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Adjective


Adjective


Adjective

Formation of adjectives

Adjective formate cu suffixe: "enjoy / enjoyable"

Multe adjective legate de verbe sau substantive au un final caracteristic (sau sufix):

We enjoyed the party. -- The party was very enjoyable.



Obs: substantive compuse

Cand un substantiv are 2 sau mai multe parti (ex classroom), se numeste substantiv compus. Putem compune substantive cu forma-ing dancing-shoes.

Forma -ing poate fi uneori adjectiv. Can you see that dancingcouple?= couple that is dancing. Cand forma -ing este adjectiv accentuam ambele cuvinte si nu folosim cratima niciodata.

Forma-ing poate fi prima parte a unui substantiv compus: II need a pair of dancing-shoes. = shoes used for dancing, nu shoes that are dancing. Cand forma-ing este parte a substantivului compus, accentuam primul cuvant, iar daca folosim cratima intre cele doua este optional.

Folosim forma -ing sub 3 forme:

Ca verb (participiu) he is playing , she is learning etc.

Walking in the park yesterday, I saw a bird building its nest. = I was walking +the bird was building a nest.

Ca adjectiv: I need some hot water = water which is hot

boiling = water which is boiling.

Ca substantiv (gerunziu) I like coffee

swimming = the act of swimming.

Cu cateva exceptii folosim forma de gerunziu -ing, ca orice alte substantive.

Adjective formate cu prefixe: "possible / impossible"

Un prefix adaugat unui adjectiv are in general un efect negativ: I think it's possible to solve the problem. I think it's impossible to solve the problem.

Obs: pre- (pre-war) si hyper (hyperactive), care nu creeaza opozitie, insa intr-un fel, modifica intelesul cuvantului.

Compound of adjectives of measurement, etc. "a twenty-year-old-man"

Combinam numerele cu substantivele la singular, pt. a forma adjective compuse cu cratima. A twenty-year-old-man nu A twenty-years-old-man. Este de preferat compunerea acestui mod cu fraze cu of "a man of twenty years"

Compunerea adjectivelor de acest fel se refera la:

Comparation

Look at me carefully! Compare my eyes! Are they the same?

They are different colours. Aceasta este o comparatie si eu sunt COMPARATIA la ordinele dvs.

Oh! Look at that! It's a butterfly. And what's that? It's a big black fly. Well this chapter is about Comparations, so let's compare them! The fly isn't as big as the butterfly. It's smaller. Si eu trebuie sa spun! The butterfly is much more beautiful than the fly.

Look, what's that? It's a mosquito. I hate mosquitoes! But it's here, asa ca trebuie sa-l folosim ca sa facem comparatii. The mosquito is smaller than the fly and a lot smaller than the butterfly. So that means the mosquito is the smallest of all. Si lasa-ma sa aduc ceva in plus - the butterfly is the most beautiful of all.

The same, different, not as big as, smaller than, more beautiful than, the smallest, the most beautiful = COMPARATIONS.

Psst, yes, over here, i am behind the flowers. Hello, I am As.As. Esti obisnuit sa-mi spui ca 2 lucruri sunt la fel intr-un anume fel. Alege un adjectiv cum ar fi BIG sau BEAUTIFUL si uite ce primesti. The red flower is as big as the yellow flower. Inseamna ca nu exista nici o diferenta intre ele. Poti adauga just daca doresti sa accentuezi ca 2 lucruri sunt la fel. The red flower is just as beautiful as the yellow flower.

Now look at the blue flower and the pink flower. The blue flower is not quite as big as the pink flower. And the blue flower is not nearly as big as the red and yellow ones. Uneori ajuta sa ai un exemplu simplu si direct al formei si intelesului in gramatica engl.

Eu sunt COMPARATIVE. Let's compare prices! The yellow hat is more expensive than the red hat. The red hat is cheaper than the yellow hat. Foloseste-ma pt. a comapara 2 lucruri.!

Eu sunt SUPERLATIVE. Sa mai aducem o palarie! Acum ma poti folosi!

The grren hat is the most expensive of all. The red hat is the cheapest of all.

More expensive then, cheaper than, COMPARATIVE foloseste more sau -er. I think i'll get the yellow hat. Or do you like the red hat better

The most expensive, the cheapest SUPERLATIVES folosesc most sau -est.    Try on the green one! Ah, yes! I like the green one the best of all.

Which one do you think it's the most attractive?

Comparative form -er sau -est cu adjective monosilabice ex.: nice, nicer, the nicest. Folosesti more si most cu adjective de 3 silabe

ex.: a-ttrac-tive: attractive, more attractive, the most attractive

adjective cu 2 silabe: fa-mous

1. De obicei folosim more sau the most pt. adjective cu 2 silabe.

famous, more famous, the most famous

2.adjective cu 2 silabe terminate in -y ex.:pre-tty

pretty. prettier, the prettiest.

3.exista adjective carora nu le pasa ce folosim, ex.: handsome

Jim is the handsomest man I know.=Jim is the most handsome man I know

TIP!!! Uita-te in dictionar cand ai dubii! Te obisnuiesti.

Sa vorbim despre ce urmeaza dupa AFTER than. Ne concentram asupra pronumelui care urmeaza dupa . I'm pretty old, so I'm guessing that - you're younger than .. which is right?..younger than me? Sau ..younger than I? Ambele sunt in regula, in engl. Vorbita poti spune younger than me, dar daca doresti sa fi formal trebuie sa rostesti .younger than I. Desi multi oameni includ un verb dupa I: younger than I am. You probabil should use a subject pronoun like I . Stii ca uneori te imbraci formal, renunti la jeans. Tot asa se imbraca si gramatica, depinde de tine ce haine porti.

English grammar speaks_

Yes, he is very old. Indeed , he is much older than I am. I used very to modify an adjective - old. But, then I used much, not very to modify the comparative form.

Much older, a lot older, ..far older than I am.

I bet you are younger than me. Are you just a little bit younger than me? Or, a lot younger than me?

How to modify the Comparative - by using much, a lot, far si a little bit.

NOT ASAS    LESS

Eu sunt LESS, opusul lui MORE.

Eu nu sunt ASAS, si eu sunt opusul lui MORE.

Da noi chiar intelegem acelasi lucru, dar cu o diferenta in gramatica.

NOT AS..AS cu orice adjectiv , unul scurt ca BIG - Adog is not as big as a horse.    Unul lung ca COMFORTABLE - Formal clothes are not as comfortable as jeans and a T-shirt.

Poti spune acelasi lucru cu LESS, dar il poti folosi numai pt. adjectivele lungi. Formal clothes are less comfortable than jeans and a T-shirt.

Nu poti spune ca ceva este "less big" than altceva. Acel adjectiv este prea scurt, pt. LESS.



Comparative again:

Jane likes her cat better than her boyfriend. Ce inseamna asta?

Does Jane like her cat better than her boyfriend likes her cat?

Maybe he's allergic to cats. Maybe it's not a nice cat. Or another possible meaning:

Does jane like her cat better than she likes her boyfriend?

Daca asa stau lucrurile, mai bine prietenul ei si - are gasi o alta iubita. Deci uneori este nevoie sa completezi o comparatie cu tahn pt. a face intelesul clar.

She likes her cat better than her boyfriend does. Sau .

She likes her cat better than she likes her boyfriend.

MORE    - se foloseste cu multe adjective , ex.: more beautiful, etc.

Poate fi folosit si cu substantive. Waiter, could we have some more water please? Sau cu than. there are more students in the beginning class than in the advanced class.

Uneori comparativului trebuie sa - i spui de 2 ori. It's getting longer and longer. They're getting bigger and bigger. Poti sa - i spui si de 3 ori daca vrei.    Now they're getting smaller and smaller and smaller.

DOUBLE COMPARATION

I like hot food. Spicy hot. Full of pepper or hot chiles. Yum!

The hotter, the better!

Yes, -- the hotter the food is, the better I like it.

The sooner, the better = Double Comparative.

SUPERLATIVE foloseste the most, sau -est

Incepe intotdeauna cu "the" - the most beautiful, the smallest. 3 lucruri care-l urmeaza:

Uneori - in Peter is the micest person in our class.

Uneori - off all Everyone in my class is nice, but Peter is nicest off all.

Uneori - o propozitie cu subiect si verb Peter is one of the nicest people I know.

Mai poate fi folosit cu one of - Greece is one of the most beautiful . acum ce se intelege country sau countries? Fiind SUPERLATIV - countries.

Trebuie sa pui plural substantivului dupa one of.

COMPARATION

A butterfly isn't same as a fly. A butterfly isn't the same as a fly.

The same as mai spune different from. A butterfly is different from a fly.

Sau mai putem spune A butterfly is similar to a fly.

Cum folosim like si alike.

There's another butterfly. It's like the butterfly up there. They are alike.

Poti spune    This is like that. Sau ..This and that are alike.

Adjective Order

In English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a noun -- for example, 'He's a silly young fool,' or 'she's a smart, energetic woman.' When you use more than one adjective, you have to put them in the right order, according to type. I will explain the different types of adjectives and the correct order for them.

The basic types of adjectives

Opinion

An opinion adjective explains what you think about something (other people may not agree with you). Examples:
silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult

Size

A size adjective, of course, tells you how big or small something is. Examples:
large, tiny, enormous, little

Age

An age adjective tells you how young or old something or someone is. Examples:
ancient, new, young, old

Shape

A shape adjective describes the shape of something. Examples:
square, round, flat, rectangular

Colour

A colour adjective, of course, describes the colour of something. Examples:
blue, pink, reddish, grey

Origin

An origin adjective describes where something comes from. Examples:
French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek

Material

A material adjective describes what something is made from. Examples:
wooden, metal, cotton, paper

Purpose

A purpose adjective describes what something is used for. These adjectives often end with '-ing'. Examples:
sleeping (as in 'sleeping bag'), roasting (as in 'roasting tin')

Some examples of adjective order

Opinion

Size

Age

Shape

Colour

Origin

Material

Purpose

a

silly

young

English



man

a

huge

round

metal

bowl

a

small

red

sleeping

bag

Adjective Clauses

Here is a brief review of adjective clauses and relative pronouns.

An adjective clause is used to describe a noun:

The car, which was red, belonged to Young-Hee.

A relative pronoun is usually used to introduce an adjective clause:

Young-Hee, who is a Korean student, lives in Victoria.

The main relative pronouns are:

Who: used for humans in subject position:

Hans, who is an architect, lives in Berlin.

Whom: used for humans in object position:

Marike, whom Hans knows well, is an interior decorator.

Which: used for things and animals in subject or object position

Marike has a dog which follows her everywhere.

That: used for humans, animals and things, in subject or object position (but see below):

Marike is decorating a house that Hans designed.

There are two main kinds of adjective clause:

Non-defining clauses: give extra information about the noun, but they are not essential

The desk in the corner, which is covered in books, is mine.

(We don't need this information in order to understand the sentence. 'The desk in the corner is mine' is a good sentence on its own -- we still know which desk is referred to. Note that non-defining clauses are usually separated by commas, and that is not usually used in this kind of context.)



Defining clauses: give essential information about the noun

The package that arrived this morning is on the desk.

(We need this information in order to understand the sentence. Without the relative clause, we don't know which package is being referred to. Note that that is often used in defining relative clauses, and they are not separated by commas.)

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES: INTRODUCTION

.in engl exista 3 tipuri principale de dependenta a propozitiilor: (1)propozitie secundara adverbiala, (2) secundara adjectivala, si (3) substantivala. Conceputul propozitiilor dependende (e.g., a "time clause" or an "if-clause") este prezentata initial in Chapters 2 si 3 in conjunctie cu cu studiul timpurilor verbelor.

TIME CLAUSE

Terminologia "adverb clause" este initial folosita in articolele 8-6 si 8-7 in legatura cu utilizarea lui because si even though.

Acest capitol prezinta adjective clauses.

Al 3-a fel de propozitii secundare, substantivala, este cunoscuta in Chapter 14.

. apropierea in acest articol este de a lega functia adjectivelor de functia propozitiilor secundare adjectivale ca o cale de ajutor pt. intelegerea elevilor; scopurile si utilizarea propozitiilor adjectivale.

O problema in examplele (a) through (d) in the chart - este ca unii elevi ar putea crede ca o propozitie adjectivala are nevoie sa aiba un adjectiv in componenta ei. Acest lucru nu este adevarat. Cere-le elevilor sa noteze acel exemplu (e) nu contine adjectiv; informatia in propozitiile itself serveste pt. a descrie un substantiv; i.e., functia propozitiei este aceeasi cu functia unui adjectiv, si din acest motiv propozitiile sunt numite de cauza adjectivala. Adevaratul lucru aici este ca adjectivele preceda un substantiv intr-o fraza substantivala, unde propozitiile secundare adjectivale stau dupa un substantiv.

. apropierea textului este de a conecta folosirea pronumelor personale si a pronumelor relative.

Intr-o propozitie simpla sau una principala,sunt folosite he, she, it, they, him, her, them, his, si their. Partile ei numarabile intr-o propozitie adjectivala sunt who, whom, that, which, si whose. Obiectivul acestui capitol este de a arata cum sunt folosite aceste pronume relative.

USING WHO AND WHOM IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

textul prezinta o informatie mica la un timp despre brevetarea unei propozitii adjectivale, incepand aici cu o prezentare a pronumelui subiect who vs. obiectul determinat- pronume whom.

. recapituleaza termenii "subject" si "object" daca este nevoie.

. greseli tipice includ folosirea ambelor propozitii adjectivale pronume si pronume personal:

INCORRECT: The man who he lives next to me is friendly.

INCORRECT: The man whom I met him was friendly.

Studentii au nevoie sa inteleaga ca who si whom sunt folosite mai degraba ca pronume personale. Cele 2 feluri de pronume au acelasi inteles (e.g., in the examples, he si who la fel de bine ca as him si whom se refera la the man), dar ele nu sunt folosite impreuna (unele limbi cer ambele tipuri de pronume , dar engl. Starndard nu le accepta impreuna.)

. cateva note pt. whom: este folosit rar in propozitii adjectivale (si intrebari si propozitii substantiv ale la fel de bine). Este prezentata aici ca o deviza in a ajuta elevii pt. a stabili o diferenta intre subiect si obiectul determinat-pronume relative in sabloanele propozitiilor adjectivale Elevii nu vor gresi daca folosesc whom pt. un obiect determinat-pronume in tiparul unei propozitii adjectivale, dar aceasta folosire ar putea parea putin pompoasa sau de old-fashioned. Urmatoarele articole si exercitii le incurajeaza in a folosi that sau who sau pt. a omite pronumele daca este posibil. Situatiile in care whom trebuie folosit mai degraba decat who sau that sunt

(1) urmand o prepozitie (e.g., The man about whom I told you. Articolul 12-6); si

(2) in Engleza scrisa intr-o propozitie nonrestrictiva (e.g., The Prime Minister, whom no one dared interrupt, spoke for two hours on the need for trade restrictions).

Acest text nu prezinta propozitii relative nonrestrictive. (Instead, see Understanding and Using English Grammar,Third Edition, Chart 13-10.) Whom mai este folosit in ceea ce the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English calls "careful speech." De altmiteri folosirea lui whom este disparitia din folosirea Englezei contemporane , in special in limba vorbita

USING WHO,WHO(M), AND THAT IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

. acest articol extinde pe ceea ce elevii au invatat in articolul 12-2 prin prezentarea altor sabloane posibile: cele cu that or with (nothing).

. in folosirea actuala, who este preferat la that ca un subiect pronumial, that este preferat la whom ca un obiect determinat-pronume, si in folosirea zilnica, omiterea obiectului determinat-pronume este de obicei preferata folosirii fie a lui whom fie a lui that. Textul nu da elevilor aceasta informatie. Mai potrivit, el tinteste ajutorul elevilor in a castiga controlul catorva sabloane de baza.

La acest nivel de studiu al limbii, elevii inca nu foloseste propozitii adjectivale

Mai bogate in expresii si s-ar putea chiar sa le evite. Asigurandu-le abilitatea folosirii mai bogata in vocabular care va creste la fel cum ei castiga experienta in utilizarea limbii. Cum spune Engleza, merge de la o ghinda mica la cresterea unui stejar maret. Este contraproductiv pt. profesorii de gramatica sau text sa prezinte intregul stejar la inceput.

USING WHICH AND THAT IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

Which mai este folosit in intrebari care cer o alegere intre lucrurile cunoscute (i.e., Which book is yours?). elevii invata o folosire diferita a lui which in acest articol.

. o gresala obisuita este folosirea lui what in locul lui which:

INCORRECT: The book what I read was very interesting.

What nu este niciodata folosit ca un pronume de propozitie adjectivala.







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