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Ľ Complementele circumstantiale (Adverbials)


Complementele circumstantiale (Adverbials)



Complementele circumstantiale (Adverbials)

1.Definitie

Complementul circumstantial este partea de propozitie care determina sau modifica un verb, un adverb, un adjectiv sau o intreaga propozitie.

Ca determinant al verbului, complementul circumstantial indica imprejurarea in care se petrece o actiune (locul, timpul, scopul, cauza etc.): A taxi appeared at the corner of the street. (loc) They arrived half an hour later. (timp)

Atunci cand determina un adverb, adjectiv sau echivalenti ai acestora, complementul circumstantial arata cum se prezinta o insusire: It was nearly dark. Era aproape intuneric. They are nearly there. Aproape au ajuns.

2. Clasificare

Complementele circumstantiale in limba engleza se impart, ca in limba romana in: complemente circumstantiale de loc, de timp, de mod, de cauza, de conditie, de scop, concesive, consecutive etc.

3. Complementul circumstantial de loc (The Adverbial of Place)

3.1. Definitie. Complementul circumstantial de loc indica locul, punctul de plecare, directia sau limita unei actiuni sau stari.

Nota: Unele complemente circumstantiale de loc exprimate prin adverbe de loc, indica locul propriu-zis: here, there, somewhere. Altele indica directia: aside, forward, right, left. Majoritatea adverbelor de loc insa pot fi folosite pentru a exprima atat locul, cat si directia:

Loc: He doesn't live far. Nu locuieste departe.

Directie. He didn't go far. Nu s-a dus departe.

3.2. Complementul circumstantial de loc este exprimat prin:

a) un adverb sau o perifraza advebiala de loc: She is here. He was walking to and fro.

b) un substantiv cu sau fara prepozitie: Helen is in town for the moment. They went home.

c) un substantiv in cazul genitiv precedat de o prepozitie: We buy bread at the bakerís.

d) o propozitie circumstantiala de loc: We do our shopping where everybody else does.

3.3. Locul Complementului circumstantial de loc este de obicei dupa predicat (+ complement direct) (+compl. circ. de loc):

She has been working (hard) IN THE LIBRARY all day.

She was been reading (a book) IN THE LIBRARY all day.

Exceptii:

Complementul circumstantial de loc poate fi asezat intre verb si complementul sau direct daca complementul direct este prea lung sau este exprimat printr-o propozitie subordonata: They took into the reading room all the dictionaries they needed.

They found in the reading room all the dictionaries they needed.

Complementul circumstantial indicand locul propriu-zis poate aparea si la inceputul propozitiei, mai ales cand este exprimat printr-o constructie prepozitionala: Somewhere near the river the children were playing football.

Complementul circumstantial care indica directia se aseaza uneori direct dupa verb (inaintea adverbului de mod), daca verbul exprima miscarea spre un loc: He went to school by bus.

Cateva complemente circumstantiale exprimand directia pot aparea in pozitia initiala:

a) in limbajul literar, pentru a da forta dramatica exprimarii, cu verbe la prezent sau Past Tense simplu: In they come ! Away they went!

b) in exprimarea familiara, cu verbe ca go, come, get la prezent sau imperativ (+you): Here she comes. There they go. In (bed) you get.

Nota: Here si there apar in cateva expresii cu verbul be: Here/there you are. Poftim(Asta-i pentru tine). There she is. Uite-o! A ajuns. Here we are. Am ajuns in sfarsit (unde trebuia). There you are. Vezi ca am dreptate (Asta intareste ce-am spus).

Atentie! Daca subiectul in aceste expresii este exprimat printr-un substantiv si nu printr-un pronume, are loc inversiune intre subiect si predicat. There he is! There is your father! Here they are! Here are your glasses!

4. Complementul circumstantial de timp (The Adverbial of Time)

4.1. Definitie. Complementul circumstantial de timp indica:

a) momentul actiunii: now, nowadays, today, then;

b) succesiunea de timp: afterwards, before, eventually, formerly, previously, soon.

c) durata: lately, recently, since, still, yet;

d) frecventa:

- definita: weekly, three times a day;

- nedefinita: often, usually, seldom, once in a while.

4.2. Complementul circumstantial de timp este exprimat prin:

a) un adverb de timp: She arrived yesterday.

b) o perifraza adverbiala de timp: They visit their grandparents from time to time.

c) o constructie adverbiala (substantiv/numeral cu prepozitie etc.): Tom was born in 1965.

2) o contructie complexa, utilizata pentru reducerea unei propozitii circumstantiale de timp la un complement circumstantial de timp;

a) nominativul absolut cu participiul trecut: His homework written the boy went out to play.

b) un participiu prezent sau trecut, precedat de o conjunctie temporala:

He doesnít feel quite well when travelling by plane.

c) un Gerund precedat de o prepozitie: On leaving the house, she asked me to look after the child.

d) un substantiv cu sau fara prepozitie introdus intr-o conjunctie temporala: While in Australia he learned English. I played this game when a boy.

3) o propozitie circumstantiala de timp: He is always air sick when he travels by plane.

4.3. Locul Complementului circumstantial de timp in propozitie

A) Majoritatea complementelor circumstantiale indicand momentul actiunii sunt asezate la sfarsitul propozitiei: He went to the cinema yesterday / last night.

Nowadays si presently ocupa de obicei pozitia initiala: Nowadays all children of school-age attend school in Romania.

Daca intr-o propozitie apar mai multe complemente circumstantiale indicand momentul actiunii, acestea sunt asezate succesiv, de la perioada de timp mai scurta la cea mai lunga: He was born on Monday, the 19th of February 1970. Iíll see you at ten oíclock in Sunday.

sau: On Sunday Iíll see you at ten oíclock.

B) Complementele circumstantiale indicand succesiunea actiunilor ocupa de obicei pozitie initiala sau mediala in propozitie: First he rang the bell. Next he knocked on the door. He then rang again. And finnaly he started banging on the door.

C) Locul complementelor circumstantiale de timp exprimate prin adverbe de frecventa (definita si nedefinita):

Adverbe care exprima frecventa unei actiuni in mod definit: daily (zilnic), once (odata), again (din nou), twice (de doua ori) etc., sunt de obicei asezate la sfarsitul propozitiei: The school board meets weekly/three times a week.

Ordinea mai multor adverbe de frecventa definita este de la unitatea mai mica la cea mai mare: She phoned him hourly each day.

sau: Each day she phoned him hourly.

Adverbele de frecventa nedefinita: ussualy (de obicei) always (intotdeauna), sometimes (uneori, cateodata), occasionally (uneori, cateodata), often (adesea), never (niciodata), seldom (rar), sunt de obicei asezate intre subiect si predicat: I often go to the theatre.

Daca predicatul contine un verb auxiliar sau un verd modal, adverbul de frecventa este asezat dupa acesta: I have never seen her. You must always do your duty.

Adverbele de frecventa nedefinita se aseaza dupa verbul be, inaintea numeralului predicativ: He is often late.

Daca verbul este folosit la diateza pasiva, adverbul de frecventa nedefinita este asezat dupa primul auxiliar: He has never been seen like this.

Nota: Sometimes poate fi asezat si la inceputul propozitiei: I sometimes go for a walk in the woods.

sau : Sometimes I go for a walk in the woods.

Unele adverbe nedefinite de frecventa pot aparea la inceputul propozitiei:

- daca aceasta este negativa: Generally / Normally / Usually he doesnít drink coffee.

- pentru intarire: Usually I meet her at conferences, but yesterday I ran into her in a department store.

Locul adverbelor de frecventa in propozitie

Situatia

Subiect

Verb aux./modal

Adv.de frecventa

Verb notional sau nume predicativ (dupa be)

Alte parti de propozitie

Forma verbala simpla

I

never/always/usually/rarely/seldom/sometimes

believe

them.

He

idem ca mai sus

has

time enough for his friends.

Verb auxiliar + verb notional

They

have

never/always/usually/sometimes/rarely/seldom

seen

her.

I

would

idem ca mai sus

eat

this.

Verb modal + Verb notional

She

can

idem ca mai sus

forget

such incidents.

Verbul be + nume predicativ

He

is

idem ca mai sus

ill.

She

has

idem ca mai sus

been ill.

D) Ordinea mai multor complemente circumstantiale de timp in propozitie este urmatoarea: durata - frecventa - moment: I went to the country for a month every year during my childhood.

E) Ordinea mai multor complemente circumstantiale diferite in propozitie este: MOD - loc - timp. They played very well in the match yesterday.

Aceasta ordine poate fi schimbata:

a) pentru a scoate in evidenta un anume circumstantial: Each day she phoned him hourly.

b) constructiile adverbiale (mai lungi) sunt asezate de obicei dupa adverbe (mai scurte): I was walking earlier in the Botanical Gardens.

c) o propozitie subordonata circumstantiala se aseaza dupa un complement circumstantial: We walked for hours where the Exhibition bad been.

5. Complementul circumstantial de mod (The Adverbial of Manner)

5.1. Definitie. Complementul circumstantial de mod indica modul in care se indeplineste o actiune sau apare o insusire.

5.2. Clasificare. Complementele circumstantiale de mod se impart in:

1) Complementul circumstantial de mod propriu-zis;

2) Complementul circumstantial de mod comparativ.

5.3. Complementul circumstantial de mod propriu-zis indica felul, modalitatea in care decurge actiunea sau starea: well, badly, quikly, slowly.

Ele mai pot reda si alte sensuri:

- cantitatea: enough, much, a little;

- intarire: actually, certainly, really;

- amplificare: absolutely, completely, greatly, highly, barely, scarcely;

- de afirmatie sau negatie: yes, no, of course, not at all;

- probabilitate: maybe, perhaps, possibly.

Complementul circumstantial de mod propriu-zise:

a) modifica o parte de propozitie;

b) tin locul unei propozitii intregi.

a) Complementul circumstantial de mod propriu-zise modifica:

- un verb: He DRIVES carefully.

- un adjectiv: He is a little TIRED.

- un adverb: You speak too FAST. I canít follow you.

b) Cuvintele care exprima probabilitatea, afirmatia sau negatia tin de obicei locul unei propozitii intregi: A: Can you ski ? B: Yes, I can.

sau se refera la o propozitie intreaga: Surely you arenít ill. Sigur nu esti bolnav.

Nota: Neavand o legatura stransa cu o anumita parte de prepozitie, unele gramatici (printre care si cea de fata) nu analizeaza aceste complemente in cadrul capitolului despre complemente circumstantiale, ci in cel despre Elemente independente in propozitie.

5.4. Complementul circumstantial de mod propriu-zis poate fi exprimat prin:

a) un adverb sau perifraza adverbiala de mod: He drove slowly along the mannow road.

b) un substantiv sau numeral introdus printro propozitie: He did this by mistake. This problem can be solved in three ways.

c) o constructie gerundiala introdusa prin propozitiile by sau without: He should have finished by thanking his parents for their help.

d) o propozitie circumstantiala de mod: He drove the car as they had toild him to.

5.5. Locul Complementului circumstantial de mod in propozitie

A) Complementul circumstantial de mod propriu-zis se aseaza de obicei dupa verb: She drove slowly to the station yesterday.

Daca verbul este tranzitiv si urmat de complementul sau direct, adverbul de mod este asezat:

- dupa complementul direct: She drove her car slowly to the station sau:

- inaintea verbului (rar): She slowly drove car to the station.

Complementul circumstantial de mod este asezat dupa verbul be cand acesta este folosit la diateza pasiva: The car was slowly driven into the garage.

B) Circumstantialele de mod intarind ideea exprimata de verb sau de alta parte de vorbire (acctually, certainly, obviously, really, surely, honestly, simply, just) preced de regula partea de vorbire la care se refera:

I simply donít understand her behaviour. You must believe me simply on my word. He speaks quite rapidly. She is quite ill.

Indeed poate aparea si in pozitie finala: Thank you very much indeed. It was very kind indeed of you to come.

C) Circumstantialele de mod exprimand cantitatea, preced sau urmeaza partile de vorbire la care se refera, in felul urmator:

- (Very) much precede de obicei un participiu folosit predicativ: He was very much impressed. Dar urmeaza un verb principal (+complementul lui direct): I like English very much.

- Enough se aseaza dupa un adjectiv sau verb: This lesson is EASY enough.

Daca insa enough este folosit ca atribut pe langa un substantiv, el apare fie inainte fie dupa acesta: He has TIME enough. He has enough TIME.

D) Circumstantialele de mod care amplifica ideea exprimata de verb (completely, fully, quite, perfectly, badly) pot aparea inaintea verbului principal sau in pozitie finala: I badly need your advice. I can perfectly understand her behaviour. We like her very much. Do you agree with us enterely ?

Adverbele barely, little, scarcely, apar inaintea verbului, a numelui predicativ sau intre doua auxiliare: He barely HAD time to catch the bus. She is barely EIGHTEEN. She COULD hardly BE described as beautiful.

5.6. Complementul circumstantial de mod comparativ este exprimat:

a) printr-un substantiv sau pronume precedat de prepozitia like: If fits you like a glove.

b) printr-un substantiv cu prepozitie, un adjectiv, un verb la infinitiv sau participiu prezent/trecut introduse prin as if, as though: She cried as if in a terrible danger. He behaved as if deprived of all his rights.

c) un substantiv, un adjectiv, pronume sau numeral, o constructie infinitivala sau gerundiala introduse prin conjunctiile as, not so/as, than:

She is as old as my sister. John isnít as good at maths as my older brother. It is warmer here than downstairs.

d) o propozitie circumstantiala de mod comparativa: She cried as if she were in a terrible danger. It is warmer here than it is downstairs.

5.7. Loc. Complementul circumstantial de mod comparativ se aseaza de obicei:

a) dupa verbul intranzitiv: He swims like a fish.

b) dupa complementul direct care urmeaza unui verb tranzitiv: He speaks English an Englishman.

6. Alte complemente circumstantiale

Felul complementului circumstantial

Exemplu

- de imprejurari insotitoare

He took farewell tired with waiting.

- de cauza

She was punished because of you.

- de scop

The man started crying for help.

He came here to talk to you.

- conditional

I couldnít have done it without his support.

- consecutiv

She is too young to speak.

- concesiv

Though not a mechanic, he can repair all kinds of things.

- de exceptie

They listened to all the witnesses but one.

- de relatie

My friend has read everything about the history of the Olympic games.



Gramatica


Carti
Gramatica

PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE - MAI MULT CA PERFECTUL
DIATEZA PASIVA - ENGLEZA
Propozitia optativa
Subiectul (The Subject)
Elementul predicativ suplimentar (The Predicative Adjunct)
Introducere in gramatica si stilistica
Elementele independente (Independent Elements)
Pronumele Ė limba engleza
PROPOZITIA SUBORDONATA CIRCUMSTANTIALA DE SCOP SAU FINALA (CS, CF)
VERBUL (The Verb)











 
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