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» SUPORT CURS ENGLEZA ANUL I SEMESTRUL II


SUPORT CURS ENGLEZA ANUL I SEMESTRUL II



SUPORT CURS ENGLEZA

ANUL I

SEMESTRUL II

UNIT 7: "THE INVISIBLE HAND OF THE MARKET"

I. Read and learn:

"By following their self-own interest in open and competitive markets, consumers, producers and workers are led to use their economic resources in ways that have the greatest value to the national economy - at leas in terms of satisfying more of people's wants. The first person to point out this fact in a systematic way was the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith, who published his most famous book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, in 1776. Smith was the first great classical economist, and among the first to describe how an economy based on a system of market could promote economic efficiency and individual freedom, regardless of whether people were particularly industrious or lazy.

Smith argued that if people are naturally good and kind, a market economy offers them a great deal of economic freedom to carry out their good deeds, backed up by an efficient system of production which generates more material goods and services for them to use in doing those good works. But what if people are selfish, greedy or lazy?

Anyone who wants to enjoy more of the material goods and services produced in a market economy faces strong economic incentives to work hard, spend carefully, save and invest. And most successful businesses have to produce good products, sell them at market prices, pay their employees market wages, and treat their customers courteously -even if that isn't their natural way of doing things.

The basic reason for that kind of change in some people's behaviour is competition. As Adam Smith pointed out, when there are several butcher shops in a community, any butcher who is rude or tries to sell inferior meat at unreasonable prices soon looses business and income to other butcher shops. (.) the more a greedy or selfish butcher wants to enjoy a higher standard of living, the more he or she will try to meet the competition and build up a large base of satisfied customers. Or, as Smith described this feature of market economies, people are led: 'as if by an invisible hand' to work and behave in ways that use resources efficiently, in terms of producing things that other people want and are willing to pay for, even though that may have not been part of their  original intentions".

One other factor must be at work for Smith's invisible hand to function properly: the butcher must own or rent the shop, so that he or she has the rights to its profits. Without this right to private property and to the profits it brings, the invisible hand of competition will not motivate business to offer the best and most varied products at reasonable prices.

By decentralizing the control of economic resources - letting individual producers decide what and how to produce to satisfy their customers - competition and self interest insure that most resources available in a market economy are used efficiently, which is to say in their most valuable uses as directed by what consumers demand and buy".

II. Find words in the text that have the same meaning as the following ones:

To warrant; hard-working; avaricious; thoroughly; well-known; to benefit; wisely; to put aside; income; characteristic; to provide;

III. Answer the following questions:

  1. Who wrote An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations?
  2. What is the role of competition in a market economy?
  3. Can you name the main features that make a market economy different from a command one?

IV. Focus on Grammar:

A.              Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives (Pronumele si adjectivele nehotarate)

B.              Past Tense Simple (Trecutul Simplu)

A.: Pronumele si adjectivele nehotarate "some"; "any", "no", "every" si compusii lor

Propozitii affirmative (+)

Propozitii interrogative (?)

Propozitii negative (-)

Some- ceva, niste, cativa, cateva, unii, unele

Any- orice, oricare

Any - ceva, niste, cativa, cateva, unii, unele

Some- ceva, niste, cativa, cateva

No- nici un, nici o, un fel de, deloc

Any- nici un, nici o, nici un fel de

Compusii lui "some", "any", "no", "every"

body

one

thing

where

some

Somebody -cineva (+?)

Someone - cineva

(+?)

Something- ceva

(+, ?)

Somewhere- undeva (+?)

any

Anybody - cineva (?)

-        nimeni (-)

-        oricine (+)

Anyone - cineva (?); nimeni (-); oricine (+)

Anything - ceva (?), nimic (-), orice (+)

Anywhere- undeva (?); nicaieri (-); oriunde (+)

no

Nobody- nimeni (-)

No one - nimeni (-)

Nothing - nimic (-)

Nowhere- nicaieri (-)

every

Everybody -fiecare, toti, toata lumea

Everyone - fiecare, toti, toata lumea

Everything - totul

Everywhere- pretutindeni

 Ex:     There is some coffee in the cup. (adj. nehotarat)

            Some of those students are our friends. (pron. nehot.)

            Ask somebody about it. (pron. nehot.)

            Can you tell me something about it?

            Is there any coffee in the cup? (adj. nehot.)

            Are any of those students your friends? (pron. nehot.)

            Is anybody at home? (pron. nehot.)

            There isn't any coffee in the cup. (adj. nehot.) Nu este deloc cafea in ceasca.

There isn't anybody in the room. (pron. nehot.)

Any student can answer this question. (adj. nehot.) (oricare)

You may have anything on the table. (pron. nehot.)

There is no coffee in the cup. (adj. nehot.)

There are no dictionaries on the table. (adj. nehot.)

            Nobody can answer you questions (pron. nehot.)

            Every citizen has to pay taxes. (all citizens as a group) VS. Each member of the football team must sign a contract. (Each person separately)

Valorile lui everywhere:

a)         adverb: We searched everywhere for them.

b)         pronoun: Everywhere was very quiet.

c)         conjunction: Everywhere I looked, there was death and destruction.

Folosirea lui everyone:

Everyone/ everybody wants to be happy. (verb la singular dupa pronumele subiect everyone)

Everyone should bring his/her own lunch. (adjectiv posesiv singular- limbaj formal)

Everyone should bring their own lunch (adjectiv posesiv plural- limbaj informal)

B. Past Tense Simple (trecutul simplu):

1.         Adam Smith published his most famous book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, in 1776.

2.         Smith was the first great classical economist.

Forme: trecutul verbelor regulate se construieste prin adaugarea grupului "ed" la forma de infinitv scurt. Timpul trecut al verbelor neregulate este dat in tabelul de verbe neregulate (forma a II-a)

Affirmative:   I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they bought a new car yesterday.

                        I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they watched a comedy last night.

Interrogative:  Did I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they/ buy a new car yesterday?

                        Did I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they/ watch a comedy last night?

Negative:        I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they did not/ didn't buy a new car yesterday.

I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they did not/ didn't watch a comedy last night.

Intrebuintare:

1. Este folosit pentru a exprima o actiune petrecuta si incheiata in trecut, care nu are nici un fel de legatura cu prezentul. Aceasta actiune poate fi asociata cu un anumit moment, exprimat printr-un adverb de timp definit sau o locutiune adverbiala de timp referitoare la trecut: yesterday, two days ago (orice combinatie cu ago), last week, last year, in 1970, How long ago.?, then, when  etc.

They spent their holidays in Switzerland last winter.

They had a great time. (momentul exact este deja cunoscut)

2. Este timpul folosit in naratiuni, cand povestim ceva ce s-a petrecut in trecut.

First I wrote my homework, I watched a film on the TV and then I had a walk.

3. Este folosit pentru a ne referi la obiceiuri din trecut, care nu mai sunt valabile in present. In aceasta situatie forma de trecut poate fi inlocuita cu expresia used to

People travelled/ used to travel by carriage in those days.

4. Se foloseste pentru a ne referi la viata si activitatea unor personae care nu mai sant in viata.

Marilyn Monroe starred in a number of successful films. 

Trecutul verbelor regulate: probleme de ortografie

A) verbele care se termina in -e adauga doar consoana 'd'àbake- baked

B) verbele monosilabice care se termina in vocala + consoana dubleaza consoana: stop - stopped

C) verbele care se termina in consoana +y il schimba pe  'y' in 'í'si adauga grupul "ed"à  fry- fried

D) verbele care se termina in vocala + y adauga grupul "ed" fara alte modificari: stay- stayed

TABELUL VERBELOR NEREGULATE

Infinitive

Past simple

Past participle

Translation

be

Was/were

been

beat

beat

beaten

become

became

become

begin

began

begun

bend

bent

bent

bet

bet

bet

bite

bit

bitten

blow

blew

blown

break

broke

broken

bring

brought

brought

build

built

built

burn

Burnt/burned

Burnt/burned

buy

bought

bought

catch

caught

caught

choose

chose

chosen

come

came

come

cost

cost

cost

cut

cut

cut

do

did

done

dream

Dreamed/dreamt

Dreamed/dreamt

drink

drank

drunk

drive

drove

driven

eat

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feed

fed

fed

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

fly

flew

flown

forget

forgot

forgotten

forgive

forgave

forgiven

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grow

grew

grown

hang

Hung/hanged

Hung/hanged

have

had

had

hear

heard

heard

hit

hit

hit

hold

held

held

hurt

hurt

hurt

keep

kept

kept

know

knew

known

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

learn

learnt

learnt

leave

left

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

lie

lay

lain

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

mean

meant

meant

meet

met

met

pay

paid

paid

put

put

put

read

read

read

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

run

ran

run

say

said

said

see

saw

seen

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

set

set

set

shake

shook

shaken

shine

shone

shone

shoot

shot

shot

show

showed

shown

shrink

shrank

shrunk

shut

shut

shut

sing

sang

sung

sink

sank

sunk

sit

sat

sat

sleep

slept

slept

smell

Smelt/smelled

Smelt/smelled

spend

spent

spent

spread

spread

spread

stand

stood

stood

steal

stole

stolen

swear

swore

sworn

swim

swam

swum

take

took

taken

teach

taught

taught

throw

threw

thrown

understand

understood

understood

wake

woke

woken

wear

wore

worn

win

won

won

write

wrote

written

V. Practice:

A.        Fill in the gaps with some, any, no or one of their compounds.       

1. Is ........the matter with dawn? She looks upset.

2. I think ...... is trying to break into that house.

3. We've got ...... time to make a cake before the party!

4. I'm thinking of moving to London.// Really? My boss has a house .....near London.

5. I suppose I should make.......for dinner.

6. I looked in the TV guide. There's hardly ......good on tonight.

7. Do you like living in Brighton? // Yes, but .......will ever mean a much to me as my home town.

8. Did you call Sarah this evening? // Yes, but ........was at home, so I left a message on the answering machine.

9. There were ....... very frightening rides at the fairground.// Really? I wish I had come with you.

10. Oh no! I can't think of .....worse! Let's go home!       

B.        Fill in the blanks with some, any, someone, anyone, none, somebody, anybody, nobody, something, anything, and nothing:

1. I can't see my wallet; .......must have taken it. 2. Do you have ......to add? 3. If you have o money, I can lend you....... 4. I rang the bell two or three times, but ..... answered the door. Were you expecting......? 5. He must be .....important. 6. .......is more important than good health. 7. You can find practically .......you want in this shop. 8. I think there's .....at the door. Were you expecting ......? 9, I have a very good wine. Would you like ....? 10. The problem was so difficult that .....could do it. 11. I want to show you .....interesting. 12. My younger sister has the television on every morning. It doesn't matter what's on. She'll watch ...... 13. ...... of us has ever heard such an exciting story. 14. This time I can't do .....for you. 15. I'm going to the supermarket since I want to buy ......

C.        Read what Sharon says about a typical working day:

I usually get up at 7 o'clock and have a big breakfast. I walk to work, which takes me about half an hour. I start work at 8.45. I never have lunch. I finish work at 5 o'clock. I'm always tired when I get home. I usually cook a meal in the evening. I don't usually go out. I go to bed at about 11 o'clock. I always sleep well.

Yesterday was a typical working day for Sharon. Write what she did or didn't do yesterday.

1.               She ..... at 7 o clock.

2.               She...... a big breakfast.

3.               She............

4.               It........to get to work.

5.               ............at 8.45.

6.               ..............lunch.

7.               .............at 5 o'clock.

8.               ....... tired when ......home.

9.               ........a meal yesterday evening.

10.            .............yesterday evening.

11.            ..............at 11 o'clock.

12.            ..........well last night.

D.        Put one of these verbs in each sentence:

Buy; catch; cost; drink; fall; hurt; sell; spend; teach; throw; win; write;

  1. Mozart .........more than 600 pieces of music.
  2. 'How did you learn to drive?' "My father ...... me "
  3. We couldn't afford to keep our car, so we........it.
  4. I was very thirsty. I .........the water very quickly.
  5. Paul and I played tennis yesterday. He's much better than me, so he ......easily.
  6. Don.......down the stairs this morning and ........his leg.
  7. Jim.....the ball to Sue, who ......it.
  8. Ann ....... A lot of money yesterday. She ........a dress which .....$100.

E.         A friend has just come back from holiday. You ask him about it. Write your questions.

1 (where/go):  Where did you go?

2 (go alone).......

3 (food/good).....

4 (how long/ stay there?) .......

5 (stay /at a hotel?) .......

6 (how/ travel?) .......

7 (the weather /fine?) .......

8 (what /do in the evenings?) .......

9 (meet anybody interesting?)           .......

F.         Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative.

1. It was warm            , so I .....off my coat. (take)

2. The film wasn't very good. I .... it very much. (enjoy)

3. I knew Sarah was very busy, so I ......her. (disturb)

4. I was very tired, so I ........to bed early. (go)

5. The bed was very uncomfortable. I .............very well (sleep)

6. Sue wasn't hungry, so she ....... anything. (eat)

7. We went to Kate's house but she .........at home. (be)

8. It was a funny situation but nobody ...... (laugh).

9. The window was open and a bird ....... into the room. (fly)

10. The hotel wasn't very expensive. It .........very much (cost)

11. I was in a hurry, so I ...... time to phone you. (have)

12. It was hard work carrying the bags. They .......... very heavy. (be)                             

UNIT 7: INFLATION

I. Reading session:

Will inflation remain one of the most intractable problems confronting societies in transition from centralized to free market economies? It will be, however, a challenge that such societies must meet if they are to enjoy the material benefits that a market economy can provide.

Inflation is an increase in the average price level of the goods and services produced and sold in an economy. Inflation typically occurs in a market economy for on of two reasons: either people increase their spending faster than producers are able to increase the supply of the goods and services; or there is a decrease in the supply of goods and services to consumers and/or producers, which drives up prices. Inflation has sometimes been described as an increasing amount of money chasing a shrinking number of goods.

Inflation hits economies in transition hard because price liberalization - the removal of government control of prices - is an essential step towards a market economy. The initial result of such price liberalization is predictable - a wave of price increases for goods that were in chronic short supply. Why? Because the government held their prices artificially low, so demand perennially outstripped supply, or because of other economic distortions and inefficiencies created by government decision-makers. In addition, if people are holding large amounts of money at the time of this transition (since there was little of value to buy) the pressure of inflation can be even greater.

Nevertheless, the rewards of enduring the inevitable bout of inflation during this transitional period are substantial. Unfettered by government, the market mechanisms of supply and demand will begin to function. High prices signal strong demands and the market, albeit slowly and haltingly at first, responds with increased production. People's money may have lost value, but what money they have is now real and consumers can buy the goods that are beginning to appear in stores. With supply increasing, prices stabilize and queues begin to disappear as consumers realize that more and varied products will continue to be available for sale.

Entrepreneurs and investors eager to benefit from the new economic freedom are going to start new business and compete to provide goods and services. Thus more jobs will be created while prices will moderate further.

The key element in this transition is for the government to relinquish its role in setting prices and permit the market forces of supply and demand to establish prices for virtually all goods and services. When such a free market is established, inflation may persist, but it is a far more manageable and less threatening problem than in the early, hard days of economic transition."

                                                            (What is Market economy, USIS, 1992)

MONETARY POLICY

"Monetary policy is how the government tries to improve the country's economy by using banks and money, acting on the level of deposits and loans, and on interest rates and exchange rates.

As well as keeping inflation low, a government will seek to keep unemployment low and output rising. However, it cannot do all three things at the same time. For instance, if it is very successful in lowering unemployment, the shortages of workers may cause wages to rise, as employers bid for more employees. The workers will spend their increased wages in the shops and this may cause prices to rise - thereby causing inflation to rise.

A government may have to choose therefore between these aims or goals. Mrs. Thatcher's government (in office between1979 - 1990) chose the reduction of inflation as the goal which should be given the utmost priority. Unemployment, economic growth and the enormous gap between exports and imports were not considered so important."

                                                            (Banking: The Business, Pitman, 1990, pp.27-28)

II. Answer the following three questions based on what you have just read.

What is inflation?

What causes inflation?

What is meant by monetary policy?

III. Focus on Grammar: Ways of expressing future

  1. Future Simple:

Forms: Affirmative: Subject + will + short infinitive of the main verb

                                    I will (I'll) buy the red shirt.

            Negative: Subject +    will + not = short infinitive of the main verb

                                    I will not buy (I won't) the red shirt.

            Interrogative: Will + Subject + short infinitive of the main verb

                                    Will you come to my party?

Use:

a)     In predictions about the future, usually with think; believe; be afraid; probably, etc.

E.g. I believe prices will remain steady in the following months.

b)   For on - the - spot decisions.

E.g. It's late. I'll take a taxi home. I'll lend you my car if you want.

c)   For actions/ events/situations which will definitely happen in the future and which we cannot control.

e.g. Winter will set in early this year. He will be 40 next month.

  1. Be going to:

Use:

a)        for plans, intentions or ambitions.

e.g.     I'm going to buy a sports car.

b)        in predictions when there is evidence that something will happen in the near future.

e.g.     Someone's going to fall over that box if you don't move it.

  1. To be about to

Use:

a)               in reference to the immediate future

e.g. he is about to be elected president of the merged company.

  1. To be to

Use:

a)     for a previous arrangement

e.g. Mother is to arrive tomorrow.

E.   Present Tense Simple: for timetable and official programmes:

e.g. The train leaves at eight o'clock tomorrow morning.

F.   Present Tense Continuous: for a future event which is planned by the speaker (the decision is all his/hers)

e.g. I am flying to London in order to attend the matches of the national football team.

G. Future Continuous:

Use:

a)     for actions which will be in progress at a stated future time.

e.g. This time next week he'll be flying to Morocco.

IV. Exercises

  1. Answer the following questions giving as many answers as possible:

1.     What do you think will happen after Romania's integration into the European Union?

2.     What are you going to do when you graduate?

  1. Complete the sentences using the correct future forms of the verbs in brackets. There may be more than one possibility.
    1. Do you think the car....... (start) if I turn on the ignition?
    2. I've got to go now, but I........ you next week, OK?
    3. Look out! That ladder ..........fall!
    4. They say the weather ....... (get) worse in the next few days.
    5. I ...... (be) a pilot when I grow up, said the little boy.
    6. The train ...... (leave) in five minutes - let's go!
    7. Now, let's look at the timetable. We _____________ (arrive) in Rome at 6.45 and we ___________(depart) at &.30 for Naples.
    8. We ______________ (plan) to buy a new house sometime his year.
    9. You________________ (fail) the exam if you don't study more.
    10. I _____________ (carry) those bags for you; they must be very heavy.

C.              Translate the following sentences into English:

  1. Voi discuta cu reprezentantii departamentului Resurse Umane in legatura cu posturile vacante. In mod sigur saptamana viitoare vom da un anunt la ziar.
  2. Maine intre orele 8 si 9 voi citi titlurile tuturor publicatiilor financiare care vor fi trimise de catre sucursala firmei noastre in Cluj.
  3. Saptamana viitoare pe vremea asta vom discuta clauzele contractului ce va fi incheiat conform intelegerii noastre pana pe data de 1 august.
  4. Directorul acestei firme a spus ca piata serviciilor se va dezvolta din ce in ce mai mult in Romania.
  5. Suntem pe punctul de a lua o masura deosebit de important referitoare la strategia de dezvoltare a compartimentului de marketing.

D.              Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future tense:

  1. Are you looking forward to your holiday?

Oh, yes! This time next week I ... (lie) on the beach.

  1. We're having a party on Saturday.

Oh, good. I.... (make) a cake to bring along.

  1. Have you finished the report yet?

Yes. I ... (give) it to you in a minute.

  1. Why are you buying all those vegetables?

Because I   ...... (make) vegetable soup.

  1. This writing is too small for me to read.

Give it to me and I .....read it for you.

  1. Are excited about your trip?

Yes. This time tomorrow I ..... (sit) on the plane.

  1. I can't hear the television very well.

I .... (turn up) the volume.

E.               Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect or the future perfect continuous.

  1. By 3 o'clock, she .......... (study) for six hours.
  2. By the end of next month, Sam ..... (finish) the project.
  3. He......... (not/start) painting the kitchen before Tuesday.
  4. By the time she arrives in Paris, she ...... (travel) for four hours.
  5. I hope I .......... (buy) my own house by the time I'm thirty-five.
  6. By Saturday, Lisa....... (diet) for two weeks.
  7. Hopefully, they ......... (learn) everything by the time they sit the exam.
  8. By 4 o'clock, I .......in the hairdresser's for three hours.
  9. By Christmas, I....... (work) for this company for eighteen months.
  10. By next weekend, Brian...... (move) house.
  11. Hopefully, the builders....... (finish) building the house by next month.
  12. By Tuesday, Alan..... (sail) for twelve days.

F.               Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future tense.

Dear Victoria,

The holidays are coming and I've made lots of plans. This next week, I .. (buy) Christmas presents for my family and friends. I ... (get) everything in one day, so that I can enjoy myself for the rest of the holidays.

I'm staying at home with my family on Christmas day, but two days later I... (leave) for Austria. Becky and I ..... (spend) a week there skiing. I'm sure we ....... (have) a wonderful time.

When I come back from Austria, I.... (probably/ have) a party, because it's my birthday on January 5th. I ...... (be) nineteen! I hope you......come.

Well, I must go now. I'm going to help my mother with the housework. See you soon!

Love,

Penny

UNIT 8: WHAT MANAGERS DO

I. Reading session:

            How do mangers occupy their time? Do they really have two our lunch breaks, get to go in style to all the major talks, conventions and sales meetings and play tennis at least on afternooon a week? Well, a few do, but most do not.

            Actually, it is difficult to say exactly what managers do because management is a diverse job. But besides performing technical functions they also plan work schedules, organize resources, control performance and make managerial decision. Managers must be skilled at geeting work done through others. At all times they must be concerned about the  effective use of human and non-human resources.

            Individuals pursuing management careers move up in the organization in several different ways. The most popular patttern is the path of progressive responsiblity. While it is true that not everyone achieves or desires progressive level of responsibility, the following criteria were selected for rating individuals as managers.

            Leadership means effectiveness in getting ideas accepted in guiding a group or an individual to accomplish a task.

            Judgement is defined like ability to reach sound, logical conclusions based on the information at hand.

            Accountability - Fulfillment - is nothing else but the ability to fulfill overall performance accountabilities as shown on the job description.

            Organization and Planning - means effectiveness in arranging own activities and  those of a group so as to provide effective courses of action.

            Use of delegation- is the ability to involve others efficiently and to understand  where a decision can be made.

            Initiative- means actively influencing events rather than passively acceting acts without specific instructions within the scope of the assigned accountabilities.

            Deciseveness - is readiness to make decisions or to render propr judgements. Ability to use problem -solving process.

            Professional competence (expertise) - The manager must have a firm grasp of fundamental principles and concepts in his/her profession. He can make god value judgments and also knows sources for new information and keeps it up-to -date.

            Problem analysis - actually is effectiveness in seeking out pertinent data in determining the cause of the problems.

            Although the tasks of a manager can be analysed and classified in this fashion, management is not entirely scientific. It is human skill. Business professors obviously believe that intuition and ínstinct are not enough; there are management skills that have to be learnt. Peter Drucker, for example, wrote over 20 years ago that ,Altogether this entire book is based on the proposition that the days of the "intuitive"manager are numbered", meaning that they were coming to an end. But some people are clearly good at managemet, and others are not.

II. Adjectives referring to personal qualities:

Are you a good manager? Write a brief profile of yourself (approximately five lines), outlining yor personal qualities and highlighting any strengths and weaknesses you feel ou have. Use the lists below.

STRENGTHS: confident, enterprising, humorous, ambitious, helpful, competitive, open to change, thorough, tolerant, caring, prudent, focused, supportive, generous, logical, rational, analytical, communicative, authoritative, persuasive, decisive, efficient, friendly, sociable

WEAKNESSES: arrogant, oppportunistic, frivolous, ruthless, controlling, bullying, wishy-washy, obsessive, uncaring, nosy, indecisive, tunnel-visioned, narrow-minded, interfering, irresponsible

III. The adjective: the degrees of comparison

Adjecivul - partea de vorbire care exprima o calitate a unui obiect (an interesting lecture; an old man), are categoria gramaticala a comparatiei (He is taller than his brother) si care spre deosebire de limba romana unde are flexiune dupa gen, numar, caz si comparatie, adjectivul in limba engleza nu se schimba dupa gen, numar si caz. Categoria comparatiei este concretizata in limba engleza ca si in limba romana in trei grade de comparatie:

Gradul pozitiv,  nemarcat arata prezenta normala a unei calitati a obiectelor, fara a se face vreo comparatie: He is tall; She is beautiful.

Gradul comparativ compara doua  obiecte, indicand prezenta calitatii la obiectele comparate in masura egala (comparativul de egalitate),sau in masura inegala (comparativul de superioritate si de inferioritate);

Gradul superlativ arata ca un membru al unui grup poseda calitatea comparata 3n cel mai inalt grad, prin intermediul unei comparatii directe (superlativ relativ:She is the cleverest of all.)sau fara comparatie directa (superlativ absolut: Sh is very clever).

In limba engleza avem doua tipuri de comparatie, in functie de numarul de silabe din care sunt formate adjectivele: sintetica, specifica adjectivelor monosilabice si adjectivelor bisilabice terminate in - y, -le; -er; - ow, marcata prin adaugarea grupurilor "-er" pentru comparativ si "-est" pentru superlativ; analitica, specifica adjectivelor plurisilabice si care se formeaza din adjectivul la gradul pozitiv precedat de adverbele more si the most.

A. Comparatia sintetica:

Adjective monosilabice:        small - smaller- smallest

                                                Short - shorter - shortest

Probleme de ortografie:

1) Adjectivele terminate intr-o consoana precedata de vocala scurta dubleaza consoana:

big- bigger- the biggest;         hot- hotter- the hottest;          fat- fatter- the fattest;

2) Adjectivele terminate in consoana + y transforma y in i: dry-drier- the driest

3) Adjectivele terminate in -e sau -ee, pierd pe - efinal inaintea lui -er sau -est: nice - nicer- nicest; free - freer- freest

Adjectivele bisilabice:                       terminate in -y, -le, -er, -ow si -some formeaza comparativul tot in mod sintetic:

Happy - happier- happiest; clever- cleverer - the cleverest; narrow- narrower- the narrowest;

Exceptii: eager, proper, fertile, hostile, fragile se compara in mod analitic. De asemenea adjectivele bisilabice terminate in doua consoane: correct, distinct, exact, intact, etc formeaza comparativul si superlativul numai cu more si the most.

B. Comparatia analitica: Adjectivele formate din doua sau mai multe silabe formeaza comparativul si superlativul analitic cu ajutorul   lui more si the most.

Careful - more careful -  the most careful

Difficult- more difficult - the most difficult

Adjectivele compuse formeaza gradele de comparatie in felul urmator:

a) cand primul element este un adjectiv care isi pastreaza sensul, acesta se schimba la comparativ si superlativ:

well-known - better known- the best known

ill-paid- worse paid- the worst paid

intelligent looking- more-intelligent looking- the most intelligent-looking

b) cand cele doua elemente formeaza un tot din punct de vedere al sensului, comparatia se realizeaza cu more si the most:

absent-minded - more absent -minded-the most absent-minded

C. Formarea comparativului de egalitate si inferioritate Comparativul de egalitate se exprima prin adjectivul la gradul pozitiv precedat si urmat de conjunctia as: My room is as large as hers.

Comparativul de inferioritate se exprima prin adjectivul la gradul pozitiv precedat de not so/as si urmat de as sau cu structura less ... than;  My assignment is not as easy as yours.; This lecture is less interesting than the previous one.

D. Comparatia neregulata a adjectivelor

Unele adjective formeaza comparativul si superlativul in mod regulat:

POZITIV

COMPARATIV

SUPERLATIV

good

better

The best

bad

worse

The worst

Much/many

more

The most

little

less

The least

old

Older

Elder (folosit numai atributiv) (mai batrin, mai in varsta, referitor la persoane din aceeasi familie)

The oldest

The eldest

far

Farther (mai departat)

Further (mai departat; additional; suplimentar)

The farthest (cel mai departat)

The furthest (cel mai departat)

late

Later (mai tarziu)

The latter (cel de-al doilea, ultimul din doi)

The latest( cel mai tarziu, cel mai recent, cel mai nou); the last (ultimul)

near

Nearer (mai apropiat)

The nearest (cel mai apropiat);

The next (urmatorul)

IV. Exercises

A. Give the comparative and the superlative of the following adjectives:

Small; interesting; handsome; good; difficult; noisy; old; clever; patient; narrow; little; thin; ignorant; cold; dirty; late; industrious; bad; faithful; gracious; many; far; wealthy; rude; pleasant; beautiful; lucky; free;

B.  Underline the correct words:

1. The new line should be so profitable as / as profitable as the old one.

2. This handset is the most profitable/ the more profitable we've ever made.

3. This version of the programme is the most recent/ recenter.

4. The guarantee is a year longer than/that with our older models.

5. Nothing is worse/ worst than missing a flight because of traffic.

6. This printer is one of the best/better on the market.

7. The meeting wasn't as/long as I thought.

8. Today the share price is more bad/ worse than it was yesterday.

9. I'm sorry, the journey took longer than/ the longest we expected.

10. We'll be there soon. It's not much farer/ further.

C. Complete the following sentences with: better; elder; older; later; latter; less; farther; further; worse. Use than where necessary:

1. I think I need some... information if you want me to help you. 2. The weather is not so bad for this time of the year. 3. It could have been much ...... 4. If John is fifteen, he is three years ..... his sister. 5. My brother is very tired so he can't go ....... 6. My .......daughter has just graduated from university. 7. I know that Jack and George are brothers, but I don't know which of them is the ..... 8. Since you are working harder this year, your results are ...... they were last year. 9. I am sure that she has ....money... I have. 10. Of the two solutions he preferred the former to the...... .

D. Work on the model:

My book is interesting. (yours)

My Book is as interesting as yours.

1. His pronunciation is good. (hers) 2. My work is important. (theirs) 3. Your suitcase is full. (mine) 4. Her typewriter was new. (ours). My room is tidy. (yours) 6. Your uncle. (theirs) 7. Your writing is legible. (mine) 8. This armchair is comfortable. (that) 9. her watch is accurate (his).10.  Her sweaters are well-made (mine).

E. Ask and answer questions using the words in brackets. Work on the model:

What/ high/ mountain/ Romania

What is the highest mountain in Romania?

The Moldoveanu is the highest mountain in Romania.

    1. Who/ good/ football player/ Romania.
    2. What / happy/event/ her life;
    3. Who /hardworking student in the class;
    4. Who/ pretty/ girl/you know;
    5. What/ interesting /book/she has lent you
    6. Who/ old/person/her family.
    7. What/ short/ month /year.

F. Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct form:

1. Bucharest is (far) from Madrid than Paris. 2. George is the (tall) boy in his class. 3. These books are not (expensive) as the other ones. 4. Your homework is (bad) than hers. 5. The Carpathians are the (high) mountains in Romania. 6. His car is (good) as mine. 7. At last, I got (far) details about the incident. 8. Books are ... and.. nowadays. (expensive) 9. My (old) sister works in one of the (old) school in our town. 10. She was very kind and gave me some (far) information about that man. 11. Lucy and Peter are in their room: the (fore) is reading the late (late) is watching TV. 12. Alice was the (pretty) of the twins. 13 This hotel manager was the (polite) we had ever met. 14. Her daughter was the (graceful) dancer in the ballroom. 15. Yesterday's weather was (bad) than today's. 16. There were two roads leading to the monastery, the narrower road being the (short) one. 17. The inn is the (old) building in the village. 18. Sir Winston Churchill was the (famous) Englishman in World War II. 19. "The more, the (merry)" says an English proverb. 20. A new house is much (expensive) than an old one. 

G. Complete the sentences with a comparative or superlative form of the adjective in brackets. Include any other necessary words like the, more, less, as or than.

1. Coca-Cola is .......(big) soft drinks manufacturer in the world.

2. This keyboard is quite difficult to use. It's ........ (small) than the one I'm used to.

3. The conference was a little disappointing. It was ....... (interesting) I expected.

4. Yesterday was one of ........ (hot) days of the year.

5. I think this suggestion is ....... (good) the other one.

6. It's impossible to choose between these two products. One is ....... (good) the other.

7. The first round of negotiations was easy. The next will be ...... (difficult).

8. We're only a small company. We're not .......(large) the market leader in our sector.

9. This year our sales figures are ...... (bad) last year.

10. This is ........ (bad) case of corruption we've seen for years.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

           

Ciuciuc, Olea, English for Business Purposes, Teora, Bucuresti 1999.

            Emmerson, Paul, Business Grammar Builder, Macmillan, 2002.

            Evans V. , Grammarway 4, Express Publishing House, 1999.

            Evans V. , Grammarway 3, Express Publishing House, 1999.

            Paidos, Constantin, Gramatica limbii engleze, Institutul European, 1993.

            Tullis, G., New Insights into Business, Express Publishing House, 2004.

            Turcu, Fulvia, Limba engleza pentru intreprinzatori si oameni de afaceri, Editura Sagittarius Iasi, 1991.



Diverse


Jurnalism

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BTX 2000 - MANUAL DE INTRETINERE TEHNICA
The Supernatural. Answers from Beyond Reality from The Monk by Matthew Gregory Lewis
Man in the Midst of Nature - Reflections on the Death of a Porcupine, by D. H. Lawrence
LIMBA FRANCEZA - suport de curs
INTELIGENTA MATERIEI
ETAPELE FRULXULUI TEHNOLOGIC
Inteligenta Materiei
PROIECT Horticultura/Specializarea Peisagistica - ARTA SI CULTURA IN INTEGRAREA SOCIALA A COMUNITATILOR DEFAVORIZATE
REFERAT: FILOSOFIE CU TEMA:GANDIREA FILOSOFICǍ A ANTICHITǍTII (CARACTERISTICI,ETAPE,EXEMPLIFICǍRI)











 
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