a).

I should buy it however expensive it were. = As cumpara-o indiferent cat ar fi ea de scumpa. = L-as cumpara indiferent cat ar fi de scump.

If they're poor, at least they're honest. = Daca sunt saraci cel putin sunt cinstiti.

13. Propozitia consecutiva (The Adverbial Clause of Result or The Consecutive Adverbial Clause)

Exprima rezultatul/urmarea/consecinta actiunii din propozitia regenta.

Alice was so beautiful that everybody was admiring her. Alice era asa/atat de frumoasa incat toata lumea o admira.

His explanation was so clear that each of us understood it = Explicatia lui a fost asa de clara incat fiecare dintre noi a inteles-o.

He never goes to the seaside but spend a lot of money. El nu merge niciodata la mare fara sa cheltuiasca multi bani.

Such was the force of his argument that everybody agreed with him. = Asa mare a fost forta argumentului sau ca toata lumea a fost de acord cu el.

Se introduce prin conjunctiile: so that = asa de incat/ca, that = ca/incat

He was so clever that everybody admired him. El era asa/atat de destept ca/incat toata lumea il admira.

14. Propozitia subordonata conditionala (The Adverbial Clause of Condition or the Conditional Clause)

Reprezinta conditia infaptuirii/indeplinirii actiunii din regenta sa. Se leaga de regenta sa cu ajutorul conjunctiilor conditionale : if = daca, on condition that = cu conditia ca, providing/provided that = cu conditia ca, suppose/supposing that = presupunand ca = daca, unless = daca nu, cu conditia ca nu , whether or not = daca sau nu, as soon as = de indata ce = daca, as long as = cat timp = daca, in case = in caz ca = daca

Exista trei tipuri de conditionale, clasificare facuta in raport cu posibilitatea realizarii/ indeplinirii actiunii din regenta respectiva.

a) Subordonata conditionala tip I - conditie reala si posibila, iar verbul din regenta sa este la viitor. Locul lor in fraza se poate schimba.

If I have time I shall read this book. = Daca voi avea timp voi citi aceasta carte.

I shall read this book if I have time. = Voi citi aceasta carte daca voi avea timp.

I shall not read this book unless I have time. = Nu voi citi aceasta carte daca nu voi avea timp.

I shall read this book on the condition that I have time. = Voi citi aceasta carte cu conditia ca voi avea timp.

Remind him of his promise in case he forgets. = Aminteste-i de promisiunea lui in caz ca uita.

I'll remind you of your promise in case you forget. = Iti voi aminti de promisiunea ta in caz ca uiti.

I'll not be waiting for you if you are late. = Nu te voi astepta daca vei intarzia.

I'll not wait for you if you are late. = Nu te voi astepta daca vei intarzia.

Din exemplele de mai sus se vede ca actiunea din conditionala probabil/ posibil se va indeplini.

b) Subordonata conditionala tip II conditie ireala si improbabila, dar nu imposibila

I should read this book if I had time. = Eu as citi aceasta carte daca as avea timp.

Se observa ca in exemplul de mai sus verbul este la modul conditional, timpul prezent, iar in regenta verbul este modul subjonctiv, timpul prezent. In aceasta situatie conditia devine probabila. In acest caz actiunea din regenta pare mai degraba sa nu se realizeze sau presupunerea din regenta pare sa fie in contradictie cu realitatea ori faptele cunoscute.

He would buy this palace if he had money. = El ar cumpara acest palat daca ar avea bani.

If he were to go on a journey round the world he would be very happy. Daca el ar fi/ trebui/ urma sa mearga intr-o calatorie in jurul lumii ar fi foarte fericit.

He would be very happy if he were to go on a journey round the world. El ar fi foarte fericit daca ar fi sa plece/mearga intr-o calatorie in jurul lumii.

c) Subordonata conditionala tip III conditie imposibila

In situatia aceasta verbul din regenta este la modul conditional perfect, iar cel din regenta este la modul subjonctiv perfect. Conditiile sunt trecute, sunt deci imposibil de indeplinit.

If I had had time I should have read the book. = Daca as fi avut timp as fi citit cartea.

sau:

I should have read the book if I had had time. = Eu as fi citit cartea daca as fi avut timp.

I should have spoken to that Englishman if I had been able to speak English. = As fi vorbit cu englezul acela daca as fi stiut englezeste.

sau:

Had I been able to speak English I should have spoken to that Englishman. Sa fi stiut eu sa vorbesc englezeste as fi vorbit cu englezul acela.

If you treat us kindly, we'll do anything for you. Daca ne tratezi (ne vei trata) amabil vom face orice pentru tine.

If you listened to us, you wouldn't make mistakes. Daca tu ai asculta de noi n-ai face greseli.

If you ever have any trouble, let us know. Daca aveti/ai vreodata vreo suparare, da-ne de stire.

If it were to rain, you would get wet. = Daca ar fi sa ploua, v-ati uda.

Should you change your mind, let me know. = Daca s-ar intampla sa te razgandesti, da-mi de veste.

Give it back to him, or I'll tell your mother. = Da-i-l inapoi ca altfel ii spun mamei tale.

15. Subordonata conditional - concesiva (The Alternative Conditional Concessive Clause)

He will pay for everything, whether he likes it or not. El va plati pentru tot, chiar daca ii place sau nu.

Wherever you live, you have to work hard. = Oriunde (indiferent unde) traiesti, trebuie sa muncesti serios/mult.

Wherever you lived, you'd have to work hard. = Oriunde ai locui/trai ar trebui sa muncesti mult.

2.3. CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR (THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES)

Este acordul obligatoriu al timpului verbului din subordonata cu timpul verbului din regenta sa. In limba engleza timpul verbului din subordonata trebuie sa se subordoneze timpului verbului din regenta. Cu alte cuvinte timpurile verbelor din regente dicteaza folosirea anumitor timpuri in subordonatele lor.

Exista in acest sens trei reguli de cunoscut si aplicat.

Regula I: Daca in regenta verbul este la Present Tense sau Present Perfect Tense in subordonata se poate folosi orice timp.

Regula II: Daca in regenta verbul este la trecut in subordonata el trebuie sa fie la unul din cele trei timpuri trecute ale limbii engleze: The Past Perfect, The Past Tense, The Future in the Past.

Regula III: Daca verbul din regenta este la viitor in subordonatele conditionale si temporale, el trebuie sa fie la Present Tense sau Present Perfect Tense, iar daca subordonata este completiva directa verbul va fi la viitor.

REGENTA

SUBORDONATA

I. Verbul este la prezent

verbul poate fi la orice timp

he had come = venise

he came = a venit

We all know that = Noi toti stim ca

he will come = el va veni

he would come el ar veni

he would have come = el ar fi venit

II. Verbul este la trecut

verbul trebuie sa fie la trecut

she had come = ea venise - anterioritate

He did not know that = El nu a stiut ca

she came = ea a venit - simultaneitate

she would come = va veni - posterioritate

III. Verbul este la viitor

A. verbul sa fie la Present sau Present Perfect in subordonatele conditionale si temporale

I shall tell you the truth if/when = Iti voi spune adevarul daca /cand

you give (have given) me the book. = imi vei da cartea.

B. verbul va fi la orice timp in subordonata completiva directa.

I shall see what Eu voi vedea ce

I shall do. = voi face.

EXCEPTII (deci cazuri cand nu se aplica regulile de concordanta a timpurilor)

1. Cand in subordonata se exprima un adevar stiintific /general.

Everybody knew that gold is a metal. = Toata lumea stia ca aurul este metal.

I told you that silver is gray. = Ti-am spus ca argintul este gri.

2. Cand subordonata este:

a) cauzala

He will not go to school because he didn't learn his lessons. El nu va merge la scoala pentru ca nu si-a invatat lectiile.

We shall go on the trip because they gave us the money. Vom merge in excursie pentru ca ei ne-au dat banii.

b) atributiva

You will see the man who wrote that book. Il vei vedea pe omul care a scris cartea aceea.

I saw the girl who will play the piano. = Am vazut fata care va canta la pian.

c) comparativ modala

Tomorrow I shall work more than I worked yesterday. Maine voi munci mai mult decat am muncit ieri.

Alte exemple:

If you didn't give him the money he won't buy any books. = Daca nu i-ai dat banii el nu va cumpara nici o carte.

If I had bought that house I would be a rich man now. = Daca as fi cumparat casa aceea as fi un om bogat acum.

If you came in time you wouldn't have missed the train. = Daca veneai la timp n-ai fi pierdut trenul.

If you were with us you would have admired the scenery. = Daca erai cu noi ai fi admirat peisajul.

2.4. TRANSFORMAREA VORBIRII DIRECTE IN VORBIRE INDIRECTA

Vorbirea directa reprezinta cuvintele unei persoane rostite intr-o imprejurare, in prezenta cuiva sau in conversatie cu cineva. In limba romana vorbirea directa se marcheaza in scris prin linie de dialog. In limba engleza ea se marcheaza prin ghilimele, care se ataseaza totdeauna sus.

limba engleza limba romana

'What is your name ?' he asked me. - Cum te cheama ? ma intreba el.

'My name is George', I answered. - Ma cheama George, am raspuns eu.

Prezentarea /repetarea cuvintelor unei persoane de catre alta oral sau in scris poarta numele de vorbire directa sau stil direct - asa cum se vede in exemplele de mai sus. Reluarea acestor cuvinte si prezentarea lor de (catre) cineva sub forma de propozitii subordonate poarta numele de vorbire indirecta sau stil indirect. S-a transformat astfel vorbirea directa in vorbire indirecta.

'What is your name ?' he asked me. = - Cum te cheama ? ma intreba el.

devine:

He asked me what my name was. = El ma intreba cum ma cheama.

Exista un mare numar de verbe cu ajutorul carora se realizeaza trecerea de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. Printre acestea sunt:

to say (a zice /grai), to ask (a intreba), to admit (a admite /incuviinta), to acknowledge (a recunoaste), to agree (a fi de acord), to answer /reply (a raspunde), to think (a gandi /crede), to tell (a spune), to wonder (a se mira) etc. Ele se numesc verbe introductive. Iata concret cum se face transformarea vorbirii directe in vorbire indirecta:

a) 'I am at home' he says.

b) 'I am at home' he said.

Daca verbul introductiv este la prezent, asa cum se vede in varianta a) verbul din vorbirea directa care prin transformare ajunge predicatul subordonatei, nu-si va modifica timpul, ci si-l va mentine astfel:

'I am at home' he says. devine: He says (that) he is at home.

Propozitia regenta este He says, iar propozitia he is at home este subordonata. In varianta b) transformarea se face astfel:

'I am at home' he said. devine: He said that he was at home.

Verbul said, in vorbirea indirecta, verbul regentei, este la Past Tense. Vom aplica concordanta timpurilor. Astfel verbul am trece si el la Past Tense. In cazul b) timpurile verbelor din vorbirea directa transformandu-se dupa cum urmeaza:

The Present devine    The Past Tense

The Past Tense si The Present Perfect devin The Past Perfect

The Future devine    The Future in the Past

Tot in aceasta situatie se mai produc urmatoarele schimbari:

I

he/she

you

I/we

our

đ

their

we

they

me

đ

him/her

my

his/her

you

đ

me/us

your

my/our

us

them

mine

his/hers

ours

theirs

yours

mine

yours

ours

this

that

these

those

today

that day

last week

the week before

yesterday

the day before or the previous day

last night

the night before

last month

the month before

last year

the year before

two/three days ago

two/three days before

here

there

on this day

on that day

now

then

tonight

that night

today

yesterday or that day

tomorrow

đ

the next day or the following day

Exemple:

'This is my brother' he said.     đ He said that that was his brother.

'These are our friends' they said. đ They said that those were their friends.

'You are in our garden' they said. đ They said that we were in their garden; They said that I was in their garden.

'I can come by my motor-car' John said. đ John said that he could come by his motor-car; John said that he was able to come by his motor-car.

'I shall come by my motor-car' John said. đ John said that he would come by his motor-car.

'I came by my motor-car' John said. đ John said that he had come by his motor-car.

'I have come by my motor-car' John said. đ John said that he had come by his motor-car.

'I should come by my motor-car' John said. đ John said that he would have come by his motor-car.

'Yesterday was my birthday' John said. đ John said that the previous day had been his birthday.

'You can see us if you turn on the light' they said. đ They said that we could see them if we turned on the light.

'You will find us at home if you come earlier' they said. đ They said that we/I would find them at home if we/I came earlier.

'You can see me if you open your eyes' he said. đ He said that I could see him if I opened my eyes.

2.4.1. Transformarea in vorbire indirecta a intrebarilor generale

Intrebarile generale sunt cele care pot primi raspunsul da sau nu.

'Do you know me'? he asked me đ He asked me if/whether I knew him.

'Did you know me'? he asked me. đ He asked me if/whether I had known him.

'Are you living in this town'? he asked me. đ He asked me if/whether I was living in that town.

'Will you come with us'? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I would come with them.

'Is he going to read this book'? he asked me. đ He asked me if/whether he was going to read that book.

'Was he going to read this book ? he asked me. đ He asked me if/whether he had been going to read that book.

'Can you come with me'? he asked me. đ He asked me if/whether I could come with him.

'Must you go there now'? he asked me. đ He asked me if/whether I had to go there then.

'Did you have to go there with them'? he asked me. đ He asked me if/whether I had had to go there with them.

2.4.2. Transformarea in vorbire indirecta a intrebarilor speciale

Intrebarile speciale sunt cele care:

- nu pot primi un raspuns scurt, adica da sau nu

- au o intonatie coboratoare (ca si propozitiile afirmative)

- se formeaza cu pronume, adjective sau adverbe interogative, sau cu combinatii ale acestora:

who? = cine, care ?

who else ? = mai cine ?, cine mai ?, cine altcineva ?

whose ? = al, a, ai, ale cui ?

whose else ? = al, a, ai, ale mai cui ?, al, a, ai, ale cui mai ?, al, a, ai, ale cui altcuiva ?

to whom ? = who(m) to ? = cui ?, la cine ?

to whom else ? = mai cui ?, cui mai ?, cui altcuiva ?, la cine altcineva ?

whom? = pe cine?

whom else? = pe mai cine?, pe cine mai?, pe cine altcineva?

about whom? = who(m) about? = despre cine?

about whom else? = despre mai cine?, despre cine mai?, despre cine altcineva?

after whom? = who(m)after? = dupa cine?

after whom else? = dupa mai cine? = dupa cine mai? = dupa cine altcineva?

among whom? = who(m) among? = printre cine?, intre cine?

among whom else? = printre mai cine?, printre cine mai?, printre cine altcineva?

at whom? = who(m) at? = la cine?

at whom else? = who(m) else at? = la mai cine?, la cine mai?, la cine altcineva?

because of whom else? = din cauza mai cui?, din a mai cui cauza?

before whom else? = inaintea mai cui?, in fata mai cui?, inaintea cui altcuiva?

between whom? = who(m) between? = intre cine?

between whom else? = intre mai cine?, intre cine altcineva?

beyond whom? = who(m) beyond? = dincolo de cine?

beyond whom else? = dincolo de mai cine?, dincolo de cine altcineva?

by whom? = who(m) by? = de cine?

by whom else? = de mai cine?, de cine altcineva?

far from whom? = departe de cine?

far from whom else? = departe de mai cine?, departe de cine altcineva?

for whom? = who(m) for? = pentru cine?

for whom else? = pentru mai cine?, pentru cine altcineva?

from whom? = who(m) from? = de la cine?

from whom else? = de la mai cine?, de la cine altcineva?

near whom? = who(m) near? = langa cine?

near whom else? = langa mai cine?, langa cine altcineva?

of whom? = who(m) of? = despre cine? = la cine?

of whom else? = despre mai cine?, despre cine altcineva?

past whom? = dincolo de cine?

past whom else? = dincolo de mai cine?, dincolo de cine altcineva?

through whom? = who(m) through? = prin cine?

through whom else? = prin mai cine?, prin cine altcineva?, prin cine altul/alta/altii/altele?

with whom? = who(m) with? = cu cine?

with whom else? = cu mai cine?, cu cine altcineva?

without whom? = who(m) without? = fara cine?

without whom else? = fara mai cine?, fara cine altcineva?

what? = ce?

what else? = mai ce?, ce mai?, ce altceva?

about what? = what about? = despre ce?

about what else? = despre mai ce?, despre ce altceva?

after what? = what after? = dupa ce?

after what else? = dupa mai ce? = dupa ce altceva?

at what? = what.. at? = la ce?

at what else? = la mai ce?, la ce altceva?

because of what? = din cauza cui?

because of what else? = din cauza mai cui?, din ce alta cauza?

before what? = inainte de ce?, in fata a ce?

before what else? = in fata mai cui?, in fata a ce altceva?

by what? = what by? = de ce?, prin ce?

by what else? = de ce altceva?, prin ce altceva?

far from what? = departe de ce?

far from what else? = departe de ce altceva?

from what? = what from? = din ce?, de la ce?

from what else? = din ce altceva?, din mai ce?

near what? = langa ce?

near what else? = langa ce altceva?, langa mai ce?

of what? = what of? = despre ce?

of what else? = despre ce altceva?

past what? = dincolo de ce?

past what else? = dincolo de ce altceva?, dincolo de mai ce?

through what? = what through? = prin ce?

through what else? = prin ce altceva?

with what? = what with? = cu ce?

with what else? = cu ce altceva?

without what? = what without? = fara ce?

without what else? = fara ce altceva?, fara mai ce?

when? = cand?

when else? = cand altcandva?, mai cand?

from when? = de cand?

from when else? = de cand altcandva?, de mai cand?

since when? = de cand?

since when else? = de cand altcandva?

till/until when? = pana cand?

where? = unde?

where else? = unde mai?, mai unde?, unde altundeva?

where abouts? = pe unde?

from where? = de unde?

from where else? = de unde altundeva?

which? = care?

about which? = which about? = despre care?

about which of them? = despre care din/dintre ei/ele?

after which of us/you/them? = dupa care dintre noi/voi/ei /ele?

after which (boy)? = dupa care (baiat)?, dupa al catelea baiat?

among which (trees)? = intre/printre care (copaci)?

among which of them? = intre care dintre ei?

(Which one of us is he looking at? = La care dintre noi priveste el?)

before which of us? = in fata caruia/careia/carora dintre noi?

between which of them? = intre care dintre ei/ele?

beyond which (house)? = dincolo de care (casa)?

beyond which of them? = dincolo de care dintre ei/ele?

far from which (place)? = departe de care (loc)?

for which of us/you/them? = pentru care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?

from which of us/you/them? = de la care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?

near which of us/you/them? = langa care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?

near which of the lakes? = langa care dintre lacuri?

past which of us/you/them? = dincolo de care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?

(Past which of you did he walk? = Dincolo de care dintre voi a trecut el?)

through which of us/you/them? = prin care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?

with which of us/you/them? = cu care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?

without which of us/you/them? = fara care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele?

how? = cum?

how else? = mai cum?, cum mai?

how long? = de cat timp?, de cata vreme?

'Who are you'? he asked me. đ He asked me who I was.

- Cine esti tu? m-a intrebat el. devine : El m-a intrebat cine sunt eu.

'Who else is with you'? he asked me. đ He asked me who else was with me.

- Cine mai este cu tine? m-a intrebat el. đ El m-a intrebat cine mai este/era cu mine.

'Whose are these books'? he asked me đ He asked me whose those books were.

- Ale cui sunt aceste carti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat ale cui sunt/erau cartile acelea.

'Whose else are these books'? he asked me. đ He asked me whose else those books were.

- Ale cui altcuiva sunt aceste carti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat ale cui altcuiva erau cartile acelea.

'To whom can you give this money'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) can you give this money to'? he asked me. đ He asked me to whom I could give that money. = He asked me who(m) I could give that money to.

- Cui poti da acesti bani? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat cui pot/puteam sa dau banii aceia.

'To whom else can you give this money'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) else can you give this money to'? he asked me. đ He asked me to whom else I could give that money. = He asked me whom/who else I could give that money to.

- Cui altcuiva poti da acesti bani? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat cui altcuiva ii pot/puteam da eu banii aceia.

'Whom do you see'? he asked me. đ He asked me whom I saw.

- Pe cine vezi? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat pe cine vad.

'Whom else do you see'? he asked me. đ He asked me whom/who else I saw.

- Pe cine altcineva vezi? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat pe cine altcineva vad. = El m-a intrebat pe cine mai vad.

'About whom are you talking'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) are you talking about'? he asked me.đ He asked me about whom I was talking. = He asked me whom/who I was talking about.

- Despre cine vorbesti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat despre cine vorbesc.

'About whom else can we talk'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) else can we talk about'? he asked me. đ He asked me about whom else we could talk. = He asked me who(m) else we could talk about.

- Despre cine altcineva putem discuta?, m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat despre cine altcineva putem discuta.

'After whom is the dog running'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) is the dog running after'? he asked me. đ He asked me after whom the dog was running. = He asked me who(m) the dog was running after.

- Dupa cine alearga cainele? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat dupa cine alearga cainele.

'After whom else was the dog running'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) else was the dog running after'? he asked me. đ He asked me after whom else the dog was running. = He asked me who(m) else the dog was running after.

Dupa cine altcineva alerga cainele? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat dupa cine altcineva alerga cainele.

'Go and fetch a doctor' he told me. đ He told me to go and fetch a doctor.

- Du-te si adu un doctor, mi-a zis el. El mi-a zis sa merg (sa ma duc) sa aduc un doctor.

'At whom are you looking'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) are you looking at'? he asked me. đ He asked me at whom I was looking. = He asked me who(m) I was looking at.

- La cine privesti tu? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat la cine privesc eu.

'Because of whom are you late'? he asked me. đ He asked me because of whom I was late. = He asked me who(m) I was late because of.

- Din cauza cui ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat din cauza cui am intarziat.

'On whose account are you late'? he asked me. = 'Whose account are you late on'? he asked me. đ He asked me on whose account I was late. = He asked me whose account I was late on.

- Din cauza cui ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat din cauza cui am intarziat.

'Due to what are you late'? he asked me. đ He asked me due to what I was late.

- Datorita carui fapt ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat datorita carui fapt am intarziat.

'Due to whom are you late'? he asked me. đ He asked me due to whom I was late. = He asked me who(m) was I late due to.

- Datorita cui ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat datorita cui am intarziat.

'Because of whom else are you late'? he asked me. đ He asked me because of whom/who else I was late.

- Din cauza cui altcuiva ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat din cauza cui altcuiva am intarziat.

'Due to whom else are you late'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) else are you late due to'? he asked me. đ He asked me due to whom else I was late. = He asked me whom/who else I was late due to.

- Datorita cui altcuiva ai intarziat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat datorita cui altcuiva am intarziat.

'Before whom were you sitting'? he asked me. đ He asked me before whom I had been sitting. = He asked me who(m) I had been sitting before.

- In fata cui sedeai tu, m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat in fata cui sedeam eu.

'Before whom else were you sitting'? he asked me. đ He asked me before whom else I had been sitting.

- In fata cui altcuiva sedeai tu? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat in fata cui altcuiva sedeam eu.

'Between whom are you going to sit'? he asked me. ='Who(m) are you going to sit between? he asked me. đ He asked me between whom I was going to sit.

- Intre cine intentionezi sa sezi? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat intre cine intentionez eu sa sed/stau.

'Between whom else did you sit'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) else did you sit between'? he asked me. đ He asked me between whom else I had sat. = He asked me who(m) else I had sat between.

Intre cine altcineva ai stat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat intre cine altcineva am stat.

'Beyond whom do you live'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) do you live beyond'? he asked me. đ He asked me beyond whom I lived.

- Dincolo de cine locuiesti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat dincolo de cine locuiesc.

'By whom is this book written'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) is this book written by'? he asked me. đ He asked me by whom that book was written. = He asked me who(m) that book was written by.

- De cine este scrisa cartea aceasta? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de cine este scrisa cartea aceasta/aceea.

'By whom else were you seen'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) else were you seen by'? he asked me. đ He asked me by whom else I had been seen. = He asked me who(m) else I had been seen by.

- De cine altcineva ai fost vazut? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de cine altcineva am fost eu vazut.

'Far from whom do you live'? he asked me. đ He asked me far from whom I lived.

- Departe de cine locuiesti tu? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat departe de cine locuiesc.

'Far from whom else were you'? he asked me. đ He asked me far from whom else I had been.

- Departe de cine altcineva erai tu? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat departe de cine altcineva eram eu.

'For whom will you write this letter'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) will you write this letter for'? he asked me. đ He asked me for whom I should write that letter. = He asked me whom I should write that letter for.

- Pentru cine vei scrie aceasta scrisoare? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat pentru cine voi scrie eu scrisoarea aceea.

'For whom else will you buy books' he asked me. = 'Who(m) else will you buy books for'? he asked me. đ He asked me for whom else I should buy books. = He asked me whom else I should buy books for.

- Pentru cine altcineva vei cumpara carti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat pentru cine altcineva voi cumpara carti.

'From whom do you have this present'? he asked me = 'Who(m) do you have this present from'? he asked me. đ He asked me from whom I had that present. = He asked me whom I had that present from.

- De la cine ai acest cadou? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de la cine am cadoul acesta/acela.

'From whom else do you have these presents'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) else do you have these presents from'? he asked me. đ He asked me from whom else I/we had those presents. = He asked me who(m) else I/we had those presents from.

- De la cine altcineva ai aceste cadouri? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de la cine altcineva am cadourile acelea/acestea.

'Near whom are you going to sit'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) are you going to sit near'? he asked me. đ He asked me near whom I was going to sit. = He asked me who(m) I was going to sit near.

- Langa cine ai de gand sa sezi? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat langa cine am eu de gand sa sed/stau.

'Near whom else did you sit'? he asked me. ='Who(m) else did you sit near'? he asked me. đ He asked me near whom else I had sat. = He asked me who(m) else I had sat near.

- Linga cine altcineva ai stat? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat linga cine altcineva am stat (eu).

'Of what did they die'? he asked me. = 'What did they die of'? he asked me. đ He asked me of what they died. = He asked me what they died of.

- De ce au murit ei? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de ce au murit ei.

'About whom are you speaking'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) are you speaking about'? he asked me. đ He asked me about whom I was speaking. = He asked me who(m) I was speaking about.

- Despre cine vorbesti tu? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat despre cine vorbesc eu.

'Of what kind of music are you fond? he asked me. = 'What kind of music are you fond of'? he asked me. đ He asked me of what kind/sort of music I was fond. = He asked me what kind of music I was fond of.

- De ce fel de muzica esti amator? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de ce fel/gen de muzica sunt amator.

'Past whom did they hurry'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) did they hurry past'? he asked me. đ He asked me past whom they hurried. = He asked me who(m) they hurried past.

- De cine au trecut ei in graba? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat de cine au trecut ei in graba.

'Through whom did you receive this letter'? he asked me = 'Who(m) did you receive this letter through'? he asked me. đ He asked me through whom I received that letter. = He asked me whom I had received that letter through.

- Prin cine ai primit scrisoarea aceasta? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat prin cine am primit scrisoarea aceea.

'Through whom else can you receive books'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) else can you receive books through'? he asked me. đ He asked me through whom else I could receive books. = He asked me who(m) else I could receive books through.

- Prin cine altcineva poti primi carti? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat prin cine altcineva pot primi eu carti.

'With whom will you go on the trip'? he asked me. = 'Who(m) will you go on the trip with'? he asked me. đ He asked me with whom I should go on the trip. = He asked me who(m) I should go on the trip with.

- Cu cine vei merge in excursie? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat cu cine voi merge eu in excursie.

'Shall I tell you a novel'? he asked me. đ He asked me if he should tell me a novel.

- Sa-ti povestesc un roman? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat daca sa-mi povesteasca un roman.

'Where is the boy you spoke to?' he asked me. đ He asked me where the boy I had spoken to was.

- Unde este baiatul cu care ai vorbit? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat unde este baiatul cu care am vorbit.

'Do you know that three and three make six'? he asked me. đ He asked me if/whether I knew that three and three make six.

- Stii ca trei plus trei fac sase? m-a intrebat el. El m-a intrebat daca stiu ca trei plus trei fac sase.

'I dreamed that I was flying' he said. đ He said (that) he had dreamed that he had been flying.

- Am visat ca zbor, a zis el. El a zis ca a visat ca zboara. etc.

2.4.3. Intrebarile disjunctive (The Tag/Tail Questions)

Se traduc in limba romana prin intrebarile: asa-i, nu-i asa sau nu?

Ele se formeaza cu ajutorul unuia dintre urmatoarele verbe: be, do, have, shall, will, can, may, must, need, ought to, dare

You are at home, aren't you? = Esti acasa, nu-i asa?

You are not at home, are you? = Nu esti acasa, nu-i asa?

He was at home, wasn't he? = Era acasa, nu-i asa?

He was not at home, was he? = El nu era acasa, nu-i asa?

He will not be at home, will he? = El nu va fi acasa, nu-i asa?

He will be at home, won't he? = El nu va fi acasa, nu-i asa?

Ele pot avea fie intonatie coboratoare si in acest caz nu se asteapta o confirmare sau o infimare din partea interlocutorului fie o intonatie urcatoare si in cazul acesta intrebarea trebuie sa primeasca raspuns (afirmativ sau negativ).

De fapt ele sunt niste comunicari formate din doua parti. Daca prima parte este afirmativa, a doua parte este obligatoriu negativa si invers. La formarea lor se mai tine seama, dupa cum s-a vazut in exemplele prezentate, de timpul si aspectul verbului primei parti a comunicarii.

They saw us in the street, didn't they ? = Ei ne-au vazut (pe noi) pe strada, nu-i asa ?

They did not come by bus, did they ? = Ei nu au venit cu autobuzul, nu-i asa ?

We have lived here for ten years, haven't we ? = Locuim aici de zece ani, nu-i asa ?

You ought to learn, oughtn't you ? = Se cuvine sa inveti, nu-i asa ?

He can't answer the question, can he ? = Nu poate sa raspunda la intrebare, nu-i asa ?

I could come earlier, couldn't I ? = Eu puteam (as putea) veni mai devreme, nu-i asa ?

She daren't go there alone, dare she ? = Ea nu are curaj sa mearga acolo singura, nu-i asa ?

You said they could come, didn't you ? = Ai/Ati spus ca pot veni, nu ?

2.4.4. Cateva reguli de ortografie si punctuatie in limba engleza

Punctul (The Full Stop)

Punctul se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiilor afirmative.

We like tennis very much. = Ne place tenisul foarte mult.

Semnul intrebarii (The Question Mark)

Semnul intrebarii se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiilor/frazelor interogative.

What is your name ? = Cum te cheama ?

Who is the boy who brought this book ? = Cine este baiatul care a adus cartea aceasta ?

Semnul exclamarii (The Exclamation Mark)

Semnul exclamarii se foloseste dupa:

a) propozitiile imperative:

Go and fetch a doctor! = Du-te si adu un doctor!

b) propozitiile care contin o mirare in care se exprima admiratia fata de ceva/ cineva:

How beautiful she is! = Ce frumoasa este ea !

How beautiful she is singing! = Ce frumos canta ea!

c) dupa interjectii:

'Hush! Hush!' said the Rabbit

Doua puncte (The Collon)

Doua puncte se aseaza cand urmeaza o enumerare, se introduce un citat sau urmeaza cuvintele cuiva (vorbire directa).

He said that he saw things like: books, pencils and pens. El a zis ca a vazut lucruri cum ar fi: carti, creioane si stilouri.

That's what he said: 'Read these books and you will find out interesting things'! = Iata ce a zis el: Citeste aceste carti si vei afla lucruri interesante!

One can visit the following cities: Cluj, Rome and London. = Se pot vizita urmatoarele orase: Cluj, Roma si Londra.

Punctul si virgula (The Semicolon)

Punctul si virgula are semnificatia unei pauze mai mari decat cea realizata cu ajutorul punctului. Se foloseste mai rar.

'I've told you once -I tell you again; We're not at home' = -Ti-am spus o data -iti spun din nou; nu suntem acasa.

Virgula (The Comma)

Virgula desparte cuvinte sau propozitii cu aceeasi valoare sintactica

John, Bill and Nick are good friends. = John, Bill si Nick sunt prieteni buni.

Ea se foloseste:

a) dupa adverbe de afirmatie sau negatie:

No, he said. = Nu, a zis el.

Yes, they answered. = Da, au raspuns ei.

b) Dupa adverbe ca: indeed (intr-adevar), however (totusi), too (de asemenea), of course (desigur):

Of course, he is right. = Desigur, el are dreptate.

c) in frazele alcatuite prin coordonare:

They went home, ate a little, took the ball and began to play football. Au mers acasa, au mancat putin, au luat mingea si au inceput sa joace fotbal.

d) intre subordonatele de acelasi fel:

He talked to me about the books that he read, that he had to read and that he liked to read. = Mi-a vorbit despre cartile pe care le-a citit, pe care trebuie sa le citeasca si pe care ii placea sa le citeasca.

In numerele lungi, virgula are in limba engleza rolul punctului in limba romana.

Linia de despartire (The Dash)

Linia de despartire marcheaza o idee nedeterminata sau o pauza lunga, asemanatoare cu aceea redata prin punct, iar uneori preia locul virgulei:

'This will bring them here -when'? = -Asta ii va aduce aici -cind?

'It's -it's a very fine day!' said a timid voice at her side. = -Este -este o zi foarte frumoasa! zise o voce timida (de) linga ea.

Liniuta de unire si de despartire (The Hyphen)

Se mai numeste cratima. Apare in cuvintele compuse:

up -to -date = modern

kind - hearted = bun la suflet

a sewing - machine = o masina de cusut

Ghilimelele (The Inverted Commas)

Ghilimelele in limba engleza marcheaza vorbirea directa:

'I've not made up my mind', he said. = - Nu m-am hotarat, zise el.

2.4.5. Despartirea cuvintelor in silabe

Cuvintele compuse se despart in respectivii componenti:

Monday = Mon/day textbook = text/book

schoolboy = school/boy understand = under/stand

Prefixele si sufixele se despart de cuvintele la care se gasesc atasate:

understanding = under/stand/ing scholarship = scholar/ship

misunderstanding = mis/under/stand/ing looked = look/ed

improvement = improve/ment smaller = small/er

Terminatia s la plural, sau la persoana a treia a verbelor sau de la genitivul sintetic nu se poate separa /desparti de cuvantul respectiv.

speaks = speaks the girls' = the girls'

boys = boys the boy's = the boy's

Iar acum, in final, celor ce doresc sa-si faca o imagine mai cuprinzatoare asupra regulilor de punctuatie, le propun sa rasfoiasca lucrari ale prozatorilor englezi, americani, australieni etc. Acolo vor putea gasi exemple edificatoare.

Lista verbelor NEREGULATE

I

Present

Infinitive

II

Past Tense

III

Past Participle

IV

Present Participle

TRADUCERE

to arise

arose

arisen

arising

a se ridica/urca/ sui/ivi, a rasari; a se starni/ isca

to awake

awoke

awake

awaking

a se trezi/destepta/ scula

to backbite

backbit

backbitten/ backbit

backbiting

a defaima/ ponegri/ barfi/calomnia,

to be

was/were

been

being

a fi, a se afla /gasi

to bear

bore

born

bearing

a purta/duce, a transporta/ cara; a rodi,

to beat

beat

beaten

beating

a bate/lovi ; a suna

to become

became   

become

becoming

a deveni/ajunge, a se potrivi

to beg

begot

begotten

begetting

a procrea, a da nastere la; a cauza

to begin

began

begun

beginning

a incepe, a debuta, a porni

to bend

bent

bent/bended

bending

a (se) indoi/ in covoia/inclina/supune, a ceda

to beset

beset

beset

besetting

a aranja/pune/ potrivi; a bloca; a coplesi, a ocupa

to bid

bid/bade

bid/bidden

bidding

a ruga/implora; a porunci/ ordona, a licita, a fagadui

to bind

bound

bound

binding

a (se) lega/uni, consolida, captusi, intari,

to bite

bit

bit/bitten

biting

a musca, ciupi, apuca, defaima

to bleed

bled

bled

bleeding

a stoarce/slei, sangera

to blend

blent/blended

blent/blended

blending

a (se) amesteca, a (se) combina, (se) asorta,

to bless

to break

broke

blessing

a binecuvanta/ slavi/ glorifica, apara; sfinti

to blow

to blew

blown

blowing

a bate/sufla, adia, rasuna, erupe

to break

broke

broken

breaking

a (se) rupe/ sparge/ frange

to breed

bred

bred

breeding

a creste/cultiva, hrani/ nutri, educa, a (se) inmulti

to bring

brought

brought

bringing

a aduce, mana/ impinge, determina

to broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

broadcasting

a difuza/ raspandi/ transmite, semana

to build

built

built

building

a construi/ cladi/ zidi,

to burn

burnt/ burned

burnt

burning

a arde/cauteriza

to burst

burst

burst

bursting

a izbucni/ plesni/ crapa

to buy

bought

bought

buying

a cumpara, corupe/mitui,

to cast

cast

cast

casting

a arunca/ azvarli, distribui,

to catch

caught

caught

catching

a (se) prinde/ apuca/fixa,

to chide

chide

chide/chidden

chiding

a certa/mustra/ dojeni, cicali

to choose

chose

chosen

choosing

a alege/ selecta/ prefera, a vrea

to cleave

cleft/clove

cleft/clove

cleaving

a (se) crapa/ despica/detasa

to cling

clung

clung

clinging

a se lipi/agata de, a se tine de; a se mula (pe)

to clothe

clothed/ clad

clothed/clad

clothing

a (se) imbraca/ invesminta/acoperi, a se gati

to come

came

come

coming

a veni/sosi, a se apropia; a exagera

to cost

cost

cost

costing

a costa/face, fixa pretul

to creep

crept

crept

creeping

a (se) tari/ furisa, a fi plecat/ umil

to crow

crowed/ crew

crowed

crowing

a canta cucu- rigu; a-si manifesta bucuria

to cut

cut

cut

cutting

a taia/reteza/ sectiona/despica/ciopli

to dare

dared/ durst

dared

daring

a indrazni/ cuteza, a avea curajul

to dig

dug

dug

digging

a sapa, a dezgropa/scormoni/ rascoli

to do

did

done

doing

a face/savarsi/ executa/infaptui

to draw

drew

drawn

drawing

a trage/ intinde/ remorca, a trasa; a distila

to dream

dreamt

dreamed/ dreamt

dreaming

a visa, a-si inchipui, crede/ gandi

to drink

drank

drunk

drinking

a bea, a sorbi, a suge

to drive

drove

driven

driving

a conduce masina; a circula

to dwell

dwelt

dwelt

dwelling

a locui/ trai/ domicilia/ salasui

to eat

ate

eaten

eating

a manca, a lua/ servi masa, a se hrani cu

to fall

fell

fallen

falling

a cadea/pica, a se prabusi

to feed

fed

fed

feeding

a (se) hrani, a alimenta, a nutri

to feel

felt

felt

feeling

a simti/resimti/ percepe, a pipai

to fight

fought

fought

fighting

a (se) lupta/ bate, a disputa, a purta razboi

I

Present

Infinitive

II

Past Tense

III

Past Participle

IV

Present Participle

TRADUCERE

to find

found

found

finding

a gasi/intalni; a vedea, a da de, a descoperi

to flee

fled

fled

fleeing

a fugi; a se refugia din, a para- si

to fly

flew

flown

flying

a zbura, a trece in zbor, a inalta in aer

to forbear

forbore

forborne

forbearing

a se abtine de la, a se feri de, a evita

to forbid

forbade

forbidden

forbidding

a interzice, a nu ingadui/ permite, a opri

to forecast

forecast(ed)

forecast(ed)

forecasting

a prevedea; a calcula dinainte

to forego

forewent

foregone

foregoing

a anticipa, a preceda

to forknow

foreknew

foreknown

foreknowing

a cunoaste/sti dinainte; a prevedea/ presimti

to foresee

foresaw

foreseen

foreseeing

a prevedea

to foretell

foretold

foretold

foretelling

a prezice/ prevesti/ prooroci

to forget

forgot

forgotten

forgetting

a uita; neglija/ nesocoti/omite

to forgive

forgave

forgiven

forgiving

a ierta

to forsake

forsook

forsaken

forsaking

a parasi/abandona; a renunta la , a se lasa de

to forswear

forsworn

forsworn

forswearing

a jura fals, a depune marturie falsa

to freeze

froze

frozen

freezing

a ingheta/ degera, a se congela; a se inspaimanta

to gainsay

gainsaid

gainsaid

gainsaying

a contrazice, a contesta/nega/tagadui

to get

got/gotten

got/gotten

getting

a capata/obtine/ procura, a face, a dobandi

to gird

girt/girded

girt/girded

girding

a incinge, a inconjura

to give

gave

given

giving

a da/darui/oferi, a face cadou, a repartiza, a inmana

to go

went

gone

going

a merge/pleca, a se deplasa/duce, a umbla

to grave

graved

graved/ graven

graving

a grava, a sculpta, a ciopli, a sapa

to grind

ground

ground

grinding

a macina/rasni/ pisa, slefui/ poliza, scrasni

to grow

grew

grown

growing

a creste/spori, a se dezvolta/ maturiza/coace, a cultiva

to hang

hung/hanged

hung/hanged

hanging

a (se) spanzura/ agata/atarna, a prinde/fixa

to have

had

had

having

a avea; a suferi de;a primi in vizita; a bea/manca

to hear

heard

heard

hearing

a auzi, a audia, a asculta

to hide

hid

hid/hidden

hidding

a (se) ascunde/ piti, a dosi/ tainui

to hit

hit

hit

hitting

a lovi/nimeri, a bate / izbi, a atinge, a da lovitura

to hold

held

held

holding

a tine/pastra, a detine, a se mentine/pastra

to hurt

hurt

hurt

hurting

a rani/leza, a dauna/strica, a lovi, a durea

to inlay

inlaid

inlaid

inlaying

a intercala/ introduce/insera

to keep

kept

kept

keeping

a pastra; a respecta, a tine seama de, a ramane/sta, a tine/mentine

to kneel

knelt/ kneeled

knelt/kneeled

kneeling

a ingenunchea, a se aseza in genunchi

to knit

knit/ knitted

knit/knitted

knitting

a croseta/ tricota/ impleti; a deosebi; a fi la curent cu

to know

knew

known

knowing

a sti , a cunoaste

to lade

laded

laden/laded

lading

a incarca/ imbarca

to lay

laid

laid

laying

a pune/aseza/ intinde/depune, a expune; a sta/ a sedea

to lead

led

led

leading

a duce/conduce/ ghida, a comanda

to lean

leant/ leaned

leant/leaned

leaning

a se rezema/ sprijini, a se aplica/ inclina, a conta pe

to leap

leapt/ leaped

leapt/leaped

leaping

a sari/salta, a face salturi

to learn

learnt/ learned

learnt/ learned

learning

a invata/ afla/ studia, a se in- strui

to leave

left

left

leaving

a lasa/abandona/ parasi, a pleca din

to lend

lent

lent

lending

a da mprumut, a imprumuta (cuiva), a inchiria, a se preta la, a folosi

to let

let

let

letting

a lasa/ingadui/ permite, a fi de inchiriat, a inchiria

to lie

lay

lain

lying

a sta intins/ culcat, a zacea; a exista, se afla/ gasi

to light

lighted/lit

lighted/lit

lighting

a aprinde (foc etc.); a lumina; a poposi

to lose

lost

lost

losing

a pierde

to make

made

made

making

a fabrica/face/ confectiona; a construi

to mean

meant

meant

meaning

a insemna; a vrea sa spuna, a crede/gandi

to meet

met

met

meeting

a (se) intalni; a intampina; a se impreuna/ a face cunostinta

I

Present

Infinitive

II

Past Tense

III

Past Participle

IV

Present Participle

TRADUCERE

to melt

melted

melted /molten

melting

a se topi/dizolva; a se lichefia; a se induiosa

to misgive

misgave

misgiven

misgiving

a presimti ceva rau; a inspira frica/neincredere

to mislay

mislaid

mislaid

mislaying

a pierde/rataci (un obiect), a pune unde nu trebuie

to mislead

misled

misled

misleading

a conduce/ indruma gresit

to mistake

mistook

mistaken

mistaking

a intelege gresit

to misunder- stand

misunderstood

misunderstood

misunder-

standing

a intelege/ interpreta gresit cuvintele cuiva

to mow

mowed

mowed/mown

mowing

a cosi, a secera, a tunde/cosi cu masina

to outride

outrode

outridden

outriding

a intrece/depasi pe cineva calare

to outrun

outran

outrun

outrunning

depasi pe cineva in fuga, a intrece pe cineva alergand

to overcast

overcast

overcast

overcasting

a intuneca; a surfila; a inchide

to overcome

overcame

overcome

overcoming

a invinge/birui/ coplesi/dobori/ infrange

to overdo

overdid

overdone

overdoing

a exagera, a intrece masura, a merge prea departe

to overeat

overate

overeaten

overeating

a manca prea mult, a se ghiftui

to overfeed

overfed

overfed

overfeeding

a supraalimenta

to overlie

overlay

overlain

overlying

a se intinde peste

to overrun

overran

overrun

overrunning

a se revarsa; a depasi limitele

to oversee

oversaw

overseen

overseeing

a supraveghea, a controla

to overset

overset

overset

oversetting

a rasturna ordinea, a zadarnici

to oversleep

overslept

overslept

oversleeping

a dormi prea mult, a se scula tarziu

to overtake

overtook

overtaken

overtaking

a depasi un autovehicul; a-l ajunge o nenorocire

to overthrow

overthrew

overthrown

overthrowing

a rasturna/a dobori, a infrange/ invinge/nimici

to partake

partook

partaken

partaking

a profita/uza de, a se infrupta din; a lua parte la ceva, a impartasi

to pay

paid

paid

paying

a plati/achita; a prezenta avantaj

to put

put

put

putting

a aseza/pune, supune

to read

read

read

reading

a citi/interpreta, a studia, a se pregati

to rend

rent

rent

rending

a (se) rupe/ sfasia/despica/crapa

to repay

repaid

repaid

repaying

a rasplati/ recompensa; a inapoia datoria

to reset

reset

reset

resetting

a restabili, a repune; a potrivi ceasul

to retell

retold

retold

retelling

a spune/povesti din nou, a repovesti, a repeta

to rid

rid/ridden

rid/ridden

ridding

a se descotorosi/debarasa/elibera de, a salva/mantui de

to ride

rode

ridden

riding

a calari (calul/ bicicleta); a domina/stapani

to ring

rang

rung

ringing

a suna/rasuna, a anunta/semnala, a suna bine

to rise

rose

risen

rising

a se ridica/ inalta/ scula, a se agita/ rascula

to rive

rived

riven/rived

riving

a crapa/spinteca/ despica, a rupe/sfasia

to run

ran

run

running

a fugi/alerga, a conduce/administra; a topi

to saw

sawed

sawn/sawed

sawing

a taia cu ferastraul

to say

said

said

saying

a zice/spune/ grai, a afirma, a mentiona; a admite

to see

saw

seen

seeing

a vedea, a inte- lege, a remarca/ observa

to seek

sought

sought

seeking

a cauta/cerceta, a explora, a solicita

to sell

sold

sold

selling

a vinde, a desface marfuri, a pacali

to send

sent

sent

sending

a expedia/ trimite, a transmite, a lansa

to set

set

set

setting

a pune/aseza/ instala, a culege la tipografie

to sew

sewed

sewn/sewen

sewing

a coase, a lucra cu acul

to shake

shook

shaken

shaking

a scutura/zgudui/agita, a ameninta cu pumnul

to shear

sheared/ shore

shorn/sheared

shearing

a tunde/despuia; a pagubi

to shed

shed

shed

shedding

a varsa (lacrimi); a pierde; a lepada

to shine

shone

shone

shining

a straluci, a luci; a izbandi

to shoe

shod

shod

shoeing

a incalta, a pingeli, a potcovi, a talpui

to shoot

shot

shot

shooting

a trage (in), a impusca, a vana, a revarsa/ imprastia

to show

showed

shown/showed

showing

a arata/indica, a demonstra/dovedi, a aparea, a se ivi

to shrink

shrank

shrunk

shrinking

a se scurta/ micsora, a se stramba

I

Present

Infinitive

II

Past Tense

III

Past Participle

IV

Present Participle

TRADUCERE

to shut

shut

shut

shutting

a (se) inchide

to sing

sang

sung

singing

a canta; a suiera

to sink

sank

sunk

sinking

a se scufunda, a cadea la fund; a scadea/amortiza

to sit

sat

sat

sitting

a sedea, a sta jos, a poza ca model

to slay

slew

slain

slaying

a omori/asasina/ ucide, a masacra

to sleep

slept

slept

sleeping

a dormi, a adormi

to slide

slid

slid/sliden

sliding

a aluneca, a se da pe gheata, a se furisa/ strecura

to slit

slit

slit

slitting

a crapa/spinteca/ despica, a face o deschizatura in

to smell

smelt

smelt

smelling

a mirosi, a adulmeca

to sow

sowed

sown/sowed

sowing

a semana, a insamanta

to speak

spoke

spoken

speaking

a vorbi/grai, a rosti

to speed

sped/ speeded

sped/speeded

speeding

a accelera, a goni, a merge cu viteza, a se grabi

to spell

spelt/spelled

spelt/speld

spelling

a ortografia, a rosti un cuvant litera cu litera

to spend

spent

spent

spending

a cheltui/consuma/ epuiza; a petrece timpul

to spill

spilt/spilled

spilt/spilled

spilling

a (se) revarsa/ varsa/imprastia

to spin

spun/span

spun

spinning

a toarce/fila/ rasuci, invarti/ roti

to spit

spat/spit

spat/spit

spitting

a scuipa/expectora; a ploua marunt

to split

split

split

spiting

a (se) scinda/ descompune/ diviza/dezbina/ dezintegra

to spoil

spoilt /spoiled

spoilt/spoiled

spoiling

a strica/ deteriora/altera/rasfata; a prada/ jefui

to spread

spread

spread

spreading

a intinde/desfasura, a desface, a lungi, a imprastia

to spring

sprang

sprung

springing

a sari/tasni, a incolti/rasari, a izvori; a exploda

to stand

stood

stood

standing

a sta in picioare, a se tine drept; a fi, a se afla

to steal

stole

stolen

stealing

a fura/sterpeli, a amagi/seduce, a cuceri

to stick

stuck

stuck

sticking

a infige/intepa/ introduce/implanta; a (se) lipi, a adera

to sting

stung

stung

stinging

a impunge/intepa/ rani; a insela/amagi, a ustura

to stink

stank/stunk

stunk

stinking

a mirosi urat, a puti, a duhni

to strike

struck

struck/ stricken

striking

a (se) lovi/izbi/ ciocni, a bate; a prinde radacini

to string

strung

strung

stringing

a lega cu sfoara; a intinde coarda, a insira pe ata

to strive

strove

striven

striving

a se stradui/ lupta/zbate, a-si da osteneala, a tinde/nazui

to swear

swore

sworn

swearing

a jura, a depune juramantul; a injura

to sweep

swept

swept

sweeping

a matura, a sterge praful

to swell

swelled

swollen/ swelled

swelling

a umfla, a mari; a bomba

to swim

swam

swum

swimming

a inota, a pluti, a trece inot; a inunda

to swing

swung

swung

swinging

a se legana/ balansa/roti/invarti, a oscila/ pendula

to take

took

taken

taking

a lua, a imprumuta; a pune mana

to teach

taught

taught

teaching

a invata pe cineva, a instrui, a preda, a da lectii

to tear

tore

torn

tearing

a rupe/sfasia, a distruge; a smulge

to tell

told

told

telling

a spune/povesti, a exprima; a arata/ indica

to think

thought

thought

thinking

a (se) gandi/ crede, a imagina/inchipui

to throw

threw

thrown

throwing

a (se) arunca/ lansa/ azvarli; a lepada, fata

to thrust

thrust

thrust

thrusting

a implanta/ vari/indesa

to tread

trod

trodden/trod

treading

a calca/pasi, a pasi/calca pe

to unbend

unbent

unbent

unbending

a (se) intinde/ destinde/relaxa

to unbind

unbound

unbound

unbinding

a dezlega/ desface, a desprinde, a slobozi, a elibera

to undergo

underwent

undergone

undergoing

a suferi/indura/ suporta, a trece prin

to undersell

undersold

undersold

underselling

a vinde mai ieftin, a vinde sub pretul de cost

to

understand

understood

understood

understanding

a intelege/pricepe, a sesiza

to undertake

undertook

undertaken

undertaking

a intreprinde, a lua asupra sa, a-si asuma

to undo

undid

undone

undoing

a anula, desfiinta, a desface, a distruge

to upset

upset

upset

upsetting

a (se) rasturna, a dezorganiza, a afecta

to wake

woke/woked

waked/woken

waking

a (se) trezi/ destepta; a priveghea, a starni

I

Present

Infinitive

II

Past Tense

III

Past Participle

IV

Present Participle

TRADUCERE

to wear

wore

worn

wearing

a purta, a fi imbracat cu; a se uza/ponosi

to weave

wove

woven/wove

weaving

a tese, a impleti; a se ames teca/baga in

to wed

wedded

wedded/wed

wedding

a (se) casatori, a da/lua in casatorie

to weep

wept

wept

weeping

a plange, a varsa lacrimi

to win

won

won

winning

a castiga/obtine, a reusi; a ajunge la

to wind

wound

wound

winding

a serpui, a (se) rasuci, a infasura/ inveli

to withdraw

withdrew

withdrawn

withdrawing

a retrage/retracta, a lua inapoi, renunta

to withhold

withheld

withheld

withholding]

a opri/retine de la, a interzice ceva

to withstand

withstood

withstood

withstanding

a se impotrivi/ opune la, a rezista

to write

wrote

written

writing

a scrie, a redacta





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