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INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES -ADJECTIVUL NEHOTARAT


INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES -ADJECTIVUL NEHOTARAT


INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES -ADJECTIVUL NEHOTARAT

a.     Definitie

Adjectivele nehotarate determina intr-un sens mai mult sau mai putin general sau vag obiectele exprimate de substantive in sensul situarii acestora in spatiu , alaituarii in timp, al cantitatii, al numarului, al varietatii.



Se deosebesc mai multe categorii

  • Adjective nehotarate exprimand situarea in spatiu

near- apropiat; next- urmatorul; last- ultimul; far - departat;neighbouring- vecin,invecinat.

  • Adjective nehotarate exprimand situarea in timp:

preceding- precedent; foregoing-anterior; former- primul, de odinioara; present- present; past - trecut; future - viitor; next- urmatorul, last- ultim;

  • Adjective nehotarate exprimand cantitatea: much- mult(a), little- putin(a), a little - ceva, niste, putin (a), citva,catava
  • Adjective nehotarate exprimand numarul: many- multi, multe; few =

putini, putine ( nu multi, nu multe); a few (putini, putine,cativa,cateva;

several- mai multi, mai multe; numerous- numerosi, numeroase;numberless- nenumarati, nenumarate, a number of- un numar de; a series of- o serie de.

b.     Forma :

Adjectivul nehotarat este invariabil ca forma si indeplineste functia sintactica de atribut .

Un loc aparte in cadrul adjectivelor nehotarate il ocupa some si any intrucat, in dese cazuri , ele se apropie de functia articolelor, ceea ce face ca in unele gramatici sa fie tratate ca "echivalenti ai articolelor".

c.      Intrebuintare

SOME niste, ceva, putin, putina, unii , unele,cativa, cateva, vreun,

vreo o cantitate ce se intrebuinteaza in propozitii afirmative si indica existenta unui numar restrans de lucruri, fiinte, a unei cantitati restranse. Este folosit cu substantive numarabile la plural si cu substantive nenumarabile la singular.

ANY= vreun, vreo, nici un (ul),nici o, nici una se intrebuinteaza in propozitii afirmative, interogative si negative;

SOME/ANY

1) Fraze afirmative - SOME (in principiu, some se foloseste in propozitii afirmative)

eg.

I'd like some coffee.

As vrea niste cafea.

Cu toate acestea , el apare:

in propozitii negative, daca intelesul sau este afirmativ:

eg.:

He never called on us without some present .

Nu venea niciodata la noi fara (sa aduca) un cadou;

in propozitiile interogative, daca intrebarea nu se refera la some

eg.: Why are there so many mistakes in some exercices?

De ce sunt atatea greseli in unele exercitii?

in propozitii interogative prin care se exprima o rugaminte sau o

oferta, sau in care some se refera la o parte dint-un intreg sau dintr-o cantitate:

eg.: Have you some change about you?

Ai (ceva) maruntis la tine?

2)Propozitie afirmativa cu sens negativ cu greu, niciodata , fara ANY

eg.:

I hardly know any people here.

Cu greu recunosc (stiu) pe cineva.

He tried to make a cake without using any eggs.

A incercat sa faca o prajitura fara sa foloseasca nici un ou.

3)Propozitia interogativa - ANY il inlocuieste in general pe some in propozitiile interogative ( directe si indirecte), conditionale si dubitative:

eg.:

Have you got any stamp ?

Ai cumva niste timbre

I doubt if he has any time now.

Ma indoiesc ca are timp acum.

4)Propozitii interogative intr-un sens afirmativ :

eg.:

Would you like some more meat ?

Vrei (doresti ) mai multa carne.

5) Propozitii negative -NOT ANY

eg. I have no money.

N-am nici un ban

I haven't got any money.

N-am primit nici un ban.

putem folosi no

SOME si ANY se pot folosi ca pronume.

eg.

Have you got some ?

They aren't any.

A FEW, A LITTLE /FEW, LITTLE

a few, few + numarabile

a little, little + nenumarabile

A FEW = cateva .

A few minutes later.

Cateva minute mai tarziu.

FEW = putin (plural)

Few people understood.

Cativa oameni au inteles.

A LITTLE = un pic de .

A little sugar

Un pic de zahar.

LITTLE putin din (sg) ..

The Queen has little power.

Regina are putina putere.

MUCH/MANY/A LOT OF

MUCH + singular    - Much = mult

MANY + plural - many = many

eg.:

I haven't got much time.

Have you many records.

Much si many se afla mai mult in propozitii interogative si negative.

In propozitiile afirmative, gasim mai degraba A LOT OF; LOTS OF, PLENTY OF.

I know a lot of Italians.

In afara de too, as,so, very .

eg.

He drank a lot.

A baut mult.

He drank too much.

A baut prea mult.

EACH/EVERY

Every = fiecare

Each = fiecare (mai putin la modul general, fiecare separat, luat in parte );

Every workman stood up when the Queen walked in .

Fiecare muncitor s-a ridicat in picioare cand regina a intrat.

She gave a signed photo to each workman .

Ea a dat cate o fotografie semnata fiecarui muncitor.

Alte adjective nehotarate

either ( fiecare, oricare);

both (amandoi,ambii);

all (toti, toate)

whole(intreg)

certain (anumit, anume);

SOME, EVERY, ANY, NO se poate combina cu - body, -one ,thing, where .

Derivatele astfel formate urmeaza aceleasi reguli.

EXERCITII

1.Completati propozitiile cu some si any :

He didn't buy . .flowers.

This evening I'm going out with . friends of mine.

<Have you seen . .good films recently >?

<No, I haven't been to the cinema for ages>.

I didn't have . .money, so I had to borrow .

Can I have . money, so I had to borrow .

Can I have . milk in my coffee, please?

I was too tired to do . work.

You can cash this traveller's cheques at . bank.

Can you give me . information about places of interest in the town?

With the special tourist train ticket, you can travel on . train you like.

If there are . words you don't understand, use a dictionary.

2.Completati propozitiile cu some sau any + body -thing-where:

1.I was too surprised to say .

2.There's . at the door.Can you go and see who it is ?

3.Does . mind if I open the window ?

4.I wasn't feeling hungry, so I didn't eat .

5.You must be hungry.Would you like to eat ?

6.Quick, let's go ! There's . coming and I don't want . to see us.

7.Sally was upset about . and refused to talk to .

8.This machine is very easy to use . . Can learn to use it in a very short time.

9.There was hardly . on the beach.It was almost deserted.

10.Do you live . near Jim ? No, he lives in another part of the town.

11.We slept in a part because we didn't have . to stay.

12.Where shall we go on holiday ?Let's go . warm and sunny.

13.They stay at home all the time ? They never seem to go .

14.I'm going out now.If . phones while I'm out, can you tell me I'll be back at 11.30 ?

15.Why are you looking under the bed ?Have you lost . ?

16 . .who saw the accident should contact the police.

3.Puneti in spatiile goale : much, many, few or little .

1. He isn't very popular. He has . friends.

2. Ann is very busy these days. She has . . free time.

3. Did you take . photographs when you were on holiday ?

4.I'm not very busy today. I haven't got . to do.

5.The museum was very crowded.There were too . people.

6.Most of the town is modern.There are . old buildings.

7.The weather has been very dry recently. We've had . .rain.

New Words

to buy = a cumpara

- flower = floare;

- to borrow = a imprumuta

- tired = obosit(a);

- ticket = bilet;

- to use = a folosi;

- to understand = a intelege;

- to say = a spune;

- warm = cald;

- sunny = insorit;





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