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Numeralul (the numeral)


Numeralul (the numeral)


NUMERALUL (The Numeral)

Este partea de vorbire prin care se exprima un numar de obiecte/fiinte etc. sau ordinea acestora.



1. Clasificare

1. cardinale (Cardinal Numerals)

2. colective (Collective Numerals)

3. ordinale (Ordinal Numerals)

4. distributive (Distributive Numerals)

5. fractionare (Fractional Numerals)

6. adverbiale (Adverbial Numerals)

7. multiplicative (Multiplicative Numerals)

8. nehotarate (Indefinite Numerals)

1.1. Numeralul cardinal (The Cardinal Numeral)

Exprima un numar exact/intreg de obiecte sau fiinte incepand de la zero catre plus sau minus infinit.

La telefon zero/0 se pronunta ca litera O [u], la tenis se spune love (all), in stiinte se foloseste cuvantul zero.

Cand ne referim la ani exprimam: 1907 = nineteen oh seven.

Exprimarea temperaturii se realizeaza astfel: 0 se pronunta zero

-10 = ten degrees below zero.

Cand se exprima scorul la jocurile de fotbal 0 se pronunta nil [nil] sau nothing.

La tenis: Nastase leads by two sets to love. (2 - 0) = Nastase conduce cu doua seturi la zero.

Numerele de telefon (Telephone Numbers) se scriu cu spatii intre grupele de cifre.

e.g. 04 662 5142

in numerele telefonice se pronunta [u]. Numerele se rostesc separat, iar cifrele duble se rostesc folosindu-se cuvantul double

223 456 = oh one double two three four five six . = zero unu doi doi trei patru cinci sase.

Cifre triple (Triple/Treble Figures) : 7 555 = seven five double five = sapte cinci cinci cinci.

Un numar ca 5555 se rosteste : double five double five

1 one [w{n] = unu, una 11 eleven [i`levn] = unsprezece

2 two [tU] = doi, doua 12 twelve [twelv] = doisprezece

3 three [SrI] = trei 13 thirteen [`S|`tIn] = treisprezece

4 four [fO] = patru 14 fourteen [`fO`tIn]= paisprezece

5 five [faiv] = cinci 15 fifteen[`fif`tIn] = cincisprezece

6 six [siks] = sase 16 sixteen [`siks`tIn] = saisprezece

7 seven [`sevn] = sapte 17seventeen [`sevn`tIn] = saptesprezece

8 eight [eit] = opt 18 eighteen [`ei`tIn] = optsprezece

9 nine [nain] = noua 19 nineteen [`nain`tIn] = nouasprezece

10 ten [ten] = zece 20 twenty [`twenti] = douazeci

21 twenty-one = douazeci si unu/una 40 forty [`fOti] = patruzeci

22 twenty-two = douazeci si doi/doua 50 fifty [`fifti] = cincizeci

23 twenty-three=douazeci si trei 60 sixty [`siksti] = saizeci

24 twenty-four = douazeci si patru 70 seventy [`sevnti] = saptezeci

25 twenty-five = douazeci si cinci 80 eighty[`eiti] = optzeci

26 twenty-six = douazeci si sase 90 ninety [`nainti] = nouazeci

27 twenty-seven = douazeci si sapte 100 one hundred [h{ndrd] = o suta

28 twenty-eight = douazeci si opt 101 one hundred and one = o suta unu

29 twenty-nine = douazeci si noua 102 one hundred and two = o suta doi

30 thirty [`S|ti] = treizeci

125 one hundred and twenty five = o suta douazeci si cinci

200 two hundred = doua sute

257 two hundred and fifty seven = doua sute cincizeci si sapte

1,000 one thousand = o mie

1,066 ten sixty six = one thousand and sixty six = o mie saizeci si sase

2,567 two thousand five hundred and sixty seven =doua mii cinci sute saizeci si sapte

10,000 ten thousand = zece mii

100,000 one hundred thousand = o suta de mii

123,547 one hundred and twenty three thousand five hundred and forty seven = o suta douazeci si trei de mii cinci sute patruzeci si sapte

1,000,000 one million = un milion = 1.000.000

2,000,000 two million = doua milioane = 2.000.000

1,000,000,000 one milliard/billion = un miliard = 1.000.000.000

3,000,000,000 three milliard/billion = trei miliarde = 3.000.000.000

1,000,000,000,000 one trillion = un trilion = 1.000.000.000.000

1,000,000,000,000,000 one quadrillion = un catralion

1,000,000,000,000,000,000 one quintillion = un chintilion

1.2. Numeralul ordinal ( The Ordinal Numeral)

1st the first [f|st] = primul, prima

2nd the second [`seknd] = al doilea, a doua

3rd the third [S|d] = al treilea, a treia

4th the fourth [fOS] = al patrulea, a patra

5th the fifth [fifS] = al cincilea, a cincea

6th the sixth [siksS] = al saselea, a sasea

7th the seventh [`sevnS] = al saptelea, a saptea

8th the eighth [eitS] = al optulea, a opta

9th the ninth [nainS] = al noualea, a noua

10th the tenth [tenS] = al zecelea, a zecea

11th the eleventh [i`levnS] = al unsprezecelea, a unsprezecea

12th the twelfth [`twelfS] = al doisprezecelea, a douasprezecea

13th the thirteenth [`S|`tInS]= al treisprezecelea, a treisprezecea

14th the fourteenth [`fO`tInS]= al paisprezecelea, a paisprezecea

15th the fifteenth [`fif`tInS] = al cincisprezecelea, a cincisprezecea

16th the sixteenth [`siks`tInS] = al saisprezecelea, a saisprezecea

17th the seventeenth [`sevn`tInS] = al saptesprezecelea, a saptesprezecea

18th the eighteenth [`ei`tInS] = al optsprezecelea, a optsprezecea

19th the nineteenth [`nain`tInS] = al nouasprezecelea, a nouasprezecea

20th the twentieth [`twentiS]= al douazecilea, a douazecea

21st the twenty first = al douazeci si unulea, a douazeci si una

22nd the twenty second = al douazeci si doilea, a douazeci si doua

23rd the twenty third = al douazeci si treilea, a douazeci si treia

24th the twenty fourth = al douazeci si patrulea, a douazeci si patra

25th the twenty fifth = al douazeci si cincilea, a douazeci si cincea

26th the twenty sixth = al douazeci si saselea, a douazeci si sasea

27th the twenty seventh = al douazeci si saptelea, a douazeci si saptea

28th the twenty eighth = al douazeci si optulea, a douazeci si opta

29th the twenty ninth = al douazeci si noualea, a douazeci si noua

30th the thirtieth [`S|tiiS/`S|tiS] = al treizecilea, a treizecea

40th the fortieth [`fOtiiS `fOtiS] = al patruzecilea, a patruzecea

50th the fiftieth [`fiftiiS `fiftiS] = al cincizecilea, a cincizecea

60th the sixtieth [`sikstiiS `sikstiS] = al saizecilea, a saizecea

70th the seventieth [`sevntiiS `sevntiS] = al saptezecilea, a saptezecea

80th the eightieth [`eitiiS `eitiS] = al optzecilea, a optzecea

90th the ninetieth [`naintiiS `naintiS]= al nouazecilea, a nouazecea

100th the one hundredth [`h{ndrdS `h{ndridS] = al o sutalea, a o suta

101st the one hundred and first = al o suta unulea , a o suta una

102nd the one hundred and second = al o suta doilea, a o suta doua

which? = al catelea, a cata, ai catelea, ale catelea?

Which boy is John ? = Al catelea baiat este John ?

Which girl is Jane ? = A cata fata este Jane ?

Which boat is theirs ? = A cata barca este a lor ?

I know which he is. = Eu stiu al catelea este el.

Do you know which she is ? = Stii tu a cata este ea ?

quarter = a fourth (and twenty three = noua supra cinci sute douazeci si trei; 4.53 = four point five three = 4,53 = patru virgula cincizeci si trei

1.3. Numeralul fractionar (The Fractional Numeral)

Fractia (The Fraction) - ordinara (Vulgar)- zecimala (Decimal)

= a/one half (o doime); = a/one third (o treime); = a/one quarter = a fourth (un sfert); = three fourths = three quarters (trei patrimi, sapte; = nine over five hundred and twenty three = noua supra cinci sute douazeci si trei; 4.53 = four point five three = 4,53 = patru virgula cincizeci si trei

1.3.2. Semnele matematice

+ plus = and = plus; empty set= multime vida; - minus = minus; pi [ pai ] = 3,14; multiplied = inmultit; angle = unghi

divided by = impartit la; ' = minute = minut; ' = second = secunda; = equal to = egal cu; = not equal to = neegal cu, diferit de; log = logarithm = logaritm; < less than = mai mic decat/ca; integral (of) = integrala; > more than = mai mare decat/ca;

triangle = triunghi; less than or equal to = mai mic sau egal cu; infinity = infinit; more than or equal to = mai mare sau egal cu; square root = radacina patrata; ll = parallel to = paralel cu; perpendicular to = perpendicular pe; % = Percentage Sign = la suta (procent); 5 % = five per cent = cinci la suta = 5 la suta; 5.5 % = five point five per cent = cinci virgula cinci la suta.

% = five and a half per cent = cinci si jumatate la suta

1.3.3. Operatiunile aritmetice (Arithmetical operations)

2 + 2 = 4 two plus/and two makes/equals/is/are four = doi plus doi fac patru

10 - 2 = 8 ten minus two makes/equals eight = zece minus/fara doi fac opt

5 x 5 = 25 Five times five makes/is twenty-five. = Five multiplied by five equals (25) twenty-five. = Five fives is twenty-five. = Cinci ori cinci fac doua- zeci si cinci.

4 x 3 = 12 se citeste: Four threes are twelve . = Three fours are twelve. = Patru ori trei fac doisprezece.

25 : 5 = 5 Five into twenty five makes/equals five. = Twenty-five divided by five is five. = Douazeci si cinci impartit la cinci fac cinci.

1.3.4. Exprimarea datei (Dates)

Se realizeaza cu ajutorul numeralelor ordinale si cardinale.

February 14th, 1989 = 14th February 1989 = the fourteenth of February 1989 =14.2.1989 = 14 februarie 1989 =14-II-1989

In limba engleza americana data apare astfel: February 14, 1989, deci numele lunii se scrie inaintea numarului zilei.

What date is it today? = In cat este astazi?

What day is it today? = Ce zi este astazi?

Today is Sunday. = Astazi este duminica.

On Monday I'll go to Cetate. = Luni voi merge la Cetate.

44 B.C. (Before Christ) = 44 inainte de Cristos, 44 inaintea erei noastre

A.D. 105 = A.D. one hundred oh five . (A.D. = Anno Domini = in the year of Lord) = 105 era noastra = 105 dupa Cristos.

1.3.5. Lunile anului (The Months of the Year)

January (Jan.) = ianuarie; February (Feb.) = februarie; March (Mar.) = martie; April (Apr.) = aprilie; May = mai; June = iunie; July = iulie; August = august; September (Sept.) = septembrie; October (Oct.) = octombrie; November (Nov.) = noiembrie; December (Dec.) = decembrie

1.3.6. Zilele saptamanii (The days of the Week)

Sunday (Sun.) = duminica; Monday (Mon.) = luni; Tuesday (Tue.) = marti; Wednesday (Wed.) = miercuri; Thursday (Thurs.) = joi; Friday (Fri.) = vineri; Saturday (Sat.) = sambata

In limba engleza, zilele si lunile anului se scriu numai cu majuscula.

1.4. Numeralul colectiv (The Collective Numeral)

Contine o multime exprimata printr-un singular.

couple = cuplu ; team = echipa; pair = pereche; dozen = duzina; score = douazeci; polgross = 12 duzini; a couple of cherries = doua cirese; to walk in pairs = a se plimba perechi; a pair of shoes = o pereche de pantofi; half a score = zece; a pair of trousers = o pereche de pantaloni; two score years = patruzeci de ani; I've met many happy pairs. = Am intalnit multe perechi fericite.

Numeralul multiplicativ (The Multiplicative Numerals

double = twofold = dublu = indoit

triple = threefold = triplu

fourfold = impatrit

tenfold = inzecit

a hundredfold = insutit

a thousandfold = inmiit

once = o data ten times = de zece ori

twice = de doua ori fifty times = de cincizeci de ori

thrice = de trei ori a hundred times = de o suta de ori

four times = de patru ori a thousand times = de o mie de ori

five times = de cinci ori

He has a suitcase with a double bottom. = El are un geamantan cu fund dublu.

1.6. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral)

one at a time = cate unul o data    one by one = unul cate unul

two at a time = cate doi o data    two by two, by twos = doi cate doi

three at a time = cate trei o data    three by three, by threes = trei cate trei

four at a time = cate patru o data    four by four, by fours = patru cate patru

five at a time = cate cinci o data    five by five, by fives = cinci cate cinci

by the dozen = la duzina

ten at a time = zece o data, cate zece

one hundred at a time = o suta o data, cate o suta

every other minute = din doua in doua minute

every other hour = hourly = din doua in doua ore = la fiecare doua ore

every three hours = din trei in trei ore = la trei ore o data

every five hours = din cinci in cinci ore, la interval de cinci ore

I see groups of five children. = Vad grupuri de cate cinci copii.

1.7. Numeralul adverbial (The Adverbial Numeral)

once = o data     firstly = in primul rand

twice = de doua ori ten times = de zece ori

secondly = in al doilea rand four times = de patru ori

three times = de trei ori thirdly = in al treilea rand

They would go swimming three times a week. = Mergeau sa inoate de trei ori pe saptamana.

1.8. Numeralul nehotarat (The Indefinite Numeral)

a number of = un numar de tens of = zeci de

a lot of = o multime/gramada de hundreds of = sute de

lots of = many = multi, multe thousands of = mii de

Lots of people are walking in the park. = Multi oameni se plimba prin parc.

Tens of people are swimming in the lake. = Zeci de oameni inoata in lac.

1.9. Exprimarea orei

Cat este ceasul/ora? (What time is it?, What's the time?)

minute = minut quarter = sfert

half = jumatate watch = ceas de mana

past = si clock = ceas de perete

to = fara face = cadran

long hand = orar alarm clock = ceas desteptator

short hand = minutar second hand = secundar

It is five (minutes) past twelve. = Este doisprezece si cinci (minute).

It is ten (minutes) past twelve. = Este doisprezece si zece (minute).

It is a quarter past twelve. = Este doisprezece si un sfert.

It is half past twelve. = Este doisprezece si jumatate.

It is a quarter to one. = Este unu fara un sfert.

It is ten (minutes) to one. = Este unu fara zece (min.).

It is two o'clock. = Este ora doua.

it is fast = grabeste, o ia inainte, merge inainte

it is slow = intarzie, ramane/merge in urma

My watch is five minutes slow. = Ceasul meu merge/ramane cu cinci minute in urma.

Your watch is five minutes fast. =Ceasul tau o ia inainte cu cinci minute.

My watch keeps a good time. = Ceasul meu merge bine.

His watch goes wrong. = Ceasul lui merge gresit/prost.

1.10. Unitati de masura (Measures)

1 inch (in.) = 2,54 cm = 1/36 yard = 1/12 foot

12 inches = 1 foot = 30,48 cm = 0,3048 m

3 feet (ft.) = 1 yard = 91 cm = 0,91 m = 1 yd

1 mile = 1,760 yards = 1609,35 m

1 mile = 80 chains

1 link = 7.92 inches = 20,1168 cm

1 chain = 100 links = 20,1168 m

1 furlong= 10 chains = 200,11 m

1 rod = 5,029 m

1 league = 3 miles

1 fanthom= 6 feet = 1,82 m

1 cable = 608 feet = 185,31 m

1 sea mile = 6,080 feet = 1851,85 m

1 gallon (gal) = 4 quarts = 8 pints - England = 4,544 litres ; United States = 3,784 litres





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