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» SUPORT de CURS LIMBA ENGLEZA


SUPORT de CURS LIMBA ENGLEZA




UNIVERSITATEA DE NORD, BAIA MARE

SUPORT de CURS

LIMBA ENGLEZA




 TC  f

Curs 1

The Alphabet


A [ei]         - What is your name? My name is Anna.

Please spell it: [ei] [en] [en] [ei]

B [bi:] - What is his name? Ben.

Please spell it: [bi] [i:] [en]

C [si:] - What is her name? Carol.

Please spell it: [si:] [ai] [a:] [ou] [el].

Spell the names:

D [di:] - Donald

E [i:] - Eva

F [ef] - Felicity

G [dʒi:] - Garry

H [eit∫] - Hilda

I [ai] - Iris

J [dʒei] - Jim

K [kei] - Kay

L [el] - Larry

M [em] - Mary

N [en] - Nicole

O [ou] - Ophelia

P [pi:] - Paul

Q [kju:] - Quinn

R [a(r):] - Raymond

S [es] - Sally

T [ti:]         - Tania

U [ju:] - Umberto

V [vi:] - Vicky

W [dablju:] - William

X [eks] - Xavier

Y [ωai] – Yvette

Z [zed] - Zara


My name is ______________________. Please spell it_____________________________

I am from________________________. Please spell it. ____________________________

Pronunciation drill:

TYPE of SOUND

                 EXAMPLES

VOWELS

(vocale)

i:

me; tree; he; people

i

ship; it; ticket; this; king

e

bed; pen; egg; yes; men; well

ć

man; that; am; and; Paris; can; Spanish

a:

past; dark; arm; are; car; hard

not; lot; wash; song; form; rock; coffee

 

all; small; ball; or; forty; morning

u

put; full; look; good; book

u:

who; move; noon; blue; do; too

ә

a; the; under; father; address; servant; Saturday

ә:

her; Thursday; burn; third; worth; work

>

up; cup; much; sun; some; but

DIPHTHONGS

(diftongi)

ei

say; baby; train; plate; table; waiter; Spain

ou

no; smoke; those; motor; only; Poland; hotel

ai

five; nine; ice; eye; my; side

au

how; count; flower; cloud; hour; now

oi

boy; noise; boil; voice

dear; clear; beer; really; ear

εә

where; there; their; chair; hair; care

four; door; your; more; floor

sure, poor

CONSONANTS

(consoane)

CONSONANTS

(consoane)

p

pen; people; pull; open

b

be; baby; boy; bad;  husband

t

train; tree; treat; sit; hotel

d

door; day; sad; kind; desk; Friday

k

cold; back; clock; car; class; king

g

gold; bag; girl; dog; good; go; egg-cup

f

fine; far; safe; flower; after

v

very; save; vegetable; seven; never

θ

thank; thick; thin; nothing; think; twentieth, worth

đ

then; that; there; weather; with; together

s

so; sit; sleep; thinks; place; cigarette

z

zero; noise; has; knives; comes; plays

ship; sharp; fish; English; short; wash

ʒ

pleasure; measure; enclosure

t∫

Charles; each; Richard; rich; much; church

John; judge; age; Japan; language

h

his, happy; here; help; unhappy

m

man; swim; make; my

n

name; near; then; finish

ŋ

sing; thing; working; English; king

r

red; around; very; rich; every; room

l

leave; long; last; full; greatly; last

ω

will; work; away; when; window; wash

j

yellow; you; year; young; yes; piano 

Basic Verb Forms

TO BE                 I am  ________________      We are       ___________

(a fi)                    You are  ___________          You are      ___________

                            He is           ___________              They are     ___________

                            She is  ___________

                            It is   ________________

TO HAVE           I        have  ___________      We    have  ____________

(a avea)               You   have  ___________      You   have  ____________

                            She   has    ___________                They have  ____________

                            He     has    ___________

                            It       has    ___________                        

Occupations:  


doctor  She is a_______________

teacher You are a______________

accountant Fred is a______________

economist  I am an________________

driver He is a________________

secretary    She is a______________

mechanic    Jeff is a _______________

waiter    He is not a _____________

cook   She is a _______________

electrician    Dan is a ______________

engineer    He is a ________________

pilot   She is a _______________

manager   Tim is a _______________

clerk   Sarah is a ______________

nurse     Joe is a ________________

policeman    He is not a _____________


Practise the verb TO BE:

I am not a doctor. You _________ a teacher. She is an economist. He _____ a driver. You are a teacher. I ________ an economist. He is a lawyer. She _____ a doctor, she ______ not an actress. We are managers. You _____ not teachers, you _____ drivers. We ______ doctors. He __________ a pilot, he ______ not an electrician.  She _____ an engineer.

More words:  Car                  ______________                   It is a car.

                     Office     ______________                   It is an office.

                     Dress       ______________                   _____ a dress.

                     Paper       ______________                    ____ a paper.

                      Cup         ______________                   _____ a cup.

                       Phone        ______________            _____ a phone

                       Chair         ______________             _____ a chair

                       Desk          ______________             _____ a desk

                      Window    ______________             _____ a window

                       Shirt          ______________             _____ a shirt

                       Stapler      ______________              _____ a stapler

Practise the verb TO HAVE:

I _________ a car.  You have a ____________. She ________ a coffee cup. He ______ a red shirt. We _______ a big office. You __________ a blue car. They ________ two phones. She ______a new dress.  I _______ a comfortable chair. He _____ an office. She ______ a large window. They ______a small company.

Greeting, introducing people, AGREEING, apologies,

excuses and promises, thanks:

Greeting:

Hello (Am. E. Hi) folosit in raporturi familiare

Good morning! -  pana la ora 12 sau 13

Good afternoon! – intre orele 12/13  si 18

Good evening! – intre 18 si ora culcarii

How do you do (Sir/Madam)? – situatii formale cand intalnim pe cineva prima data; Nice to meet you. sau Pleased to meet you.

Good bye! /Farewell! – La revedere!

So long! -  Pe curand!

Bye-bye! – pe ton familiar pentru copii sau prieteni apropiati

See you later! / I’ll be seeing you! / See you! (Am. E.) – Ne (mai) vedem.

Observati ca:  Formula Good day!este de evitat fiind (rar) folosita  pentru despartiri definitive pe ton dispretuitor, dar niciodata ca formula de salut.  

Introducing people:

FUNCTION

Formal

Informal

Introducing people

(prezentari)

May I present…?

I’d like you to meet …

A: How do you do?

B: How do you do, nice to meet you.

 This is …

A: Hi/Hello.

B: Nice/Glad to see you.

Parting remarks:

(formule pentru despartire)

It was so nice to meet you.

It was a pleasure to meet you.

Hope to see you again!

See you soon!

Bye!

Excuses/Apologies (saying sorry):

I’m sorry.

I beg your pardon.

I’m very/terribly/awfully/so sorry.

I’m really/very sorry I’m late.

Sorry to keep you waiting.

I’m sorry about the mess. I’ll clear it up. (I’ll tidy up).  

I’m sorry about the confusion. I’ll sort it out. (I will solve the problem.)

Thanks (saying Thank you):

Thank you very much.

Thanks a lot.

Thank you. That’s very kind of you.

Thank you very much for inviting me/having me here.  

Thank you for everything. You’ve been very kind.

Make the following conversation more formal:

Barbara: This is Rod James, the new Sales Manager.

Rod: Hello!

Barbara: This is John Grant, one of our best customers.

John: Nice to meet you!

Rod: I’m happy to know you. Sorry, I have to go now. See you soon.

Impersonal expressions with the verb TO BE/ Expresii impersonale cu verbul TO BE:      

            

IT     It is dark.______________________          It is hard.____________________

          It is cold.______________________          It is hot.  ____________________

It is warm._____________________     It is enough. _________________

It is not late. ___________________     It is chilly. ___________________

It is early. _____________________      It is sunny. __________________

It is not cloudy. _________________    It isn’t difficult. _______________

It is new. ______________________      It is nice. ____________________

It is 10 o’clock. _________________      It is good. ___________________

It is not bad. ___________________      It is far, not close. _____________

It is wonderful. _________________     It is true. ____________________

THERE IS    There is much rain in this region.  _________________________

                      There is silence in this room. ______________________________

                      There is not enough coffee. ________________________________

                      There is a doctor here.  ___________________________________

                       There is a good film on TV tonight. ________________________

                       Have you got any money? Yes, there is some in my bag.

                       _________________________________________________                     

 

THERE ARE    There are many people here now. ____________________________

                           There are big trees in the park. _______________________________

                           There are four engineers there. _______________________________

                           There aren’t children in here. ________________________________

                           There are some big trees in the garden. ________________________

                           There aren’t many accidents on this road. ______________________

More words:       company    __________________  money ___________________

                            salary         __________________  job_______________________

                            family        __________________  partner___________________

                               colleague    __________________     position __________________

                               friend        ___________________     boss _____________________

Forma negativa si interogativa a verbelor la timpul Prezent

(Present Simple - The Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative Aspects)

TO BE ( a fi)

Persoana/

numarul

Aspectul Afirmativ

Aspectul Negativ/

 Forma scurta

Aspectul Interogativ

SG:             I

I am

I am not /  I’m not

Am I?

 II

You are

You are not/  you aren’t

Are you?

 III

He is

He is not/  he isn’t

Is he?

She is

She is not/  she isn’t

Is she?

It is

It is not/  it isn’t

Is it?

PL:             I

We are

We are not/  we aren’t

Are we?

               II

You are

You are not/  you aren’t

Are you?

III

They are

They are not/   the aren’t

Are they?

TO HAVE (a avea)

Persoana/

numarul

Aspectul afirmativ/

 Forma scurta

Aspectul Negativ/

forma scurta

Aspectul Interogativ

SG:        I

I have/ I’ve

I do not /don’t  have

Do I have?

 II

You have/ you’ve

You do not /don’t have

Do you have?

 III

He has/ he’s

He does not /doesn’t have

Does he have?

She has/ she’s

She does not /doesn’t have

Does she have?

It has

It does not /doesn’t have

Does it have?

PL:        I

We have/ we’ve

We do not /don’t have

Do we have?

II

You have/ you’ve

You do not/ don’t have

Do you have?

III

They have/ they’ve

They do not/ don’t have

Do they have?

TO DO  (a face)

Persoana/

numarul

Aspectul afirmativ/

 Forma scurta

Aspectul Negativ/

forma scurta

Aspectul Interogativ

SG:        I

I do

I do not do/ I don’t do

Do I do?

 II

You do

You do not do/ you don’t do

Do you do?

 III

He does

He does not do/ he doesn’t do

Does he do?

She does

She does not do/ she doesn’t do

Does she do?

It does

It does not do/ It doesn’t do

Does it do?

PL:       I

We do

We do not do / we don’t do

Do we do?

II

You do

You do not do/ you don’t do

Do you do?

III

They do

They do not do/ they don’t do

Do they do?

OBSERVATII:

·    La aspectul afirmativ la persoana a III-a singular (he/she/it) se adauga la terminatia verbului +s/es: I do an exercise. He/She does an exercise.

                          We come home late. He comes home early.

                           They eat sweets.  Jim eats pizza.

·    La aspectul negativ la toate persoanele se adauga auxiliarul Do/Does + negatia NOT + verbul de conjugat (varianta scurta pentru do+not este don’t;  does+not este doesn’t):

                             I do not do an exercise. I don’t do an exercise.

                             She does not do an exercise.  She doesn’t do an exercise.  

                             They don’t eat sweets.  Jim doesn’t eat pizza.

·   La aspectul interogativ structura pozitiei este  auxiliarul (Do/Does)+ subiect+ verb:

                           Do (auxiliar) I (subiect) do (verb) an exercise?  Does  she do an exrecise?

                           Do they eat sweets?  Does Jim eat pizza?

 Adverbe de frecventa folosite cu Prezentul Simplu:


USUALLY __________________

NEVER _________________

ALWAYS _________________

EVERY DAY/ MONTH/ WEEK / YEAR ____________________________

EVER __________________

OFTEN _________________

RARELY _________________

SOMETIMES __________________

GENERALLY _________________

FREQUENTLY _________________

NORMALLY _________________

OCCASIONALLY _________________

REGULARLY ___________________

FROM TIME TO TIME __________________

AS A RULE ____________________

EVERY ONCE IN A WHILE ___________________________


Fill in with the verb TO HAVE:

I ______ a job. She_____a partner. We______a company. You_____ a salary. He _______ a family. We _____ money. They ________ a family. She______ a big salary. He_______ a good position in the company. They______a small company. We_____ a lot of money. I_____ a salary. He_____a new car. You______a good colleague.

Phrases with the verb HAVE (Expresii cu verbul HAVE) : 

have breakfast/ lunch/ dinner      We usually have breakfast at 7 am, and lunch at 1 pm. 

have good/bad weather        We hope to have good weather when we go on vacation.

have a visitor                          Do you have many visitors every weekend?

have someone as a guest     We have the manager of Microsoft as a guest at this hotel.

have a good/wonderful time        She hopes to have a good time in Tahiti.

have the house repainted/decorated        The Smiths have their house painted.

have a watch repaired         My watch is broken, I have to have it repaired.

have a chat                      I haven’t seen you in a while, let’s have a chat over coffee!

Read and translate this text:

1) I am Sally. I am an economist. I have a job and a car. You are his partner. You have an office¸ a salary¸ and a good position. We are colleagues. We have big offices. He is Larry and he is a lawyer. He has a job and his own office. He has a small salary. She is Mary. She is an accountant. She has a small company. Larry and Mary are married. They have a beautiful family. They are business partners. Jim has an old car, but he is a good driver. He has a good salary and a small, beautiful house. Jim has a furniture company and a family. He is a manager and has a lot of money.

2) Yvonne is 22 and she is a successful model. Her friends describe her as strong and independent. ‘I have to be in my job – I started modelling when I was 15.’ She is also good-looking and intelligent. ‘I like people who have similar interests and opinions, and who make me laugh’.

3) Robert is 34 and he is a doctor. According to his wife he is very patient and hard-working, and he has a good sense of humour. ‘That is important in my job! I get on well with people who are honest and say what they think.’ He often comes home tired and only has dinner and watches TV. His patients appreciate him because he is a good doctor. 

Practise: Fill in the forms of the verb TO BE:  

_______ you in the office? Yes¸ I am in the office. Yes¸ I am.

Is she at home? No¸ she ________ at home. /She isn’t at home. No¸ she isn’t.

______  he at the company? Yes¸ he is at the company. Yes¸ he _______.

Is she at work? Yes¸ she ______ at work. Yes¸ she is.

Is it yellow? No¸ it _______ yellow¸ it is white. No¸ it isn’t. It’s white.

Are we lawyers? Yes¸ we ________ lawyers. Yes¸ we are.

_______ you doctors? No¸ you are not doctors. No¸ you ________. You are accountants.

Are they economists? No¸ they ________ economists. No¸ they aren’t, they _____ lawyers.

 - FURTHER PRACTICE WORKSHEET (1) –

1. Make the following sentences affirmative, interrogative, or negative:

         Affirmative                      Interrogative                                Negative

1. This is a king.              ____________________            _______________________

2.   _______________              Is she my doctor?            _______________________

3. _________________      _____________________        The boys don’t play football.  

4. That is the Moon.         ____________________           _______________________

5. _________________     ____________________            Matt  isn’t my friend.  

6. Those are stars.            _____________________         _______________________

7. ________________            Is the door open?                _______________________

8. _________________       ____________________          We never go to the seaside.

9. She sells seashells.       _____________________          _______________________

10. ________________       Does he work here?                _______________________

2. Translate into English using impersonal expressions as IT IS/ THERE IS/ THERE ARE:

1. Este frig in Februarie.         ________________________

2.  Cursul se afla pe birou.     ________________________

3. Sunt multi oameni aici.    _________________________

4. Nu sunt multe cladiri in oras. ______________________

5. Este placut sa zambesti.   _________________________

6. Nu e greu sa fii bun.        __________________________

7. Sunt 20 de elevi in clasa. ___________________________

8. Este o poza cu tine in ziar. _________________________

9. Nu sunt probleme, totul este in regula. ______________________________

10. Nu avem unde sa ne asezam, nu sunt scaune. _______________________

3. Read this text and translate it into Romanian:

This is Mary Johnson. She is a nurse at St. Michael Hospital. This is a classroom in a local high school and Mary is in Mr. Thompson’s language class. There are other people there with her. They are all here to learn a new language. The teacher, Mr. Thompson, is new in town. He comes from London. The door is behind the teacher, and a window is open. On the teacher’s desk there are some sheets of paper and some pencils. In five minutes the English class begins.

4. Inlocuiti spatiile libere cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului TO BE (a fi) si TO HAVE (a avea):


I ______ a student.

This ____ a school.

Larry ______ an old phone.

The doctor _____ many patients.

The company _____ a head office.

It _________ sunny.

She ____ sad.

They ____ accountants.

It _____ dark.

This _____ a cup.

That ______ very good coffee.

Those _____ my air tickets.

It _____ enough.

You ______ a good car.

She _______ a company.

This is all we _____ with us.

We _____ money.

He ______ a partner.

The president _____ an office.

You ____a doctor.

These _____ teachers.

Jessica _____ a lawyer.

I ______ happy.

Those _____ economists.

That ______ a supermarket

Larry ______ a good career.

The secretary ______a new desk.

The office _____ a computer network.

I _____ a party dress.

He ______ a good job.

They _____ several companies.

You ____ this telephone number.

I _____ cold, close the window, please.

Jane _____ at home at the moment.

Tina ____ 23 and her sister _____ 29.

My brother _______ very tall.

Tom _____ not interested in politics.

John _______ afraid of dogs.

It ____ 10 o’clock. You ____ late again.

Anna and I ______ good friends.

Those people _____ not English.

Your keys ______ on the table.

It _____ not sunny today, but it _____ warm.

I ______ tired, but I ____ not hungry. 


5. Where do they work? Complete the blanks:

1)   A teacher ______________________________________

2)   A doctor _______________________________________

3)   A waiter _____________________________________

4)   A secretary ___________________________________

5)   A shop-assistant __________________________________

6)   A hairdresser __________________________________

7)   A farmer ___________________________________

8)   An engineer ____________________________________

9)   A taxi-driver __________________________________

10)    A mechanic ________________________________

11)    A nurse _______________________________

12)    A writer _________________________

13)    What do you do? ________________________

       Where do you work? _____________________

        Is it an interesting job? ____________________

Curs 2

2.1 Substantivul (The Noun)

In limba engleza sunt doua categorii de substantive (nouns) cu subcategorii:

Nouns    proper (proprii): England, Romania, John, Anna, Hawaii, Everest, Paris;

                common (comune):  

                            1. countable (numarabile): - concrete (concrete): boy, car, flower;

     Common                                                      - abstract (abstracte): dream, idea;

        nouns          2. uncountable (nenumarabile): - concrete (concrete): milk, bread;

                                                                                    - abstract (abstracte): advice, love;

The Plural of Nouns (Pluralul substantivelor)

1. Countable Nouns (Substantive numarabile)

SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXEMPLE

Substantive cu terminatii diverse la singular

+ S

car-cars¸ office-offices¸ doctor-doctors¸ lawyer-lawyers¸ drivers¸ cups¸ papers;

Substantivele terminate in consoana + y (y se transforma in i+es)

+ IES

company - companies¸ city-cities¸ salary-salaries, industry-industries, fly-flies;  

Substantive terminate in -s¸ -ss¸

-ch¸ -sh¸ -x¸- zz

+ ES

bus- buses¸ dress – dresses¸ lunch-lunches

bush-bushes¸ box-boxes¸ buzz-buzzes

Substantive terminate in –f¸ -fe

+ VES

half - halves¸ thief-thieves¸ wife-wives, life-lives, wolf-wolves, knife-knives.

Substantive terminate in –o

+ ES

potato – potatoes¸ echo-echoes, hero-heroes;

BUT: piano-pianos¸ photo- photos;

Substantive exceptie (Irregular Plural) - nu formeaza pluralul prin adaugarea lui  +s/ es)

man-me woman-wome tooth-teeth¸  foot-fee           child-children,  mouse-mice;

Plurale straine:

datum-data¸     criterion-criteria¸          phenomenon - phenomena

Pluralul identic cu singularul

A sheep - sheep¸ a deer - deer¸ a fish – fish (fishes diferite specii de peste)¸ a fruit – fruit;  a series – series;

 2. Uncountable Nouns (Substantive nenumarabile)

SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXEMPLE

Substantive  care formeaza singularul prin cuantificatorul a piece of… sau  some, a lot of, much, a  little

information, equipment, news, advice, furniture, damage, luggage, knowledge;

a piece of information, a piece of advice, a piece of furniture, little damage, a piece of luggage; 

Substantive care formeaza singularul prin cuantificatorii  some, a lot of, much, a  little

cash, money, homework, applause, music, luck, progress, traffic, work; coffee, sugar, milk, butter, bread, chocolate, wine, oil;

 some money, a lot of work, much traffic, little progress; some coffee, a little bread, a lot of sugar, some water;

        We use:   much + uncountable noun:

         We use:   many + countable noun:

Do you need much food?

We haven’t got much luggage.

Have you got any money?  I’ve got some, but not much.

Do you have many books?

We don’t know many people.

How many photos did you take?

Did you take many photos? I took some, but not many.

          We use:     a lot of + all types of noun:

We buy a lot of food for the trip.                         Paula hasn’t got a lot of free time.

There is a lot of money in her wallet.                  We buy a lot of books for this exam.

Did they ask you a lot of questions?                    There are a lot of shops on this street.

A lot of people speak English.                              He has a lot of friends in this town.

Treceti urmatoarele substantive la PLURAL:

doctor ____________________              teacher______________________

economist _________________              accountant___________________

driver ____________________               secretary_____________________

accountant ________________               company_____________________

salary ____________________               job__________________________                      

partner ___________________               family_______________________

cup ______________________               paper________________________

dress _____________________              office________________________

money ___________________                     advice _______________________

engineer __________________                    manager _____________________

office _____________________                    chair _________________________

colleague __________________                   friend ________________________

Read the following text: (READ _______________):

Sally and Mary are partners. They have a company together. They both have jobs¸ salaries¸ and cars. Sally has a big family. She has two children. Mary has a nice office¸ a car¸ and a personal driver. The office has a desk and four chairs. The company has a lawyer and a good manager. They have good salaries. The company is prosperous. They are all happy.   

More words: Fruits and Vegetables


apple  ____________________

apricot ____________________

avocado ___________________

banana  _____________________

bean______________

bell-pepper ___________________

beetroot _________________

blueberry ___________________

blackberry _____________________

cabbage ___________________

carrot __________________

cauliflower  ___________________

celery ___________________

cherry _____________________

chestnut ______________

chili/hot pepper  ________________

coconut ____________________

cranberry _____________________

cucumber ______________________

(black) currant ____________________

dill _________________

eggplant _________________

garlic _______________

gooseberry  ___________________

grape __________________

grapefruit ___________________

hazel _______________

horseradish _________________

kiwi  __________________

lemon _________________

lovage ________________

mango __________________

mandarin ________________

(water) melon ________________

olive __________________

onion ________________

orange ___________________

parsley ___________________

parsnip ______________

peanut ___________________

peach ___________________

pease ______________

pear _________________

pineapple ____________________

pickles _______________

plum __________________

pomegranate ________________

potato ________________

pumpkin _______________

quince ______________

raspberry __________________

radish____________

sour cherry _____________

spinach ______________

strawberry __________________

sugar beet _________________

sugar cane ________________

tangerine _______________

tomato _________________

turnip ________________

walnut ________________

wheat ___________

zucchini _______________

     SPICES:

basil _____________

calamint _____________

curry ______________

ketchup ______________

marjoram ________________

oregano ______________

salt ____________

mustard _________________

oil ________________

pepper __________________

white pepper _______________

red pepper _________________

green pepper ______________

black pepper ______________

vinegar __________________


2.2 Adjectivul (The Adjective)

Tipuri de adjective (din punctul de vedere al continutului):

Adjective calificative

Exprima calitatea

Au grade de comparatie

This is a good  book.

This book is the best.

Adjective relative

Exprima relatia de loc¸ originea¸ nationalitatea¸ materialul. Nu au grade de comparatie

An English book

A Japanese man

A wooden chair

Adjective determinative

Nu arata insusiri

Clarifica sensul substantivului

My mother

That house

Any book

Adjective demonstrative

de apropiere: This – these           (acesta/aceasta)   (acestia/acestea)

This man – these men

de departare: That- those  

      (acela/aceea)    (aceia/ acelea)

That lady – those ladies

de identitate:  The same   (acelasi/aceeasi;  aceiasi/aceleasi)

Such   (asa, atat de)

The same course

The same books

Such noise!

Adjective posesive

My – al meu¸ a mea¸ mei¸ mele

Your – al tau¸ a ta¸ tai¸ tale

His- a/al lui

Her- a/al ei

Its- ale sale

Our – a noastra¸ nostru….

Your – a voastra¸ vostru….

Their – a/ale lor

my office¸ my car¸ my box

your family¸ your money

his office¸ his job

her mother¸ her children

its colour, its food

our company¸ our car

your papers¸ your cups

their money¸ their office

Adjective nehotarate

Some – cativa¸ cateva¸ niste

Any – oricare¸ orice

No – nici

Each – fiecare

Every – fiecare

All - toti¸ toate

Either - oricare¸ sau

Neither - nici una¸ nici unul

Both - ambele¸ amandoi

Other - altul¸ alta¸

Another - un altul ¸ o alta..

Much – mult

Many – multi, multe

Most - majoritatea

Little - putin

Few – cativa¸ cateva

Several – mai multi¸  numerosi

some cups¸ some papers

any man¸ any office

no message¸ no paper

each man¸ each woman

every book¸ every paper

all women¸ all lawyers

either secretary

neither office

both children¸ both bags

other offices¸ other women

another man¸ another box

much noise, much coffee

many cars¸ many offices

most cars, most people

little coffee, little money

few people

several hurricanes

Adjective

 interogativ -relative

Who – cine

What – ce¸ care¸ ce fel de

Which- care¸ ce

Whose – al¸ a¸ ai ¸ ale carui

(To) Whom - cui

Who is the manager?

What car? My car?

Which lady? That lady?

Whose car is that?

To whom do I give this? To Joe.  

Practise the demonstratives:


This is – Acesta/Aceasta este

That is – Acela/Aceea este

These are – Acestea/Acestia sunt

Those are – Acelea/Aceia sunt

This is a man.

These are .

That is a man.

Those are men.

This is an office.

These are.

That is an offices.

Those are offices.

This is a paper.

These are .

That is..

Those.

This is a car.

These are .

That is .

Those :.

This is a job.

These are .

That is

Those


More words: Colours:

Red - rosu                     light red – rosu deschis                               dark red – rosu inchis

Yellow - galben            light yellow – galben deschis;           dark yellow- galben inchis

Orange - portocaliu      light________________                             dark_________________

White – alb                                    bright white __________________

Pink - roz                      light________________                              dark_________________

Blue - albastru              light________________                              dark_________________

Green - verde               light________________                              dark_________________

Brown - maro               light________________                              dark_________________

Black – negru                                pitch black ____________________

Grey - gri                      light________________                              dark_________________

Silver - argintiu

Golden - auriu

Complete the blanks with the given adjectives:

-   little             I have _________________ coffee.      

-   many           She has _______________ books.

-   several        There are ______________ people.

-   much           I don’t have ___________ time.

-   the same     This is _______________ room.

-   neither          _________ Mary, nor Tom speak Japanese.    

-   some            Please give me __________ water.

-   another        Take ____________ pen and finish the test.

-   other              ___________ people go to work now.

-   few                We have ____________ guests.

-   all                   ________ children like sweets.

-   such               He hates ___________ noise!

-   either             They want ___________ colour.

Practise: Read these sentences:  

England     He is an English man.  This is an English national.      He speaks English.

Romania    She is a Romanian lady.    This is a Romanian national.   She speaks Romanian. 

Japan                   We are Japanese.                   These are Japanese nationals.    We speak Japanese.

America     They are Americans.    Those are American nationals.   They speak English.

Hungary     I am Hungarian.            This is a Hungarian national.     I speak Hungarian.

Italy            Veronica is Italian.                This is an Italian national.       Veronica speaks Italian.

Germany    Lisa is German.                      This is a German national.           Lisa speaks German.

France        Pierre is French.                 That is a French national.            Pierre speaks French.

Spain          Juanita is Spanish.             Those are Spanish national.      Juanita speaks Spanish.

Russia         Olga is Russian.                 This is a Russian national.          Olga speaks Russian.

          

Observati ca:  Numele tarilor/ nationalitatilor se scriu intotdeauna cu litera mare indiferent de pozitia lor in propozitie.

Practise other types of adjectives:

The same   This is the same office! Those are the same ladies! This is the same course.

Such           Such noise! Such a book! Such a good coffee!

My             This is my car. These are my children.

Your           That is your office. Those are your companies.

His             This is his job. These are his papers.

Her             This is her dress. Those are her cups. This is her coffee.

Its               This is its colour. This is the company and those are its branches.

Our             These are our children. This is our office. This is our company.

Your           These are your jobs. Those are your papers. These are your cups.

Their          These are their cars. Those are their parking lots.

More words:

to want –  a vrea¸ a dori  I want some coffee. You want some papers. She wants a new phone.

to take – a lua  Take a taxi. She takes a cup of tea to her colleague.

to know – a sti, a cunoaste  I know my all my colleagues.  She knows the manager.  He knows all the answers.       

to answer – a raspunde   Please answer the phone.   They answer the question rapidly.

to ask – a ruga, a cere, a intreba   I want to ask you a favour.     Please ask her to wait.  Ask him that question.       

to bring – a aduce   I always bring good news.    He brings her flowers every time.

to arrive – a sosi, a ajunge   They arrive in Bucharest at 9 pm.    She arrives 10 minutes earlier than her boss.

to leave – a pleca, a parasi He leaves the building at 10 o’clock. They leave for Bucharest by plane tonight. 

to live – a trai, a locui      We live in Romania.  She lives on Sunshine Boulevard.

– FURTHER PRACTICE  WORKSHEET (2) –

1.  Turn into the plural (making all necessary changes):


1)        This is a tree.    _________________________

2)        This man is a manger. ___________________

3)        That woman is a nurse. _________________

4)        He is my friend. _______________________

5)        She isn’t here. _________________________

6)        He buys the book. ______________________

7)        This pack of cigarettes is his. ____________

8)        This is my favourite movie. _______________

9)        She is the best actress. ___________________

10)    He has only one prize. __________________

11)    She has a diploma. ___________________

12)    I have a little money left. _______________

13)    The door is open. __________________

14)    There is a man in the bank. _____________

15)    This is the train for Bucharest. ___________

16)    This waitress brings coffee. _____________

17)    That is her car. __________________

18)    That mountain is high. ________________

19)    This star has no name. __________________

20)    One student is missing. _________________

21)    I need further information. ______________

22)    No news is good news. _________________

23)    She gives good advice. _________________

24)    Our luggage is lost. ____________________

25)    I have to buy milk. ____________________


2. Completati spatiile libere cu THIS, THESE, THAT, THOSE:


__________ is a car.

__________ is an office.

__________ are doctors.

__________ are schools.

__________ are chairs.

__________ is your money.

_________ is a bike.

_________ are telephones.

_________ is a manager.

_________ are tests.

_________ is not a doctor.

_________ are not your accountants.



3. Translate the sentences into English:

a) Am o masina rosie.________________________________________________

b) Sally are o rochie roz deschis ________________________________________

c) Ceasca mea este alba _______________________________________________

d) Hartiile mele sunt albe_____________________________________________

e) Cafeaua ei este neagra _____________________________________________

f)  Masinile lor sunt de culoare verde____________________________________

g) Rochiile lor sunt de culoare galben inchis______________________________

h) Cestile noastre sunt albastre_________________________________________

i)  Biroul nostru este de culoare alba_____________________________________

j)  Masina ta este gri _________________________________________________

k) Rochia ei este aurie________________________________________________

l)  Cartile mele sunt de culoare maro inchis_______________________________

m)    Foile tale sunt albe.________________________________________________

n)      Acest sfat e folositor, iti multumesc. _________________________________

4. Finish each sentence:

a)  It is important to ________________________________

b)  It is hard to  ___________________________

c)  It’s so easy to_______________________

d)  Is it difficult to ____________________________?

e) It’s unnecessary to ______________________________

f)   It’s vital to __________________________

g)  What is essential is ___________________________

h)  Always remember to _________________________

i)  _____________________ is unforgettable.

j)  It’s a miracle to _______________________

k)  It’s understandable if___________________________

l)  It’s illegal to _________________________

m)    It’s safe to _______________________

n)      It’s unusual to ______________________

o)      It’s better to _______________________

Curs 3

The Article (Articolul)

FELUL  articolului

folosire – inaintea:

EXEMPLE

Articoul hotarat

THE

/đә/

– cuvintelor care incep cu sunete consonantice si semiconsonantice (y)

    cand este clar/cunocut la ce facem referire

    anumite institutii/agentii

limite spatiale cu: TOP, MIDDLE, END, LEFT, RIGHT, CENTRE, BOTTOM

  cu expresii precum: GO TO THE CINEMA/THEATRE/ BANK/POST OFFICE

  nume de oceane/rauri/mari/canale

– pentru evidentiere si/sau singularizare; se pronunta /đi:/

What is the name of this street?

Can you tell me the time, please?

My office is at the first floor.

The police investigate the case.

My brother is in the army.

Write your name at the top of the page.

My house is at the end of the street.

Do you drive on the left or on the right in your country?

Are you going to the bank?

We are on a cruise on the Mediterranean.

This is the car. It’s the best ever.

Articolul nehotarat

A

/ә/

– trimitere la o persoana sau un obiect

  cand spunem ce este o persoana sau un lucru/fenomen

– inaintea sunetelor consonantice si semiconsonantice (y)

– pentru referire la ocupatii

Alice works in a bank.

Can I ask a question?

She is a singer.

Football is a game.

The sun is a star.

There is a woman at the bus stop.

Picasso was a famous painter.

Articolul nehotarat

 AN

/әn/

– cuvintelor care incep cu sunetele vocalice  a/e/i/o/u

    pentru referire la ocupatii

Obs: a university; an hour; a European

Do you want an apple or a banana?

There is an interesting documentary on TV.

Mark is an engineer.

Zero Article

(in limba romana nu se pune articol)

– numele persoanelor: Mary¸ Smith, Peter, Jessica;

– denumirile continentelor: Asia¸ Africa, Australia;

– denumirle localitatilor: London, Tokyo, Maramures, Iasi;

– varfuri muntoase: Mount Everest; Kilimanjaro; 

– denumirile lunilor anului: June¸ May, August, March;

– denumirea zilelor saptamanii: Sunday, Tuesday, Friday;

– anumite expresii: watch television;; at night; by day; go home, go to prison, go to school; go to work; go to bed, go to hospital, go to university.

– denumirile meselor: breakfast; lunch, dinner, supper;

– repere temporale cu: NEXT / LAST : I am not working next week.

Did you have a holiday last summer?

– idei generale: I like jazz music. Life is not possible without water. We don’t eat meat very often. I hate exams. I’m not good at writing letters.

                               

Articulati cu articol hotarat urmatoarele substantive:


_______ office

________ car

_______ dress

________ company

_______lawyer

________driver

_______money

________salary

_______cup

________paper

________ manager

________ box


Articulati cu articol nehotarat urmatoarele substantive:


________doctor

________secretary

________office

________paper

________car

_______ electrician

________teacher

________accountant

________economist

________company

________family

________ actor


Completati cu articol hotarat sau nehotarat¸ dupa caz:

_____Mary is _____doctor. She has _____car. She has _____family. _____Mary is in ____Cluj-Napoca. _____Larry is ____lawyer. He has _____company. He has _____job. He is from _____Asia. _____Mary and _____Sally are ______partners. They have _____company. _____Mary and ____Sally are ______accountants. ______Tom is _____teacher. He goes to _____school every day except from _______ Saturday and Sunday. He has ______job. He has ______salary. He likes ______ school and _______ children. 

More  Words:


to go _________

to come _________

to make __________

to buy ___________

to  sell ___________

to come __________

to work __________

to drive __________

to walk __________

to listen ___________

to inform _________

to tell ___________

to ask ____________

to answer _________

home __________

before ____________

after _____________

at __________

in ________

from __________

to __________


                                                  

Practise:

To go to work ____________________  I go to work on ______________.

To go to school___________________   I go to school on _____________.

To go to office____________________  ___________________________.

To go home ______________________ ___________________________.

To come home ___________________        ___________________________

To drive a car ____________________        ___________________________

To buy fruit _____________________         ___________________________

To sell a company ________________        ___________________________

Read the text:

Mary and Sally are managers. They work at their own company. The company has an office in London and two offices in Asia. Mary and Sally are partners. The company has a lawyer. Larry has an office in London and an office in Asia. He has a car that he drives to work. He has a job and a salary. He walks in the park every evening. Tom is a teacher. He goes to school before 9 o’clock. He has a job. He has a salary. He buys new books. He is from Spain. He goes on vacation in the summer holiday.    

Days of the Week:

Sunday ___________¸ Monday ___________¸ Tuesday ___________¸ Wednesday___________¸ Thursday__________¸ Friday___________¸ Saturday ____________.

On Monday – luni¸ in ziua de luni: On Wednesday¸ on Saturday¸ on Sunday.

Observati ca:  Denumirea zilelor se scrie intotdeauna cu litera mare¸ indiferent de pozitia lor in propozitie:   Tom goes to school on Monday.

                    Next Thursday we go shopping.

Months of the Year – Lunile anului

Denumirile lunilor se scriu intotdeauna cu litera mare indiferent de pozitia lor in propozitie!

January                They go to Lausanne in January.

February              We go to work______________.

March                  Sally goes to office __________.

April                   Jim goes to work ____________.

May                    I go to Cluj-Napoca __________.

June                    You go to Hawaii ____________.

July                     They go to Asia ______________.

August                 She goes to Mamaia __________.

September          Tom goes to school ___________.

October               We go to work _______________.

November           He goes to Romania __________.

December           We go to home _______________.

Seasons:

WINTER: December¸ January¸ and February are winter months.

SPRING: March¸ April¸ and May are spring months.

SUMMER: June¸ July¸ and August are summer months.

AUTUMN: September¸ October¸ and November are autumn months.

Read these texts and then translate them into Romanian:  

a) The weather is different all around the world. In Death Valley, California, the weather in summer is hot and dry with temperatures of 48.90 Celsius. In Alaska the winters are very sold with snow and ice and temperatures of – 500 C. In Hawaii there is no summer or winter. It is warm all year with temperatures of 200 C to 260 C.

b) The town of Prima is the place for a perfect holiday. The beautiful sandy beach runs for ten kilometres and never seems crowded even in the town centre. There are many pretty restaurants where you can enjoy the typical food of the region as well as the international cuisine loved by Prima’s visitors from all over the world. In the evening the town come to life. Everyone enjoys a walk along the sea front before going to one of the many discos or clubs. Hotel Great Britain is the favourite hotel for everyone who visits this part of the country and is just across the road from the golden sands. this is just the place for the young, for the old, for everyone.

 

Describe the weather in your country filling in the blanks:

There are _______ seasons in my country. In summer the weather is _________ with temperatures of _________. In winter the weather is ___________ with temperatures of ________. As to rain, there is __________ rainfall in this region.  

Complete the sentences with  the right prepositions IN or ON:

__________June                                      __________Monday

__________Thursday                              __________Autumn

__________Winter                                  __________Sunday

__________March                                   __________Spring

__________October                                __________Summer

__________Friday                                   __________August

__________Saturday                               __________December

__________Monday                                __________July

__________Summer                                __________Winter

__________Tuesday                                __________September

Read the following text:

     It is September again. September is an autumn month. Children start school in September. In the morning I go to work. I work in an office with my colleagues. In the afternoon¸ I am still at work. I go home in the afternoon. I have a family and many friends. In the evening¸ we are all at home. We watch TV or listen to the radio.

     Sally is a manager. On Monday she starts a new job, too. She goes to work in the morning. In the afternoon she is in the office. Late in the afternoon¸ she goes home by taxi. She is at home in the evening. In August Sally is on holiday and she usually goes to Hawaii. In September¸ Sally is comes back to work.

Fill in the blanks with a/an/the or zero article:

I am at home in _____evening. You are still at ______work in the afternoon. This company has offices in ____ Asia and ______ Australia. _____ company driver is here. ____ Mary is at ____work in ______morning. _____ children go to ____school every weekday morning.

_____ Mary and ___ Sally are business executives. _____delegation from Japan is here on _____ Monday. _____ company lawyer is very good. I go to ___ work on ____ Saturdays, too. On Tuesday, we open _____ company. This is ______ salary for this job. ____ accountants at our company are very good. ____ papers are on ______ desk. Our partners have _____ interest in _____ business. We visit _____ Bucharest in _____ February, in ___ April, in ____June. ____ rain is good for the crops.

How do you greet people at these specified moments:

in the morning, 9 o’clock ___________________________

in the evening, 10 o’clock ___________________________

at noon __________________________________________

in the afternoon, 4 p.m. _____________________________

in the morning, 6 o’clock ____________________________

in the afternoon , 3 o’clock___________________________

any moment of the day_______________________________

      FURTHER PRACTICE   WORKSHEET (3) –

1. Write a/an/the/ zero article/ some to finish this sentence:     We want …


1)  ___ meat

2)   ___ picture

3)   ___ chair

4)   ___ water

5)   ___  newspaper

6)   ___ knife

7)   ___ bottle of juice

8)   ____ help

9)   ___ wool

10)    ___ glass of wine

11)    ___ answer

12)    ___ cups of coffee

13)    ___ holiday

14)    ___ food

15)    ___ diamond

16)    ___ money

17)    ___ role

18)    ___ cheese

19)    ___ apples

20)    ___ advice

21)    ___ bread

22)    ___ soup

23)    ___ notebook

24)    ___ match-box

25)    ___ whisky

26)    ___ pencil

27)    ___ fork

28)    ___ egg

29)    ___ orange

30)    ___ tea

31)    ___ handkerchief

32)    ___ ice-cream

33)    ___ star

34)    ___ mice

35)    ___ ships

36)    ___ bees

37)    ___ butter

38)    ___ roses

39)    ___ tomato

40)    ___ children

41)    ___ autumn

42)    ___ gold


2. Fill in the right article:

a)  I need some money; I must go to ____ bank.

b)  David usually goes to _____ church on Sundays.

c)  In Britain, children go to _____ school form the age of five.

d) There were a lot of people at ______ station waiting for the train.

e)  I phoned you ____ last night but you weren’t at _____ home.

f)   I’m going ______ home now. Goodnight!

g)  She is going to ____ Post office to get some stamps.

h)  If you want to catch a plane you have to go to ______ airport.

i)  There is a good film at _____ cinema tonight. Shall we go?

j)  Mary doesn’t feel well; she has to go to _____ doctor.  

3. Read the text and underline the articles in it:

THE SECRET OF LONG LIFE

In the mountains of Georgia, in what was once the Soviet Union, a 60-year-old is twice as likely to live over 90 as the average person in the developed world. Georgians also tend to give birth and work until they are much older. They live on a balanced and varied diet that comprises daily helpings of matzoni, a low-acid yogurt containing enzymes that are said to reduce cholesterol levels.

Vocabulary:

likely: probable, possible

average: normal, usual, typical

to tend: to have the habit of doing something; to be inclined, to be apt

varied: different, various

to comprise: to have, to include,

helping: portion, serving, plateful

to contain: to have, to include, to comprise

to reduce: to decrease, to make smaller

4. Cross out the wrong variant:

1)  My favourite sport is tennis/the tennis.

2)  I like this hotel. Rooms/The rooms are very nice.

3)  Everybody needs friends/the friends.

4)  Jane doesn’t go to parties/the parties very often.

5)  I went shopping this morning. Shops/the shops were very busy.

6)  ‘Where’s the milk/milk?’  ‘It’s in the fridge.’

7)  I don’t like juice/the juice. I never drink it.

8)  ‘Do you do any sports?’  ‘Yes, I play football/the football.’

9)  Nowadays a lot of people use computers/the computers.

10)    We went for a swim in the river. The water/water was very cold.

11)    Excuse me, can you pass salt/the salt, please?

12)    I like this town, I like people/the people here.

13)    Vegetables/The vegetables are good for you.

14)    ‘Where are children/the children?’  ‘They are in the garden’.

15)    I can’t sing this song. I don’t know the words/words.

16)    I don’t like to swim in cold the water/water.

17)    I enjoy taking photographs/the photographs.  It’s my hobby.

18)    English/The English is used a lot in international business/the international business.

19)    I must show you photos/the photos I took when I was on holiday.

20)    Money/The money doesn’t always bring happiness/the happiness.

Curs  4

WH-QUESTIONS

§  WH-QUESTIONS – are used to ask for more/further information regarding a person, situation, event;

§  Wh-Questions begin with a pronoun or adverb;

Wh-word

Utilizare

Exemple

WHO          (cine)

Persoane

Who is your manger?

Mr. Smith is my manager.

WHOSE        (a cui)

 Identificarea posesorului

Whose car is this?

This is Susan’s car.

(TO) WHOM      (cui)

Identificarea destinatarului

To whom do you give the flowers?

I give them to Sally.

WHAT        (ce, care)

Obiecte, situatii, fenomene

What is your name?

My name is Angela.

What kind (of)

(ce fel de)

Particularitate, elemente specifice

What kind of books do you read?

I read adventure novels.

WHICH

(care/ care dintre)

Individualizare, identificare prin singularizare

Which office is yours?

My office is that, on the corner.

WHY           (de ce)

Motive, argumente

Why do you want this job?

Because I like to do this.

WHEN           (cand)

Coordonate de timp

When do you go home?

I go home at 5 pm today.

WHERE           (unde)

Coordonate/ Locatii spatiale

Where do you live?

I live in Boston.

HOW                (cum)

Maniera, modalitate

How do you spell it?

I spell it  A N N A.

How much

(cat de mult)

Cantitate

How much do you earn?

I earn $ 500 a month.

How many

(cati, cate)

Numar, participare numerica

How many colleagues do you have?

I have 10 colleagues.

How long

(cat timp)

Durata/ extindere  temporala

How long do you stay in Tokyo?

I stay in Tokyo for two weeks.

How  far

(cat de departe)

Distanta spatiala, limite

How far do you live?

I live 3 blocks away.

How far do you go in business?

How soon

(cat de curand/ repede)

Limita temporala initiala

How soon can you start?

I can start tomorrow.

Practice WH-Questions: Read the text and answer the questions:

GESTURES

A gesture is any action that sends a visual signal to an onlooker. To become a gesture, an act has to be seen by someone else and communicate some piece of information to them. It can do this either because the gesture deliberately sets out to send a signal – as when he waves his hand – or it can do it only incidentally – as when someone sneezes. The hand wave is a Primary Gesture, because it hasn’t got another existence or function. It is a piece of communication from start to finish.

Vocabulary:

gesture: movement of the hand or head

visual: related to seeing

onlooker: viewer, spectator

to communicate: to pass on, to convey meaning

either – likewise, also

deliberately: on purpose, intentionally

to set out: to begin

wave: movement

incidentally: by chance, accidentally

1)  What is a gesture?  ___________________________

2)   To whom does the gesture send a visual sign? ___________________________

3)  What has to be seen by someone else? ________________________

4)   What does the act have to communicate? ________________________

5)  What does the gesture deliberately set out to do? ___________________________

6)  Which is a primary gesture? ________________________

7)  Why is the hand wave a primary gesture? _______________________

More words:

at work ___________________

on holiday _________________

at home ___________________

on the phone _______________

busy ______________________

out _______________________

every (day/ week)  __________

daily ______________________

weekly ____________________

monthly ___________________

by (car; taxi; plane) __________

to watch ___________________

to listen ___________________

to start ____________________  

1. Change the statements to questions using the question word in parenthesis:

1)  They do their homework at night. (when)  ___________________________________

2)  Mr. Robertson comes to the party alone. (who)  ______________________________

3)  The car is across the street. (where)  _______________________________

4)  I like the red blouse, not the blue one. (which)  _________________________________

5)  She feels better after she takes a nap. (how)  __________________________________

6)  That is an English book. (what)  __________________________________

7)  My sister calls her boyfriend every second day. (who)  __________________________

8)  She talks to him for an hour. (how long)  ___________________________________

9)  He studies piano at the university. (what)  __________________________________

10)    The party lasts all night. (how long)  ___________________________________

Where are you from?  I am from ____________________.    I am a Dutchman.

Where is he from?  He is from ____________________. He is a Russian.

Where is she from?   She is from ____________________.  She is Spanish.

Whose car is that?   That is _____________________.

What do you prefer coffee or tea?    I prefer ______________________.

Practice: Read this text and underline the WH-words in it:

THE DRUG PROBLEM

Many people today are worried about drugs. It seems that more and more people are becoming addicted to substances such as cocaine and heroine that damage their health. But what leads to people becoming addicts? What makes someone inject a drug into their veins? Is it because of their inability to cope with problems in their everyday lives? One thing is for sure. When we complain about the problems caused by hard drugs, we need to remember that people suffer from all kinds of health problems caused by legal drugs, such as alcohol and tobacco. We would all benefit from more education and the government should attempt to make sure we all know the risks it involves.

Vocabulary:

worried – concerned, preoccupied

to seem – to look, to appear

addicted -  dependent on something habit-forming

to damage – to harm, to wound, to injure

to lead – to cause becoming, to conduct

to become – to transfigure, to modify

veins – blood vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart

to cope – to deal with, to handle

to complain – to object (to) 

to need – to necessitate, to require

kinds – types

to benefit – to assist, to help

to attempt – to try

to involve – to engage, to participate

More Words: Weather

Weather conditions:

Look at this table and notice that it is common to form adjectives adding –y:

Noun

Adjective

Noun

Adjective

sun

sunny

wind

windy

cloud

cloudy

ice

icy

fog

foggy

shower

showery

heat

hot

humidity

humid

rain

rainy

thunder

thundery

snow

snowy

lightning

shower – when it rains for a short period of time; We had several showers yesterday.

it’s pouring/ it’s pouring with rain – when it is raining a lot.

it’s raining cats and dogs.

It’s not just raining, it’s pouring with rain. I’m afraid we can’t go out.

Temperature:

boiling/ very hot           hot          warm        not very warm         cold/chilly           freezing

Examples:

50 C (five degrees centigrade) is freezing for many Brazilians.

- 10 0 C (minus ten degrees / ten degrees below zero) is very cold but quite normal in the mountains in Switzerland during the winter when it usually snows a lot.

30-35 0C is boiling for England and very unusual, but it is very common in parts of Spain during the summer.

Wind:

a breeze               a wind                a strong wind              a gale               a hurricane

Examples:

It was a hot day but there was a lovely breeze.

The wind blew my hat off.

The hurricane in Florida destroyed trees and buildings.

Thunderstorms:

A spell (a period) of very hot weather often ends with a thunderstorm. First it becomes very humid (hot and wet), then you get thunder and lightning, and finally, very heavy rain (it pours with rain). Afterwards, it is usually cooler and it feels fresher.

Practise: Read and translate these sentences:

It’s a sunny day in Tokyo today, but it’s cloudy in Hong Kong. _________________

It’s foggy in Sydney and it’s snowing/snowy in Moscow.  ___________________

It’s raining in Barcelona cut the sun is shining in Granada. ____________________

It’s a horrible day, isn’t it! _______________________

It’s lovely weather today, isn’t it! ___________________

It’s very hot in Mexico – it is often 45 degrees in the summer.______________________

It’s very cold in the Arctic – it is often minus 50 degrees there. __________________

It is very wet in London – carry an umbrella when you go sightseeing there. _______

It is very dry in the Sahara – it doesn’t often rain there. _____________________

A hurricane is a very strong wind. __________________

A storm is when there is a strong wind and rain together. ___________________

A thunderstorm is when there is thunder, lightning, rain and sometimes winds together. _______________________________________

 

– FURTHER PRACTICE WORKSHEET (4) –

1. Ask questions to find out details from these sentences:

a)    I always go to work by car. How _________________________

b)    Ann often plays tennis. Who _______________________

c)     You sometimes look unhappy. When ________________________

d)    We rarely watch television. How often _______________________

e)     Richard is a good footballer. What _________________________

f)     I’ve got three sisters. How __________________________

g)    She is never ill.  Who ______________________

h)    This is my favourite book. Which _________________________

i)      It is often very cold here in winter. Where ____________________________

j)      Linda is still in Japan. Who _________________________

k)    His brother is a doctor. Whose __________________________

l)      I will always remember you. Who ________________________

m)   She is a good lawyer. What kind __________________________

n)    I go to the exhibition with Margaret. With who ________________________

o)    This office is Michael’s. Whose __________________________

p)    I need two kilos of sugar. How much ____________________

q)    There are many people at the press conference. How many ______________________

r)     It’s late, I should go home. What __________________________

2. Complete the questions:

1)  I want to go out. Where ______________________________?

2)   Ann and Paul aren’t going to the party. Why _______________________________?

3)  I’m reading. What _______________________?

4)  Sue goes to bed early. What time _____________________?

5)  My parents are going on holiday. When ___________________________?

6)  I’m meeting Tom in a few minutes. Where ______________________?

7)   Tina has gone away. Where _________________________?

8)  I can’t come to the party. Why _______________________?

9)  I need some money. How much _________________________?

10)    Angela doesn’t like milk. Why _____________________?

11)    It rains sometimes. How often ________________________?

12)    Mother and I did the shopping. Who _______________________?

13)    She can’t tell you the truth. Why ______________________?

14)    Somebody saw the accident. Who _________________________?

15)    He has just come from the cinema. How ____________________?

3. Translate into Romanian:

a) He isn’t very tall, he’s short and stocky. _________________________________

b) She’s tall and slim; she’s got a lovely figure. _____________________________

c) Tim is quite a big guy. He’s well-built. ________________________________

d) Jess is a bit overweight. She is quite plump. ___________________________

e) Mat is very fat, he’s enormous. _____________________________

f) He’s very thin, he’s skinny. _________________________

g) The police are looking for a man of average height and medium built, in his mid-thirties. He was last seen wearing a dark green or grey anorak. The police suspect he broke into e bank and robbed the big diamond.  _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

h) The tallest man in medical history is Robert Pershing Wadlow who was born on 22nd February 1918 in Illinois, USA, and who died on 15th of July 1940 in Michigan. He was last measured on 27th June 1940 and was found to be 272 cm tall.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Curs  5

degrees of comparison of adjectives (Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor):

GRADUL COMPARATIV

GRADUL COMPARATIV

/ THE COMPARATIVE

COMPARATIV  DE EGALITATE

COMPARATIV DE INFERIORITATE

COMPARATIV DE SUPERIORITATE

Adjective monosilabice¸ bisilabice terminate in -y¸ -able¸ -er¸ -le¸ -ow  adauga +ER  

(ex: brighter, smaller, wider, bigger, lighter)  

As bright as

As small as

As wide as

Not so/as bright as

Not so/as big as

Not so/as light as

Darker than

Bigger than

Wider than

Adjective bisilabice si polisilabice adauga MORE + ADJECTIV (ex: more intelligent, more beautiful, more  spectacular)

As intelligent as

As beautiful as

Not so/as  intelligent as

Not as beautiful as

More intelligent than

GRADUL SUPERLATIV

GRADUL SUPERLATIV/ THE SUPERLATIVE

SUPERLATIV RELATIV

SUPERLATIV ABSOLUT

Adjective monosilabice¸ bisilabice adauga the… +EST (the brightest, the easiest, the fastest)

The brightest (of all)

The easiest

The fastest

Very bright

Very  easy

Very fast

Adjective bisilabice si polisilabice adauga the… MOST ADJECTIVE (the most intelligent)

The most intelligent (of all), the most beautiful

Very intelligent

Very beautiful

Irregular Comparison (Adjective cu gradul comparativ si superlativ neregulat):

Gradul pozitiv/ POSITIVE

Gradul comparativ/ COMPARATIVE

Gradul superlativ/ SUPERLATIVE

Good (bun)

Better

The best

Bad/Ill  (rau)

Worse

The worst

Much (mult/a)

Many (multi/e)

More

The most

Little (putin)

Less/ lesser

The least

Old

(batran, vechi)

Older (pentru oameni, obiecte)

The oldest

Elder (pentru membrii familiei)

The eldest

Late

(tarziu)

 

Later (mai tarziu)

The latest (cel mai recent)

Latter (al doilea dintr-o enumerare)

The last (ultimul)

Far

(departe)

Farther (pentru distante)

The farthest (pentru distante)

Further (pentru spatiu¸ timp; mai inseamna aditional, suplimentar)

The furthest (pentru spatiu, timp)

Near

(aproape)

Nearer

The nearest (pentru distante)

The next (ordonare¸ timp)

Fore (in fata)

Former (anterior)

The first (primul)

*** Observati transformarile ortografice la adjectivele monosilabice¸ atunci cand se adauga sufixele de formare ale comparativului si superlativului:

Big             bigger                  the biggest

Hot            hotter                  the hottest

Thin          thinner                the thinnest

More Words:  Family Members aunt - ________ 


brother - ___________

elder brother -________ 

cousin -________ 

daughter -________ 

ex-husband -________ 

ex-wife - ________ 

parents- ________

mother - ____________

father –________ 

grandparent(s) -________ 

grandchild -________ 

granddaughter / son -________ 

grandfather / mother -________ 

great-grandchild -________ 

husband -________ 

sister-in-law - _____________

(the) in-laws -________ 

mother -________ 

nephew -________ 

niece -________ 

sister -________ 

son -________ 

uncle - ___________

son-in law– ________ 

spouse - ________ 

step-daughter/son -________ 

step-father/mother -________ 

twin -________ 

twin-sister/ brother -________ 

widow (woman) -________ 

widower (man) -________ 

wife –________ 

husband - __________

divorced - ________ 

engaged -________ 

married - ________ 

separated -________ 

single -________ 

widowed -________ 

acquaintance -________ 

separated ________

fiancé -________ 

fiancée -________ 

friend -________ 

brother-in-law - __________

best friend -________ 

neighbour -________ 

best man - ________ 

bridesmaid – ________ 

kin - ______________

godmother - _______________

godfather - ___________


Practise: Underline the adjectives in all degrees of comparison:

The Oldest Man in the World?

Lerik is one of the highest and most remote villages in Azerbaijan. Some of the oldest people in the world live there. Mirzahan Movlamov is one of them. He is 121 years-old, the oldest man in the village and one of the oldest people in the world.

He lives in one room with his third wife who is nearly half a century younger than he is. He sits there all day talking to dozens of children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great-grandchildren.

Mirzahan has a son called Bodahan who is 41. Bodahan was born when Mirzahan was 80 and his wife was 36. He also has a grandson aged 84, the son of a child from his first marriage. In other words, Bodahan is 43 years younger than his own nephew. Mirzahan has a son, grandson, and great-granddaughter who were born in the same year.

His first wife was his true love and his best friend. They married in 1905 when he was 28 and she was 12. ‘I stole her’, he said. ‘I was in the Tsar’s cavalry. I rode into the next village on my horse and took her away. I loved her very much’. She died in 1961.

Why do people live so long in the mountains near Lerik?

The people in Azerbaijan are some of the poorest in the world. There are very few doctors and there is very little medicine. There are no schools and they receive no education. They eat vegetables, fruit, and sour cheese – but they don’t eat very much and they work very hard. But the air and water are cleaner than other places and their lives are stress-free.

Translate into English:

1)       Sally este la birou? Nu¸ ea este acasa astazi. ______________________________

2)       Esti acasa? Da¸ sunt acasa. Noi suntem toti acasa. ______________________________

3)       Biroul meu este mai spatios decat biroul tau. ________________________________

4)       Acesta nu este atat de mare ca si biroul tau. ________________________________

5)       Biroul meu este mai mic decat al tau. _____________________________

6)       Masina mea este cea mai rapida. ___________________________

7)       Masina ta nu este atat de rapida ca si a mea. _________________________

8)       Masina ta este mai veche. ____________________________

9)       Masina mea este de culoare verde. ______________________

10)    Calculatorul ei este mai inteligent decat al meu. __________________________

11)    Calculatorul meu nu este atat de performant ca si al ei. __________________________

12)    Acela este mai nou si mai performant. ________________________

13)    Ea are familie? Da¸ are familie, ea are doi copii. ___________________________

14)    Copiii ei sunt la scoala si ea la serviciu. ___________________________

15)    Ea are un salariu bun. ________________________

16)    Postul meu e mai bun decat al Anei. _____________________________

17)    Ea nu are un salariu tot atat de mare ca si al meu. ______________________________

18)    Ea are o casa si o masina. _______________________________

19)    Avem noi calculatoare performante? _____________________________

20)    Calculatoarele lor sunt mai putin noi decat ale noastre.____________________________

More words: Describing  People


tall ___________________

short __________________

kind __________________

good looking ______________

fair/blonde _________________

red _________________

brunette ___________________

thin __________________

plump __________________

handsome __________________

beautiful ___________________

slim _________________

overweight ________________

skinny _________________

modest _______________

shy _______________

loyal _________________

sensible __________________

sensitive __________________

proud ________________

honest __________________

fair/correct _________________

thoughtful __________________

absent-minded ________________

self-confident ___________________

patient _________________

hard-working __________________

lazy ________________

outgoing __________________

easy-going ____________________

cheerful ____________________

miserable ___________________

tense _____________________

generous ___________________

mean __________________

arrogant __________________

amusing __________________

selfish __________________

stubborn _________________

bossy _________________

fussy ______________

nosey _________________

reliable ________________

impatient __________________

ambitious _________________

mature ________________

wise _______________

silly _____________

optimistic ______________

pessimistic ________________

pushy ______________

intolerant _________________

clumsy ________________

tactful _________________

rude ______________


Practise: Describe a person you know. Refer to their appearance, character, features, temperament, qualities, likes and dislikes. Use as many adjectives as possible.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   

 – FURTHER PRACTICE WORKSHEET (5)–

1. Read this text and then answer the question:

Bob Hunter’s Family

Bob Hunter is forty years old. He lives in Derby with his wife and three children. His wife’s name is Linda and she is an artist. Their eldest child, Richard, is studying Engineering at Derby University. Their middle child is called Claire.  She’s fourteen and a student at Derby Grammar School.  Their youngest child is Sally, who is twelve. She enjoys horse-riding and cycling. Bob is an accountant and works for Toyota at Burnaston. He enjoys his job but always looks forward to the weekend, when he can spend some quality time on the golf course. He is a member of the Mickleover Golf Club and has been playing since he was eleven years old. 

1)  Who is the paragraph about? __________________________________________

2)  How old is he? _______________________________

3)  Where does he live? ___________________________________

4)  Is he married? ___________________________________

5)  How many children does he have? _______________________________

6)  What is his wife’s name? _______________________________

7)  What does his wife do for a living? ______________________________________

8)  What is the name of their eldest child? _____________________________

9)  What subject is he studying? ___________________________________

10)    How old is Claire? ______________________________

11)    Which school does Claire go to? _______________________________

12)    What is the name of their other child? ____________________________

13)    How old is she? ___________________________

14)    What hobbies does she have? _______________________________

15)    What does Bob do for a living? ___________________________________

16)    Which company des Bob work for? _________________________________

17)    Does he like working there? ______________________________

18)    What does he do at the weekend? _________________________________

19)    What is the name of his golf club? ____________________________

20)    At what age did he start playing? _________________________________

2. Answer these questions about yourself:

a) What do you do for a living? ________________________________________

b) How log have you worked there? _________________________________

c) What do you dislike about your job? _________________________________

d) What is the most important for you? ________________________________

e) Why is it important? ____________________________________________

3. Describe the perfect job in your view. Use some of these words: good, important, difficult, essential, like, love, easy, difficult, stressful, tiring, refreshing, break, open, closed, kind, dislike, ignore, overlook, omit, reject, accept, solve, leave, earn, continuous, INTERRUPTED, enter, exit, desk, ask, answer, help, efficiency, promptness, permanent, temporary, necessary, optional: 

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Translate into Romanian:

1)  Acelea sunt cele mai bune calculatoare. ____________________________

2)  El este cam agitat dupa sedinta.  ________________________

3)  Avem o afacere tot atat de buna ca si a lor. _______________________________

4)  Ei sunt muncitori si harnici.  _______________________________

5)  Ele sunt cele mai bune din companie. __________________________

6)  Ei nu sunt prea autoritari.  _______________________

7)  Noi muncim foarte mult. __________________________

8)  Avem bonusuri foarte bune. _________________________

9)  Noi avem conexiune internet lenta. ___________________________

10)    Vreau o sarcina mai rationala.  _______________________

11)    Lisa e prea sensibila uneori.  ________________________

12)    Masina lor este mai noua. ___________________________

13)    El e mereu intelept in decizile pe care le ia. __________________________

14)    Secretara noastra este mai amabila decat a lor. ______________________________

15)    Nu avem multi bani. _____________________

16)    Avem nevoie de informatii suplimentare. _______________________

17)    Avem mai putini bani decat ieri. _______________________

18)    El este un om mandru si corect.  ____________________________

19)    Vrei o cafea mai dulce? ______________________

20)    Noi avem la fel de multe sarcini. _______________________

Curs  6

PRONOUNS (Pronumele) 

Treceti corespondentul din limba romana in dreptul fiecarei forme pronominale:

Personal;  Subject

In limba romana

Personal;

Object

(Complement)

In limba romana

Possessive Adjective

(+ noun)

In limba romana

Possessive  Pronoun

In limba romana

Reflexive  Pronoun

In limba romana

I

Me

My

Mine

Myself

You

You

Your

Yours

Yourself

He

Him

His

His

Himself

She

Her

Her

Hers

Herself

It

It

Its

Itself

We

Us

Our

Ours

Ourselves

You

You

Your

Yours

Yourselves

They

Them

Their

Theirs

Themselves

Indefinite Pronouns 

People

In limba romana

Things

In limba romana

Places

In limba romana

someone

something

somewhere

no one

nothing

nowhere

anyone

anything

anywhere

everyone

everything

everywhere

Underline all the pronouns in this text:

‘This is Rick, the private detective. I am outside the Marina hotel. Your wife is by herself speaking to a hotel porter. I think she asks him to bring her the car. Yes, she gives him the keys. Now the porter is back, your wife pays him and gets into the car. We are driving down Fulton Street and your wife is turning left into Sunset Avenue.

She is driving rather fast I must say. We are going 120 kilometres an hour now! And it is beginning to rain! We are driving by the Transworld Building and crossing the Bay Bridge. It looks like your wife is heading for the airport, but I’m not sure. The wind is blowing hard and we are slowing down a little – in fact your wife stops.

There’s a small shop here. She gets out of the car and she enters the shop. I’m not sure what she wants to buy. Oh, I don’t believe my eyes, it’s a gun! She is paying for it now with her credit card. Now Mrs. Gimbell is back in her car and we are driving slowly again. There’s heavy traffic in Grant Avenue and a big truck is blocking the road in the middle. I wonder what the police are doing.

We are turning into a small side street and she is pulling up in front of a large Victorian house. Wait a minute! Isn’t that your house, Mr. Gimbell? She is searching for something in her handbag. Yes, the key. But she has something else in her hand, too. She looks very happy. In fact I think she is smiling! Now she unlocks the door and she is inside. Mr. Gimbell…? Mr. Gimbell…?’   

Practise; translate the following sentences into English:

Nu te vad. ____________________________________

Iti trimit flori. _______________________________________

Ii trimit un mesaj foarte scurt. ______________________________________

Nu vad pe nimeni cunoscut aici. __________________________________

Pe mine ma vede profesorul tot timpul. ________________________________

Casa aceasta este a noastra¸ nu a voastra. ____________________________

Vrea sa faca ea insasi proiectul. ____________________________________

Nu te vad bine¸ ochelarii acestia nu sunt ai mei. ____________________________

Nu e masina mea¸ nu stiu s-o conduc. _________________________________

Ce vrei de la mine ? _____________________________________________

Eu insami am facut planul. _____________________________________

Nu ma deranja. ________________________________________________

M-am saturat de zgomotul acesta. ________________________________

Ne vedem maine. __________________________________________

Lasa-l in pace. ___________________________________________

Give the Romanian correspondent for the words in bold:

I know Tom.

Tom knows me.

It’s my car. 

It’s mine.

You know Tom.

Tom knows you. 

It’s your car.

It’s yours.

He knows Tom.

Tom knows him.

It’s his car.

It’s his.

She knows Tom.

Tom knows her.

It’s her car.

It’s hers.

We know Tom.

Tom knows us.

It’s our car.

It’s ours.

You know Tom.

Tom knows you. 

It’s your car.

It’s yours.

They know Tom.

Tom knows them.

It’s their car.

It’s theirs.

Practise on the following example:

This is my computer. This computer is mine. It’s mine.

This is your dress. __________________________

This is her book._______________________________________

This is your cream____________________________________

That is his file._____________________________________

These are our apples._______________________________

Those are your papers.________________________________

These are their phones._____________________________________

Answer the following questions:

Who are your best friends? ___________________________________

Where do you spend your weekends? _____________________________________

How do you feel after work? ____________________________________

Which is your favourite film? _______________________________________

Whose map is this? _____________________________________

What makes you happy? _______________________________________

 Make sentences with these words in various degrees of comparison:

adjective

Romanian correspondent

your sentence

self-confident

happy

confident

good

easy

beautiful

nervous

excited

loyal

smooth

strong

attractive

interesting

shy

attractive

interesting

flexible

true

irregular

sweet

wise

fast

Continue and finish the following sentences with choices of your own:

This pen is not mine¸ it doesn’t belong to me¸ it is_______________________________

These are not my bags¸ she left them here¸ these ________________________________

Mother’s bag doesn’t look like that¸ it is not ____________________________________

Don’t bring the coffee here; we didn’t ask for it¸ it is not __________________________

What is mine is mine¸ and not ______________________________

Their car broke down¸ it is _____________ problem.

Fill in the right form of the reflexive pronouns:

She (insasi) __________ is travelling to Japan. We sent the money (insine) ___________. Don’t contradict (pe tine insuti)  _______! It is not polite to invite (pe tine insuti)__________ to the party. What computer program is this? It destroys (pe sine)  _____________. Did you type this (tu insati) ________ ? Nobody came here: I locked the door (insami)  ______________. She washes (pe ea insasi)_________ at the age of 4.

 

Choose the correct pronoun:

1)   Mark is (their / theirs) neighbour.

2)   This is our car. It’s (our/ours).

3)  These are Mary’s books; they’re (her/hers).

4)  Blue is (my/mine) favourite colour.

5)  You can’t have this money. It isn’t (your/yours).

6)  (Her/hers) house is bigger than (him/his).

7)   Is this (your/yours) coat? No, it isn’t (my/mine).

8)  Are these offices Bill and Lenny’s? Yes, they’re (their/theirs).

9)   These are Jesse’s goods. They are (his/him).

10)  That is (our/ours) house. It’s (our/ours). 

– FURTHER PRACTICE WORKSHEET (6) –

Fill in the suitable pronouns:  

Brian: Hello, what are ______ doing here?

Linda: Hello, __ am Linda! This is my younger sister.  ____ are waiting here for our friend Carla. ______ is in the department store over there, and ____ are already tired. Who are ______?

Brian: Oh, ___ am Brian. Yes, __ am also waiting for a friend. ____ is in the department store, too. Do ______ come here often?

Linda: Yes, ____ are here every day.

Brian: Yes, the department store is very big!

Linda: Look! There ______ is.

Brian: My friend is there too! And what are ______ doing tonight?

Linda: _____ are going to the cinema! And what are you doing?

Brian: First, ____ are drinking something and then ____ don’t know yet. My friend is here since this morning.  ____ is just on vacation here.

Linda: Are ______ also new here?

 Brian: Yes, actually ____ am from Germany and my friend is from Sweden. My father, however, is British.

Linda: Oh, that is interesting. Unfortunately, ____ have to go. ______ are very nice.

Brian: Thanks! ______ are nice, too! Maybe ____ will see you around!

2. Read the text and complete the sentences after it:

MEMORY

There is no simple answer to the question, 'How can I enhance my memory?' But there are some general points one can make. Firstly, you have to practice. Practice remembering things. Secondly, use your memory. Preferring to make notes all the time rather than rely on one's memory is a terrible mistake. It's certain that you actually risk making your memory worse that way. In order to utilize your memory, you have to be keen to remember – eager to remember. If you really mean to remember things, you can. And thirdly, always make associations when you want to remember anything.

Vocabulary:

to enhance: to develop ____________

to rely on: To trust ___________

to risk: To take the risk of ___________

to utilize: To use _____________

keen: Willing, enthusiastic, eager ________

eager: Ready/ willing, keen __________

associations: Links, relations _________

Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above

1)   Clothes are important – you should wear something which ___________ your own self esteem and creates the right kind of impression

2)  I have always ___________ the kindness of my friends.

3)  We have to find a way to ____________ our fifty thousand members as an educational and propaganda machine.  

4)  Music, obviously, can make a mood; build familiarity and memory, and ____________ for a happy event.

5)  He has always been ___________ to help the needy.

 

Choose the variant that reflects the contents of the text:

1. To better one's ability to remember, one should not ______

A) make general points

B) practice everything one learns

C) force oneself to remember

D) use one's memory

E) write down the things one should remember.

 2. Writing down everything ______

A) helps a lot to remember

B) makes a person's memory worse

C) improves memory

D) leads to mistakes

E) is another way of using one's memory.

3. The writer points out that one _____

A) should not be so eager to remember

B) must try to remember everything

C) should make small notes when one wants to remember anything

D) can also connect things in mind to remember them

E) should sometimes risk making one's memory worse

Curs  7

Cardinal numbers (Numeralul cardinal)


0 - zero

1 - one

2 - two

3 - three

4 - four

5 - five

6 - six

7 - seven

8 - eight

9 - nine

10 - ten

11 - eleven

12 - twelve

13 - thirteen

14 - fourteen

15 - fifteen

16 - sixteen

17 - seventeen

18 - eighteen

19 - nineteen

20 – twenty

21 – twenty-one

28 – twenty-eight

30 – thirty

33 – thirty-three

37 – thirty-seven

40 – forty

41 – forty-one

44 – forty-four

50 – fifty

53 – fifty-three

58 – fifty-eight

60 – sixty

62 – sixty-two

69 – sixty-nine

70 – seventy

75 – seventy-five

80 – eighty

88 – eighty-eight

90 – ninety

98 – ninety-eight

100 – a hundred

101 - a hundred and one

110 - a hundred and ten

119 – one hundred and nineteen

139 – one hundred thirty-nine

200 – two hundred

225 – two hundred twenty-five

300 - ______________

309 – three hundred and nine

400 - ______________

491 – four hundred ninety-one

500 - _______________

523 - _______________

600 - _______________

679 - _______________

700 - _______________

726 - _______________

800 - _______________

864 - _______________

900 - _______________

913 - _______________

1,000 – a thousand

1,106 – a thousand one hundred and six

10,000 – ten thousands

10, 520 – ten thousand five hundred and twenty

100,000 – one hundred thousands

300,000 - ______________________

560,201 – five hundred sixty thousand two hundred and one

900,000 - ______________________

1,000,000 – one million

10,000,000 – ten millions

100,000,000 – one hundred millions

1,000,000,000 – one billion


Obs! Anii se citesc impartind cifra in doua: de exemplu 1945 vom citi 19 si 45 (nineteen forty-five),  dark 2003 vom citi ca atare (two thousand and three), dar 2012 vom citi dupa regula (adica twenty twelve).

 Ordinal Numbers: (Numeralul ordinal)


  1st  - first

2nd  - second

3rd  - third

4th  - fourth

5th  - fifth

6th - sixth

7th  - seventh

8th  - eighth

9th  - ninth

10th  - tenth

11th  - eleventh

12thtwelfth

13th – thirteenth

14th – fourteenth

15th – fifteenth

16th – sixteenth

17th – seventeenth

18th – eighteenth

19th – nineteenth

20th – twentieth

21st  – twenty-first

30th - ___________

32nd  – thirty second

40th - ____________

43rd  – forty-third

50th  – fiftieth

55th – fifty fifth

60th - ____________

62nd – sixty second

70th - ___________

73rd – seventy third

80th - ____________

88th – eighty eighth

90th - ____________

97th – ninety seventh

101st – one hundred first

321st – three hundred twenty-first


Multiplication:

1 x …- once                                                      1 x 8 = 8 (once eight is eight)

2 x… - twice                                                     2 x 2 = 4 (two times two is four)

3 x … - three times                                          3 x 4 = 12 (__________________)

4 x… - four times                                            4 x 5 = 20 (_________________)

5 x… - __________                                           5 x … = … (________________)

6 x… - __________                                           6 x … = … (________________)

7 x … - __________                                          7 x … = … (________________)

8 x… - __________                                           8 x … = … (________________)

9 x… - nine times                                            9 x  … = … (________________)

10x… - ten times                                             10 x … = … (________________)

Fractions:


  1/2 - a half

1/3 - a third

1/4 - a quarter

1/5 – a fifth

1/6 – a sixth

1/7 – a seventh

1/8 – an eighth

1/9- a ninth

1/10 – a tenth

1/11 – an eleventh

1/12 – a twelfth

1-13 - a thirteenth

2/3 - two thirds

3/4 - three quarters

2/5 - two fifths

4/10 - four tenths

1 1/2 - one and a half

2 3/4 – two and three quarters

3 5/7 - three and five sevenths

  4 8/12 -  four and eight twelfths


Decimals:

2.5 - two point five

1.25 - one point twenty-five

10.35 – ten point thirty-five

Percentage

10% - ten per cent

52% - fifty-two per cent

0.25% - zero point twenty-five per cent

89.62% - eighty-nine point sixty-two per cent

Practice: Read this text and identify the numbers in it:

HEADACHES

 

The causes of headaches, whether they are the common kind of tension or migraine headaches, or any other kind, are usually the same. During the periods of stress, muscles in the neck, head and face are contracted so tightly that they make tremendous pressure on the nerves; headaches, taking many forms from a continuous dull pain to an insistent hammering result.

Although at least 50% of American adults are estimated to suffer one or more headaches per week, it is the 20 million migraine-sufferers who are in special difficulties. Migraines, which are mostly suffered by women, can entail tremendous, unrelieved pain.

Vocabulary:

tension: stress, anxiety

to contract: to make or become tighter, narrower

tightly: firmly, strongly

tremendous: great, remarkable

pressure: weight, force

dull pain: pain not felt distinctly

insistent: persistent

to hammer; to hit, to pound

to estimate: to guess, to calculate approximately

to entail: to necessitate, to involve

unrelieved: constant, chronic

Practice:  Write in words the following numbers:


1 008 - _____________

354 296 - _____________

68 - _____________

1 908 669- _____________

104 - _____________

933 442 – _____________

320 - ____________

18 - _____________        

13 329 - _____________

880 - ____________

3 660 822- _____________

718 - ___________

269 484 - _____________

104 005 - ___________

1994 - _____________

2009 - _____________

108,023. 52 – _____________

909.99 - __________

38 4/5 - ____________

1984 - ____________

12 385.50 - ____________

130 009 - _____________

28.82 - _________

6.008 - _________


Date – What date is today?

Today is March 10¸ March 10th¸ 10 March¸ 10th March¸ 10th of March¸ March the 10th

 

Answer the following questions:

What date is today?  Today is the ______________________________________________

What date was yesterday? Yesterday was _______________________________________

What date was the day before yesterday? _______________________________________

What date will be tomorrow? _________________________________________________

What date will be after tomorrow? _____________________________________________

Expressing time

quarter = 15 minutes

half = 30 minutes

past - ___________

to - ____________

sharp - _____________

A.M. – ante meridian (from 0:00 to 12 o’clock)

P.M. – post meridian (from 12 o’clock to 24:00)

What is the time? – Cat este ceasul/ Ce ora este?      The time is ____________________

What is the time? – The time is 11: 15.  It is 11:15

What time is it? It is 3 sharp. (ora trei fix) .

What time is it? It is 10 minutes past 12.

What time is it? It is half past 12. (12.30).

                            It is a quarter past 12. (12:15).

                            It is a quarter to one. (12:45).

                               It is half to one. (12:30).

        

Practise:

What time is it? What is the time¸ please?

It is :10:15 ____________________        12:30 _____________________

          9:13 _____________________         0:11 _____________________           

          6:30_____________________           5.20_____________________

          17:43 ____________________         21:50 ____________________

What is the time? I do not know! My watch is slow! ______________________

What is the time ? I don’t know! My watch is fast. _______________________

When is your birthday?  My birthday is on ________________.

Read the following years: 1213¸ 1655¸ 1918¸ 1920¸ 1944, 1984, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2009.

A week has 7 days.

A fortnight consists of two weeks.

A month is made up of 28, 30, 31 days.

A year has 12 months or 365 days, 366 days in leap years.

A century consists of 100 years.

A millennium consists of 1000 years.

Practise: Translate these into Romanian:

I will be in London in a fortnight.

You can call me in a week’s time.

You have only one month to send the money.

A year is made up of 12 months.

We are in the 21st century.

Everybody suffered from the millennium fever in 2000.

– FURTHER PRACTICE WD WORKSHEET (7) –

1. Give the interrogative and the negative form of the sentences below:

a) Mary has a good job.          _____________________________________________

b) Sally goes to work every day. __________________________________________

c) Larry always wants a coffee.       _________________________________________

d) The computer sometimes has a virus.____________________________________

e) We often drink Pepsi.         _____________________________________________




f)  These cars often break down. ________________________________________

g)  The whole family is at the seaside. ____________________________________

h)  Jim never wakes up before 9 o’clock. ______________________________

i)  She is never late for work. ______________________________

j)  We rarely go fishing here. ______________________________

k)  Grandfather walks the dog twice a day. _______________________________

l)  Sue cooks the best apple-pie. ______________________________

2. Answer the following questions affirmatively or negatively:

Are you a lawyer?        ______________________________________________

Is she an accountant?   ______________________________________________

Do you have a family? ______________________________________________

Does your boss have a car?   _________________________________________

Is your house new?       _____________________________________________

Do you have a computer?_____________________________________________

Do you have children? ______________________________________________

Do you want some coffee? _________________________________________

Is your job satisfying? _____________________________________________

Are you a university graduate? ______________________________________

Do you like to travel?  __________________________________________

Do you smoke?   _______________________________________________

Do you drink coffee in the morning? ___________________________________

Do you like your job?  _______________________________________________

Do you have much spare time? _________________________________________

Don’t you like football?        __________________________________________

Doesn’t your car break down? __________________________________________

Do they give you a good salary? _______________________________________

Do you like English?   __________________________________________

Do you need a 5 minute-break?  ______________________________________

Are there many mistakes? ___________________________________________

3. Translate this text into Romanian:

WORDS

Because words can break silence, and thus remove tension, we often draw on them for this reason and not mainly for what they mean. When two people are introduced, one says, 'How do you do?' Now this is not really a question, despite its apparent meaning, and the other person will not reply 'Very well thank you’, but 'How do you do?' This is the conversational formula. The purpose of the phrase 'How do you do?' is not to communicate meaning but to break the tension which would result from silence when meeting someone unknown for the first time. 

More words:

thus: therefore, so  __________________

to remove: to take out __________________

to draw on: to use, to resort to __________________

tension: worry, anxiety __________________

apparent: obvious, clear __________________

to result from: to be caused by __________________

Curs  8

Modal VERBS (Verbele modale)

o Nu au toate timpurile si modurile;

o Au forme flexionare unice pentru toate persoanele si numerele;

o Formeaza negativul cu adverbul de negatie NOT;

o Au forme contrase: can’t¸ mustn’t¸ shouldn’t, wouldn’t,

Forme

Expresii echivalente (pentru viitor sau trecut)

Exprima

Exemple

Can

              could

be able to

- capacitate fizica¸ intelectuala;

- permisiune¸ posibilitate

presupunere

Can you speak English?

Can they come in?

It cannot rain tonight.

May

             might

be allowed to

be permitted to

- permisiune, posibilitate¸ presupunere

- posibilitate in locul lui can

May I open the windows?

They may have shipped the goods.

The mail may have arrived.

Must

have to

be compelled to

- obligatie¸datorie

- interzicere

- presupunere

He must pay the fees.

She must not use false papers.

He must have sent the message.

Ought to

obligatie morala¸ datorie

We ought to send him a letter of thanks.

Shall

           should

obligatie¸ constrangere¸ promisiune, propunere

They should send the documents.

You shall bring the money now.

You shall get your share.

Shall we have lunch?

Will

              Would

Vointa¸ intentie

Will you take some more food?

I wouldn’t do that.

Need

Necesitate, obligatie

La aspectul negativ perfect: o actiune inutila deja f acuta

The windows need washing.

Need she get up early? Yes, she must.

He needn’t have waited for her, she knows the town.

Practise: read and translate this text:

   SOCIETY

Men usually want to have their own way. They want to think and act as they like. No one, however, can have his own way all the time. A man cannot live in society without taking into account the interest of others as well as his own interests.

'Society' means a group of people with the same laws and the same way of life. People in society may make their own decisions, but these decisions ought not to be unjust or detrimental to others.

Vocabulary:

to have one's own way -  to do what one wants

to take into account – to  consider

interest: Advantage, benefit

unjust: unfair, incorrect

detrimental: harmful

Practise: Insert can¸ could¸ may¸ might¸ must¸ ought to¸ should¸ shall¸ will¸ would:

a) I (pot) _________ speak Spanish.

b) You (ai permisiunea)_________ take my pen.

c) (Imi dai voie sa) _________ borrow your keyboard?

d) You (ai permisiunea) ________ take it for an hour.

e) It (s-ar putea) __________ rain tonight.

f)  The ship (s-ar putea sa)_________ have sailed.

g) They (nu pot) ___________ travel with false passport.

h) You (nu ai voie sa) _____________ write with a green pen.

i)  We (ar trebui sa) ___________ to send a greeting card to Mother.

j)  He (trebuie) ___________ come here at once.

k) (ai putea/vrea sa) ________ take this downstairs for me?

l)  (poti) ____________ you lift this heavy bag?

m)    (este necesar/trebuie)___________ you always talk when I want silence?

n) You (este obligatoriu) _________ fill in the form with personal data.

o) The goods (s-ar putea sa) ________ arrive on Sunday¸ but I am not sure.

p) We (vom)__________ send a bunch of flowers to that lady.

Read this paragraph and underline the modals in it:

You can recognise many different kinds of insects. Some of them you may like, but others may frighten you because they are liable to bite.  Sometimes this can be serious because a biting insect may carry disease. If it happens to bite and suck the blood of a person suffering from disease and later on bites a healthy person, it injects some of the disease germs into his/her blood and so infects him/her with the disease. in this way disease spreads rapidly in some parts of the world.

Replace the equivalents with the modals:

I am not able to lift up this heavy box. ____________________________

You are still not able to speak English. ____________________________

He is not permitted to do just anything in this office. _________________

The ship is not allowed to anchor in that port. ______________________

You are compelled to do what they say. ___________________________

They have to redo the whole work. _______________________________

Are you allowed to shout here? __________________________________

Am I allowed to smoke here? __________________________________

Translate into English using Modals whenever possible:

1)  Imi dai voie sa pornesc radioul? _____________________________________