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Adjectivul - engleza


Adjectivul - engleza


Adjectivul - engleza

1. Forma adjectivului

Adjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu isi schimba forma in functie de gen sau numar.
Ex.: A hot potato, some hot potatoes.

Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very, really
Ex.: A very hot potato, some really hot potatoes.

2. Pozitia adjectivului

  • De obicei adjectivul se aseaza in fata substantivului determinat
    Ex.: A good movie.
  • Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem(a parea), to look, to taste, to appear, to feel, to keep, to make, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc:
    Ex.: The movie is good.
       You seem upset(tulburat).
       This cheese tastes different.
    (aceasta branza are gust diferit)
  • Dupa substantiv in expresii fixe:
    Ex.: the Princess Royal, the President elect, the court martial
  • Cateva adjective, ca de exemplu chief (sef), main(esential; principal), poor(nefericit; sarac) (=unfortunate)(nenorocos, nefericit) stau numai in fata substantivului determinat:
    Ex.: This is the main purpose (obiectiv, scop) of the meeting.
       That poor woman was living in a garage.
  • Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep (adormit), upset, awake, afraid (speriat, infricosat), alike (asemanator), alive (vioi, activ in viata), alone, annoyed (enervat, suparat), ill, well, sorry
    Ex.: He's asleep.
       I'm alone.
  • Unele adjective isi schimba sensul in functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. Adjectivele involved (implicat, amestecat, incurcat), present(actual, dar, prezent), concerned (implicat, interesat) au sens diferit daca sunt plasate in fata substantivului sau dupa acesta.
    Ex.: These are the people involved / concerned. (the people who have something to do with the matter)
       They had an involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex)
       I am a concerned mother. (worried, anxious)
       The list of the students present is outside, on the door. (students who were there)
       The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. (current)

Functiile adjectivului

Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivului determinat. Adjectivele pot exprima:



  • Sentimente sau calitati
    Ex.: They make an original couple.
       She is a single mother.
  • Nationalitatea sau originea
    Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian.
       I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas.
  • Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect
    Ex.: The table is long.
       The steel tray (tava) was a gift.
  • Varsta
    Ex.: My hat is too old. I will buy another one.
       He is still very young, almost a boy.
  • Dimensiuni, marime si masuri
    Ex.: 'Gone with the Wind' is a very long film.
       That boy is too tall.
  • Culoarea
    Ex.: I have a red jacket (jacheta, vesta) to go with my new white skirt (fusta).
  • Materie / material
    Ex.: He wore a cotton shirt (camasa).
       It was a silver tray, not a steel tray.
  • Forma:
    Ex.: A rectangular envelope (plic, invelis).
       
    A round table.
  • Judecati, pareri sau opinii:
    Ex.: Grammar is fascinating.
       
    The show was entertaining (amuyant, distractiv).

4. Ordinea adjectivelor

Atunci cand se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv, ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape (forma), Colour, Origin, Material

Value/opinion

delicious, lovely, charming

Size

small, huge, tiny (micut, mititel)

Age/Temperature

old, hot, young, little

Shape

round, square, rectangular

Colour

red, blonde, black

Origin

Swedish, Victorian, Chinese

Material

plastic, wooden (din lemn), silver

Exemple:
   a green round plastic bucket
   an elegant little French clock
   a small round wooden table

5. Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor

5.1. Formarea comparativului si superlativului

Exista trei grade de comparatie ale adjectivelor: pozitiv (inalt), comparativ (mai inalt), superlativ (cel mai inalt). In limba engleza, comparativul si superlativul se formeaza astfel:

Numar de silabe (Pozitiv)

Comparativ

Superlativ

o silaba

+ -er

+ -est

Tall

taller

tallest

  Adjectivele formate dintr-o silaba [consoana + o vocala + consoana] vor dubla consoana finala:

Fat

fatter

fattest

Big

bigger

biggest

sad (abatut, trist)

sadder

saddest

doua silabe

+ -er SAU more + adj

+ -est SAU most + adj

  + Adjectivele terminate in: -y, -ly, -ow
  + Adjectivele terminate in: -le, -er sau -ure
  + Urmatoarele adjective: handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet

Happy

happier/ more happy

happiest/ most happy

Yellow

yellower/ more yellow

yellowest/ most yellow

Simple

simpler/ more simple

simplest/ most simple

tender(gingas,fraged)

tenderer/ more tender

tenderest/ most tender

  Daca nu esti sigur, foloseste more + adj SAU most + adj.
  Nota: Adjectivele terminate in -y ca de exemplu happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc. vor inlocui -y cu -ier sau -iest la forma comparativa si superlativa:

Busy

busier

busiest

Trei sau mai multe silabe

more + adj

most + adj

Important

more important

most important

Expensive

more expensive

most expensive

Exemple:
   a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah (ghepard) is the fastest.
   b. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest.
   c. A park bench (banca) is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most comfortable.

5.2. Forme neregulate

Urmatoarele adjective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate:

Pozitiv

Comparativ

Superlativ

Good

better

best

Bad

worse

worst

Little

less

least

old

older / elder

oldest / eldest

much / many

more

most

far

further / farther

furthest / farthest

5. Comparatia adjectivelor

  • the + superlative
    Ex.: This is the oldest theater in London.
  • comparative + than - pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua obiecte, evenimente sau fiinte:
    Ex.: He makes fewer mistakes than you do.
       Thailand is sunnier than Norway.
       Albert is more intelligent than Arthur.
  • as + adjective + as - constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni, locuri, fiinte, evenimete sau obiecte, intre care nu exista diferente:
    Ex.: Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. Peter is as old as John.
       Ramona is as happy as Raphael.
       A tiger is as dangerous as a lion.
  • not as + adjective + as putem arata diferentele dintre doua substantive folosind contructia not so/as as:
    Ex.: Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest.
       Norway is not as sunny as Thailand

1. Scrie comparativul si superlativul urmatoarelor adjective: happy-happier(more happy)-happiest(most happy) , brave (viteaz) -braver - bravest, busy -busier (more busy) - busiest (most busy), clever (ingenios, destept) - more clever - most clever, dry (uscat) - drier(more dry) - driest (most dry), bad -worse- worst, fat-fatter-fattest, many-more-most, beautiful-more beautiful-most beautiful, difficult-more difficult-most difficult, exciting(emotionant, tulburator) -more exciting-most exciting, far-further (farther)-furthest(farthest), good-better-best.

2. Completeaza cu as, the sau than, dupa caz
- What about this one?
- It's better __than__ the one we saw in Harrods.
- It's bigger _than___ the one in our local shop.
- But it's more expensive than the others.
- Do we want one _as___ big _as__ that?
- Yes, the bigger, the better. Let's buy it. It's the best we've seen so far.

Completeaza spatiile libere cu forma de comparativ sau superlativ a adjectivelor din paranteza (adauga si than acolo unde este cazul)
The 8 o'clock train is much (fast) faster the 7.30 one. Of course it is (crowded aglomerat) more crowded_ the 7.30 train and the tickets are (expensive) more expensive. You get (cheap) _cheaper_ fares(bilete) before 8 o'clock. Still, it's the (quick) quicqest_ way of getting to Bath, unless you want to fly, and getting to the airport is much (difficult) difficult_ getting to the station.





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