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» Orase cu plan prestabilit in Germania


Orase cu plan prestabilit in Germania



Orase cu plan prestabilit in Germania

Arhitectura germana datorita caracteristicilor sale si deschiderii sale la influentele straine, a reflectat diversitatea culturii arhitecturale europene in timpul primilor ani ai secolului XIX.

 

-          aceste orase produc o inflorire

-          principii germani isi dau seama de aceasta dezvoltare si acorda privilegii hughenotilor

Erlangen

- clasicism francez si jocul de lucarne specific arhitecturii medievale germane

- 1685- revocarea edictului de la Nantes-> in secolul urmator toti hughenotii care nu trec la catolicism trebuie sa emigreze in zone tolerante cum sunt Elvetia, Prusia, Baden astfel ca la inceput de secol XVIII Berlinul avea 20% populatie franceza(elita profesionala a mesterilor francezi)-: toata aceasta societate a dus la raspandirea clasicismului si iluminismului

- acestia vor fonda cateva localitati cum ar fi si Erlangenul

-arh clasica si baroca, cu aer frantuzesc

-biserica si palatul-clasiciste iar casele sunt modeste

Erlangen was first mentioned officially in 1002 under the name of 'villa erlangon'. In 1361, the village was sold to Emperor Karl IV. Three years later, a city was built close to the village, which in 1374 got its own coining station (mint). In 1398, the municipal rights were confirmed. In 1402, the city was vested to the Hohenzollern as part of the principality of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (from 1603 on Bayreuth), staying under their rule until 1806. Erlangen was the capital of the so-called 'Low County' (Unterland) of the principality, encompassing the area until Neustadt an der Aisch and separated from the 'High County' (Oberland) by a land corridor. After a four-year French occupation, it finally became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria, together with the Bayreuth prinicipality.

While being part of the Bayreuth county, the first French Huguenot refugees arrived in Erlangen in 1686. The Bayreuth count Christian Ernst built a 'new town' (Neustadt) for them. In 1706, the old town (just below the site of the annual Bergkirchweih) was almost completely destroyed by a fire, but soon rebuilt. In 1812, the old and new towns were finally merged into one.

In 1742, Count Friedrich of Bayreuth founded a university for the residency town Bayreuth, but due to the rebelliousness of the local students, the university was transferred to Erlangen. Only later did it obtain the name of 'Friedrich-Alexander-University' and become a Prussian state university. Famous students of these times were Johann Ludwig Tieck and Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder.

Already during the Bavarian municipal reform of 1818, the city was endowed with its own administration. In 1862, the canton administration Erlangen was founded, from which later arose the administrative district of Erlangen. In 1972, this district was merged with the administrative district of Höchstadt. Erlangen became the capital of this newly founded district Erlangen-Höchstadt. During this municipal reform, Erlangen was effectively enlarged considerably, so that by 1974, it had more than 100,000 inhabitants.

[edit] University

The Erlangen castle is home of a large part of the university administration

The Erlangen castle is home of a large part of the university administration

The University of Erlangen (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, [1]) was founded in 1742 by Margrave Friedrich of Brandenburg-Bayreuth in the city of Bayreuth, but was relocated to Erlangen the next year. Today, it features 11 departments (German 'Fakultäten'), 2 of which (Economics and Education) are located in Nuremberg. About 24,000 students study at this university, of which about 20,000 are located in Erlangen.

[edit] Bergkirchweih

The Bergkirchweih is an annual beer festival, similar to the Oktoberfest in Munich but smaller in scope, and therefore more intimate. It takes place during the twelve days before and after Pentecost, under the spring trees of the 'Berg' and draws more than one million visitors each year.

It is commonly known by local residents as the 'Berchkärwa' (pronounced 'bairch'-care-va') or simply the 'Berch', as in 'Gehma auf'm Berch?' ('Shall we go up to the Bergkirchweih?').


Manheim

-realizat de Vauban

-planul fortificatiilor, in forma de stea, are 3 randuri de ziduri si bastioane

-alt oras pe plan prestabilit

- plan ordonat cu cvartale identice(adresa ca la sah, strazile nu sunt denumite)

- aflat intre Rhin si Necar

-orasul de plan recangular adesea nu exista denumiri ptr strazi

-biserica de limbaj baroc face trecerea catre neoclasicism

-primaria ocupa un cvartal intreg

-plan rectangular, trama tabla de sah

Ludvigsburg

-oras care nu a mai fost terminat de hughenoti

The middle of Neckarland, in which Ludwigsburg lies, was settled in the Stone age and in the Bronze age. Numerous archaeological finds from the city and the surrounding area remain from the time when it was settled by the Celts.

Toward the end of the 1st century, the Romans occupied the region. They pushed the Limes further to the east around 150, and controlled the region until 260, when the Alamanni occupied the Neckarland. Also the Alamanni settlement is proven by grave finds in the city today.

View of the upper grounds of Ludwigsburg Palace

View of the upper grounds of Ludwigsburg Palace

Ludwigsburg Palace, inner courtyard

Ludwigsburg Palace, inner courtyard

Jagdschlösschen Favorite

Jagdschlösschen Favorite

Schloss Monrepos

Schloss Monrepos

Ludwigsburg originated in the beginning of the 18th century (1718 - 1723) by the building of the largest Baroque castle in Germany, Ludwigsburg Palace, under Duke Eberhard Ludwig von Württemberg. Originally the Duke planned only one pleasure-palace, which he began building in 1704. However, the example of other Fürsts (or Princes) woke in him a desire: the establishment of a city through which to project his absolutist power. The Baroque hunting- and pleasure-palaces became Favorite (1713 - 1728), and the Seeschloss Seeschloss (Lake-palace) Monrepos (1764 - 1768) besides. (See Barockerlebnis in external links for further details.)

In the years between 1730 and 1800, the royal place of residence changed back and forth several times between Stuttgart and Ludwigsburg. In 1800, Württemberg was occupied by France under Napoleon Bonaparte and was forced into an alliance with France. In 1806 the Kurfürst (Prince-Elector) Friedrich became the king of Württemberg by Napoleon's grant. In 1812 in Ludwigsburg, the Württembergish army was raised for Napoleon's Russian campaign. The majority of the soldiers did not survive it.

One famous person to come out of Ludwigsburg during this period was Friedrich Schiller. Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg, enrolled the youth in the Karlsschule Stuttgart (an elite military academy he had founded) in 1773, where Schiller eventually studied medicine. The Duke was very demanding of his students, and Schiller's childhood was a lonely and unhappy one, but he was greatly enriched by the excellent education he received. It was there that he wrote his first play, Die Räuber (The Robbers), about a group of naïve revolutionaries and their tragic failure.

In 1921 Ludwigsburg became the largest garrison in southwest Germany. In 1926 in the course of the building of the north south powerline, the large transformer station Ludwigsburg-Hoheneck, which still exists today, was built, which still represents another central junction in electricity mains of Baden-Württemberg to this day.

In World War II the city suffered moderate destruction (compared with other German cities). The people had 1,500 dead to mourn. It was also the site of the prisoner-of-war camp Stalag V-A from October 1939 till April 1945. After the end of the war there was a large Displaced persons camp which housed several thousand mainly Polish Displaced Persons until about 1948.

For about 45 years after the war the U.S. military maintained Pattonville, a large housing area including a high school, east of Ludwigsburg. In 1956 the tradition of the German garrison town was taken up again by the Bundeswehr, Germany's federal armed forces.

On October 5th, 1957 the first 380kV-powerline in Germany between the transformer station Ludwigsburg-Hoheneck and Rommerskirchen went into service.

In 1966 the Pädagogische Hochschule (Teaching College) and the Staatliche Sportschule Ludwigsburg (State Sports School) were opened.

2004 is the 300th birthday of Residenzschloss Ludwigsburg, celebrated by the opening of the Baroque Gallery and the Ceramic Museum in Residenzschloss.

In 1991 the national film school Filmakademie Baden-Württemberg was established in Ludwigsburg.

Karlsruhe

-          la fel ca si Versailles, dupa modelul lui Ludovic al XIV-lea e realizat si acest oras

- Friedrich Weinbrenner(1766-1826) a transformat Karlsruhe intr-un oras al neoclasicismului exemplar

-are ca sursa de inspiratie Versaillesul, si este organizat de la turn care este centrul cercului

-zona de parc--parcul de vanatoare

-orasul este organizat pe raze si cercuri concentrice (din centru pleaca 32 de strazi)

-pavilionul corpului de garda este clasicist

-la colturi sunt construite case care datorita unghiurilor cand obtuze cand ascutite dau impresia

de imagini distorsionate

-compoz planului este riguroasa, simetrica, creand o scenografie de factura clasica, mai importanta

decat exprimarea functiunilor

Palatul din Karlsruhe

-clasic

- turn cu flesa

-dezvoltarea orasului merge pe ax

- functiunile orasului- limbaj clasicist foarte formal a.c. si o biserica poate semana si cu un teatru

- aceasta localitatea e ridicata in sec XVII de conducerea locala









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