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Pronumele (the pronoun)


Pronumele (the pronoun)


PRONUMELE (THE PRONOUN)

Pronumele este partea de vorbire care inlocuieste un substantiv (o fiinta, un obiect etc.).



1. Clasificare

1. Personale (the Personal Pronouns)

2. Interogative (the Interrogative Pronouns)

3. Relative (the Relative Pronouns)

4. Posesive (the Possessive Pronouns)

5. Demonstrative (the Demonstrative Pronouns)

6. Impersonale/Generale (the Impersonal/General Pronouns)

7. Reflexive (the Reflexive Pronouns)

8. Emfatice (the Emphatic Pronouns)

9. Nehotarate (the Indefinite Pronouns)

10. Reciproce (the Reciprocal Pronouns)

1.1. Pronumele personale (The Personal Pronouns)

I = eu     we = noi

you = tu you = voi, dumneavoastra (dv.)

he = el, dansul, dumnealui they = ei, ele, dansii, dansele, dumnealor

she = ea, dansa, dumneaei   

it = el, ea

1.2. Pronumele interogative (The Interrogative Pronouns)

N who ? = cine ? ( N. = nominativ )

Who knows him ? = Cine il cunoaste pe el ?

G . whose ? = al, a, ai, ale cui ? ( G. = genitiv )

Whose is this house, his or hers ? = A cui este aceasta casa, a lui sau a ei ?

Whose is this little boy ? = Al cui este acest baietel ?

Whose is this little girl ? = A cui este acesta fetita ?

Whose are these books ? = Ale cui sunt aceste carti ?

Whose are these children ? = Ai cui sunt acesti copii ?

D to whom ? = who (m) to ? = cui ?, la cine ? ( D. = dativ)

To whom do you give this book ? = Who(m) do you give this book to? = Cui ii dai aceasta carte?

To whom are you referring ? = Who(m) are you referring to ? = La cine te referi?

To whom does the book belong ? = Who(m) does the book belong to ? = Cui ii apartine cartea?

(to) me = mie (to) us = noua

(to) you = tie (to) you = voua

(to) him = lui (to) them = lor, dansilor, dansilor/danselor

(to) her = ei

(to) it = lui/ei

(to) my friend = prietenului meu (to) our friend = prietenului nostru

(to) your friend = prietenului tau (to) your friend = prietenului vostru

(to) his friend = prietenului lui (to) their friend = prietenului lor

(to) her friend = prietenului ei

(to) my friends = prietenilor mei

I write my friends a letter=I write a letter to my friends=Eu scriu prietenilor mei o scrisoare=Scriu o scrisoare prietenilor mei.

for whom ? = who(m) for ? = pentru cine ?

For whom must you buy the book? = Who(m) must you buy the book for? = Pentru cine trebuie sa cumperi cartea ?

about whom ? = who(m) about ? = despre cine ?

They are talking about Jim. = Ei vorbesc/discuta despre Jim.

Who(m) are they talking about ? = About whom are they talking ? = Despre cine vorbesc ei?

about me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them = despre mine/tine/el/ea/noi/voi/ei/ele)

after whom ? = who(m) after ? = dupa cine ?

Jim is running after them. = Jim alearga dupa ei.

After whom is Jim running ? = Who(m) is Jim running after ? = Dupa cine alearga Jim ?

(after me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them = dupa mine/tine/el/ea/noi/voi/ei/ele)

before whom? = who(m) before ? = in fata cui ? = inaintea cui ?

He was sitting before us. = El sedea in fata noastra.

Before whom was he sitting ? = In fata cui sedea el ?

(before me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them = inaintea mea/ta/lui/ei/noastra/voastra/ lor

before my/your/his/her/our/your/their eyes = inaintea ochilor mei/ tai/ lui/ ei/ nostri/ vostri/ lor)

behind whom? = who(m) behind ? = in spatele cui ?

He was sitting behind me. = El sedea in spatele meu.

Behind whom was he sitting ? =Who(m) was he sitting behind ? = In spatele cui statea el ?

beside whom? = who(m) beside ? = alaturi de cine ?

Beside whom was he sitting? = Alaturi de cine sedea el ?

He was sitting beside me. = El sedea alaturi de mine.

(beside whose friend ? = alaturi de prietenul cui ?

beside my friend = alaturi de prietenul meu)

between whom? = who(m) between ? = intre cine ?

between his (two) friends = intre cei (doi) prieteni ai lui

between John and Nick = intre John si Nick

beyond whom? = who(m) beyond ? = dincolo de cine ?

(beyond me = dincolo de mine beyond us = dincolo de noi

beyond you = dincolo de tine beyond you = dincolo de voi

beyond him/her/it = dincolo de el/ea beyond them = dincolo de ei/ele)

by whom ? = who(m) by ? = de (catre) cine ?

(by me = de mine    by us = de noi

by you = de tine by you = de voi/dv.

by him/her/it = de el/ea by them = de ei/ele)

by whose friend ? = de prietenul cui ?

(by my friend =de prietenul meu by our friend = de prietenul nostru

by your friend = de prietenul tau    by your friend = de prietenul vostru

by his friend = de prietenul lui/sau     by their friend = de prietenul lor

by her friend = de prietenul ei/sau

by this boy's friend/by the friend of this boy = de prietenul acestui baiat

by this girl's friend/by the friend of this girl = de prietenul acestei fete

by these boys' friend/by the friend of these boys = de prietenul acestor baieti

by these girls' friend/by the friend of these girls = de prietenul acestor fete

by this boy's friends/by the friends of this boy = de prietenii acestui baiat

by this girl's friends/by the friends of this girl = de prietenii acestei fete

by this boys' friends/by the friends of these boys = de prietenii acestor baieti

by this girls' friends/by the friends of these girls = de prietenii acestor fete)

for whom? = who(m) for ? = pentru cine ?

For whom are you buying the book ? = Who(m) are you buying the book for? = Pentru cine cumperi (tu) cartea ?

(for me = pentru mine for us = pentru noi

for you = pentru tine for you = pentru voi

for him/her/it = pentru el/ea for them = pentru ei/ele

for whose friend ? = pentru prietenul cui ?

For whose friend is John working ? = Pentru prietenul cui lucreaza John?

for my friend = pentru prietenul meu )

from whom ? = who(m) from ? = de la cine ?

from me = de la mine from us = de la noi

from you = de la tine from you = de la voi

from him/her/it = de la el/ea from them = de la ei/ele

from whose friend ? = de la prietenul cui ? = de la al cui prieten?

(from my friend = de la prietenul meu)

near whom? = who(m) near ? = langa cine?

(near me = langa mine near us = langa noi

near you = langa tine near you = langa voi

near him/her/it = langa el/ea near them = langa ei/ele)

John was sitting near this man's friend. = John sedea langa prietenul acestui om.

Near whom was John sitting? = Who(m) was John sitting near ? = Langa cine sedea John?

of whom ? = who(m) of ? = de cine ?; despre cine?

to get rid of somebody = a se descotorosi/scapa de cineva

I must get rid of that drunk man. = Trebuie sa ma descotorosesc de omul acela baut/beat.

Who(m) must I get rid of ? = Of whom must I get rid ? = De cine trebuie sa scap eu ?

on/upon whom? = who(m) on/upon ? = de cine ?

to depend on/upon = a depinde de

Our going on the trip depends on John. = Plecarea noastra in excursie depinde de John.

On/upon whom does our going on the trip depend ? = Who(m) does our going on the trip depend on/upon ? = De cine depinde plecarea noastra in excursie ?

(on/upon me = de mine)

On/upon whose friend does our going on the trip depend ? = Whose friend does our going on the trip depend on/upon ? = De prietenul cui depinde plecarea noastra in excursie ?

with whom? = who(m) with ? = cu cine ?

I am playing tennis with John. = Eu joc tenis cu John.

Who(m) am I playing tennis with ? = With whom am I playing tennis? = Cu cine joc eu tenis?

(with me = cu mine    with us = cu noi

with you = cu tine with you = cu voi

with him/her/it = cu el/ea with them = cu ei/ele)

with whose friend ? = cu prietenul cui ?

They are going on the trip with my friend. = Ei merg in excursie cu prietenul meu.

With whom are they going on the trip ? = Who(m) are they going on the trip with ? = Cu cine merg ei in excursie ?

with my friend = cu prietenul meu

without whom ? = fara cine ?

(without me = fara mine without us = fara noi

without you = fara tine without you = fara voi

without him/her/it = fara el/ea without them = fara ei/ele)

without whose friend ? = fara prietenul cui ?

without my friend = fara prietenul meu

Whose friend were you there without ? = Fara prietenul cui ai fost acolo ?)

A whom? = pe cine ? ( A. = acuzativ )

This is the boy whom I saw. = Acesta este baiatul pe care l-am vazut eu.

I see John in the street. = Il vad pe John pe strada.

Whom do I see in the street? = Pe cine vad eu pe strada ?

John sees me in the street. = John ma vede pe mine pe strada.

Whom does John see in the street ? = Pe cine vede John pe strada ?

(me = pe mine     her = pe ea/dansa us = pe noi

you = pe tine     it = pe el/ea you = pe voi

him = pe el/dansul     them = pe ei/ele/)

John sees my friend in the street. = John il vede pe prietenul meu pe strada.

John sees my friend's brother in the street. = John il vede pe fratele prietenului meu pe strada.

what? = ce ?

What is this ? = Ce este acesta/aceasta ?

What are these ? = Ce sunt acestia/acestea ?

What is there on the table ? = Ce este pe masa ? = Ce se afla/gaseste pe masa ?

What is your name ? = Cum te cheama ?

What time is it ? = Cat este ceasul ?

what kind/sort of ? = ce fel de ?

What kind/sort of man is he ? = Ce fel de om este el ?

What kind/sort of films do you like? = Ce fel de filme iti plac?

1.3. Pronumele relative (The Relative Pronouns)

who = cine, care.

He does not know who must come to see us.= El nu stie cine trebuie sa vina pe la noi.

I know the boy who can play tennis well. = Eu il stiu/cunosc pe baiatul care stie sa joace tenis bine.

whose = al cui, a cui, ai cui, ale cui.

We are playing with John's ball but we don't know whose they are playing with. = Noi ne jucam cu mingea lui John dar nu stim cu a cui se joaca ei.

to whom = who(m) to = cui

I don't know who(m) I shall give this book to. = Nu stiu cui sa-i dau cartea aceasta.

Do you know who(m) he is referring to ? = Stii la cine se refera el ?

whom = pe cine, pe care

I know whom you appreciate very much. = Eu stiu pe cine apreciezi tu foarte mult.

He could not guess whom he might see there. = Nu putea banui pe cine va putea vedea acolo.

which = care, pe care

She has many books, but she doesn't know which she must read for the examination. = Ea are multe carti, dar nu stie pe care trebuie s-o citeasca pentru examen.

Her house, of which roof is of tiles, was built five years ago. = Casa, al carei acoperis este de tigla, a fost construita acum cinci ani.

Pronumele posesive (The Possessive Pronouns)

mine = al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele.

John's friend is in Bucharest and mine is in Berlin. = Prietenul lui John este in Bucuresti, iar al meu este in Berlin.

John's sister is in Bucharest and mine is in Berlin. = Sora lui John este in Bucuresti, iar a mea este in Berlin.

John's friends are in Bucharest and mine are in Berlin. = Prietenii lui John sunt in Bucuresti, iar ai mei sunt in Berlin.

John's sisters are in Bucharest and mine are in Berlin. = Surorile lui John sunt in Bucuresti, iar ale mele sunt in Berlin.

yours = al tau, a ta, ai tai, ale tale.

My car is white and yours is blue. = Automobilul meu este alb, iar al tau este albastru.

My house is in the country and yours is in the town. = Casa mea este la tara, iar a ta este la oras.

My children are in the mountains and yours are at the seaside. = Copiii mei sunt la munte, iar ai tai sunt la mare.

Our daugthers are at school and yours are at the university. = Fiicele noastre sunt la scoala, iar ale voastre sunt la universitate.

his = al lui, a lui, ai lui, ale lui

My friend is an engineer and his is an economist. = Prietenul meu este inginer, iar al lui este economist.

Our daughter is a school-girl and his is a student. = Fiica noastra este eleva, iar a lui este studenta.

Her books are in English and his are in Romanian.= Cartile ei sunt in engleza, iar ale lui sunt in romana.

hers = al ei, a ei, ai ei, ale ei

My friend speaks French but hers doesn't. = Prietenul meu vorbeste frantuzeste, dar al ei nu.

My sister works on a farm but hers doesn't. = Sora mea lucreaza la o ferma, dar a ei nu.

Our children are noisy but hers aren't. = Copiii nostri sunt galagiosi, iar ai ei nu (sunt).

Our books are old but hers aren't. = Cartile noastre sunt vechi, dar ale ei nu (sunt).

ours = al nostru, a noastra, ai nostri, ale noastre.

Your sister is Mary and ours is Beverly. = Sora voastra este Mary iar a noastra este Beverly.

Your boys play tennis but ours don't. = Baietii vostri joaca tenis, dar ai nostri nu joaca.

Your daughters read many books but ours don't. = Fiicele voastre citesc multe carti, insa/ dar ale noastre nu (citesc).

yours [yOz] = al tau, a ta , ai tai , ale tale

My friends live here , yours don't. = Prietenii mei locuiesc aici , ai tai nu.

theirs = al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor.

Our son is here but theirs isn't . = Fiul nostru este aici, dar al lor nu (este).

Our daughter is not here but theirs is. = Fiica noastra nu este aici, dar a lor este.

Our sons don't study German but theirs do. = Fiii nostri nu studiaza germana, dar ai lor studiaza.

1.5. Pronumele demonstrative (The Demonstrative Pronouns)

this = acesta, aceasta

That book is yours and this (one) is mine. = Cartea aceea este a ta, iar aceasta este a mea.

that = acela, aceea

This book is mine and that (one) is yours. = Cartea aceasta este a mea, iar aceea este a ta.

these = acestia, acestea

Those books are mine and these (ones) are yours. = Cartile acelea sunt ale mele, iar acestea sunt ale tale .

Those players are good but these (ones) are better. = Jucatorii aceia sunt buni, dar acestia sunt mai buni.

those = aceia, acelea

These players are very good but those (ones) aren't. = Jucatorii acestia sunt foarte buni, dar aceia nu sunt.

1.6. Pronumele impersonale (The Impersonal Pronouns)

one, you

One could work there. = S-ar putea lucra acolo. = Se putea lucra acolo.

You should always be careful when crossing the road. = Sa fii totdeauna atent la traversarea drumului.

One can learn a lot of things here. = Se pot invata o multime de lucruri aici.

You should always behave decently. = Trebuie sa te porti totdeauna decent.

1.7. Pronumele reflexive (The Reflexive Pronouns)

myself = ma ourselves = ne

yourself = te yourselves = va

himself = se themselves = se

herself =se oneself = se

itself = se

Cu ajutorul pronumelorreflexive se formeaza diateza reflexiva a verbelor.

to enjoy oneself = a se distra

I enjoy myself = eu ma distrez

De retinut ca verbelor reflexive din limba romana nu le corespund totdeauna verbe reflexive in limba engleza.

eu ma mir/intreb = I wonder ; verbul to wonder in limba engleza nu este reflexiv.

1.8. Pronumele emfatice/ de intarire (The Emphatic Pronouns)

myself = eu insumi, personal, chiar eu

yourself = tu insuti, personal, chiar tu

himself = el insusi, personal, chiar el

herself = ea insasi, personal, chiar ea

itself = el insusi, ea insasi, personal, chiar el/ea

ourselves = noi insine, insene, chiar noi

yourselves = voi insiva, inseva, chiar voi

themselves = ei insisi, ele insele, chiar ei/ele

I must do it myself = trebuie s-o fac eu insumi

1.9. Pronumele nehotarate (The Indefinite Pronouns)

another = alt, alta;

One man says yes, another says no. = Un om zice da, altul zice nu.

each = fiecare

We received two books each. = Am primit cate doua carti fiecare.

each of us/you/them = fiecare dintre noi/voi/ei/ele

the other = celalalt, cealalta, ceilalti, celelalte

John likes this book but I like the other (one). = Lui John ii place cartea aceasta, insa mie imi place cealalta.

John likes this book but I prefer the other (one). = Lui John ii place cartea aceasta, dar eu o prefer pe cealalta.

others = altii, altele

Others know better than you. = Altii stiu mai bine ca/decat tine.

the others = ceilalti, celelalte

The others did not come by bus. = Ceilalti n-au venit cu autobuzul.

I do not see the others. = Eu nu-i vad pe ceilalti. = Eu nu le vad pe celelalte.

one = unul, una, un, o; se

You do not have any book but I have one. = Tu nu ai nici o carte, dar eu am una.

Can you tell one from the other ? = Il poti deosebi pe unul de celalalt ?

My neighbours have two sons whom everybody admires ; I admire one's common sense and the other's diligence. = Vecinii mei au doi fii pe care ii admira toata lumea; eu admir bunul simt al unuia si harnicia celuilalt.

He is considered as one of the family. = El este considerat drept unul de-al familiei/casei.

one of us/you/them = unul/una dintre noi/voi/ei/ele.

all = tot, toata, toti, toate; totul

He must tell you all or nothing. = El trebuie sa-ti spuna tot sau nimic.

I cannot buy it all. = Nu pot sa-l/s-o cumpar tot/toata.

All he wants is money. = Tot ce vrea el sunt banii.

all of us/you/them = we/you/they all = noi/voi/ei toti/ele toate .

either = oricare din doi/doua

You may buy either. = Il /O poti cumpara pe oricare.

either of us = oricare din /dintre noi doi/doua

either of you = oricare din /dintre voi doi/doua

either of them = oricare din /dintre ei/ele doi/doua).

Neither = nici unul, nici una, nici un, nici o (din doi/doua)

One can see neither. = Nu se poate vedea nici unul/una.

neither of us/you/them = nici unul/una din(tre) noi/voi/ei/ele.

both = ambii, ambele, amandoi, amandoua

You may read either of them - both are interesting. = Le poti citi pe oricare din ele - ambele sunt interesante.

both of us/you/them = noi/voi/ei doi/amandoi, noi/voi/ele doua/amandoua.

several = mai multi/multe, cativa, cateva

You can see many books on the table, but several are mine. = Poti vedea multe carti pe masa, dar cateva sunt ale mele.

several of us/you/them = cativa/cateva dintre noi/voi/ei/ele.

few = putini, putine

I only found few. = Am gasit doar putini/putine .

few of us/you/them = putini/putine dintre noi/voi/ei/ele.

a few = putini/destui, putine/destule

I have found a few. = Am gasit destui/destule.

quite a few = a good few = foarte multi/multe

I have found quite a few. = Am gasit un mare numar. = Am gasit foarte multi/multe.

little = putin, putina, mic, mica

I have done little for them. = Am facut putin pentru ei/ele.

The little of what I've done, matters a lot. = Putinul din cat/ce am facut eu, conteaza mult.

Your house is big, but mine is a little one. = Casa ta este mare, insa a mea este mica.

How are your little ones? = Ce fac cei mici ai tai?

a little [ `litl] = putin /destul/ceva, putina/destula/ceva

You only have little tea but I have a little. = Tu ai doar/numai putin ceai, insa eu am ceva/catva.

much [m{t~] = mult, multa

You have got little tea but I have got much. = Tu ai putin ceai, insa eu am mult.

many [meni] = multi, multe

many of us/you/them = multi dintre noi/voi/ei, multe dintre ele

You have only got few books but I've got many. = Tu ai doar putine carti, insa eu am multe.

some = niste, unii, unele, ceva, putin, putina, cativa, cateva.

Some are good and some are bad. = Unele sunt bune, iar altele sunt rele. Unii sunt buni, iar altii sunt rai.

any = orice, fiece, oricare, ; nici unul, nici una.

He doesn't like any. = Lui nu-i place oricare. = Lui nu-i place nici unul/una.

You've got much money, but I haven't got any. = Tu ai bani multi, dar eu n-am nici sfant. = Tu ai bani multi, dar eu nu am deloc.

somebody = cineva ; cineva ?

I can see somebody at the gate. = Pot sa vad pe cineva la poarta .

Do you see somebody ? = Vezi pe cineva ?

anybody

A. = oricine - I can ask anybody. = Pot intreba pe oricine.

I. = cineva - Do you see anybody ? = Vezi pe cineva ?

N. = nimeni - I cannot ask anybody. = Nu pot intreba pe nimeni.

nobody = nimeni

I see nobody. = Nu vad pe nimeni.

something = ceva ; ceva?

I see something. = Vad ceva.

Do you see something ? = Vezi ceva ? (Cand raspunsul este afirmativ).

anything

= orice - I buy anything.= Cumpar orice.

= orice?; ceva? - Are you going to buy anything? = Ai de gand sa cumperi ceva/orice?

= orice ; nimic - I'm not going to buy anything. = N-am de gand sa cumpar nimic.

nothing = nimic

I bought nothing. = Nu am cumparat nimic.

someone [`s{mw{n] = careva, cineva

You must ask someone. = Trebuie sa intrebi pe careva.

anyone

= oricare - You may/can ask anyone. = Poti intreba pe careva/ oricine.

= oricare? - Can I ask anyone? = Pot intreba pe oricare/careva?

= oricare - I cannot ask anyone. = Nu pot intreba pe oricare/ nimeni.

no one = nobody = nimeni;

none= not one/any = nici unul/una

You can ask no one. = Nu poti intreba pe nimeni.

everybody = toti, toata lumea, fiecare

I saw everybody laughing. = I-am vazut pe toti razand.

everything = totul, tot

He can understand everything. = Poate intelege tot.

somebody else = altcineva

I see somebody else. = Vad pe altcineva.

anybody else

= oricine altcineva - Give it to anybody else! = Da-i-o oricui altcuiva !

= oricine altcineva ? - Could you play with anybody else? = Puteai juca cu oricine altcineva ?

= nimeni altcineva - I was not seen by anybody else. = N-am fost vazut de nimeni altcineva.

nobody else = nimeni altcineva

Nobody else can do it. = Nimeni altcineva n-o poate face.

something else = altceva

We must buy something else. = Trebuie sa cumparam altceva.

anything else = orice altceva:

They may do anything else. = Ei pot face orice altceva.

nothing else = nimic altceva

I saw nothing else. = N-am vazut nimic altceva.

1.10. Pronumele reciproce (Reciprocal Pronoun)

each other = unul pe celalalt (doua persoane)

The two neighbours help each other. = Cei doi vecini se ajuta unul pe celalalt.

one another = unul pe celalalt (minimum trei persoane)

The three brothers help one another. = Cei trei frati se ajuta unul pe celalalt.

2. Declinarea pronumelui personal

In schema care urmeaza este inclus si cazul genitiv desi pronumele personal in cazul genitiv este pronume posesiv, nu personal.

numarul singular

N . I = eu you = tu he = el she = ea it = el/ea

G my = meu your = tau his = lui her = ei its = lui/ei

mine = al meu yours = al tau his = al lui hers = al ei its = al lui/ei

D. (to) me = mie (to) you = tie (to) him = lui (to) her = ei (to) it = lui/ei

A. me = pe mine    you = pe tine him = pe el her = pe ea it = pe el/ea

numarul plural

N. we = noi    you = voi/dv. they = ei/ele, dansii/dansele

G . our = nostru    your = vostru/dv. their = lor, dansilor/danselor

ours = al nostru yours = al vostru/dv. theirs = al lor, al dansilor/danselor

D . (to) us = noua     (to) you = voua/dv. (to) them = lor, dansilor/danselor

A . us = pe noi     you = pe voi/dv. them = pe ei/ele, pe dansii/ dansele





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